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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068563/a-review-fentanyl-and-non-pharmaceutical-fentanyls
#1
REVIEW
Joji Suzuki, Saria El-Haddad
BACKGROUND: Fentanyl and non-pharmaceutical fentanyls (NPFs) have been responsible for numerous outbreaks of overdoses all over the United States since the 1970s. However, there has been a growing concern in recent years that NPFs are contributing to an alarming rise in the number of opioid-related overdoses. METHODS: The authors conducted a narrative review of the published and grey literature on fentanyl and NPFs in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google using the following search terms: "fentanyl", "non-pharmaceutical fentanyl", "fentanyl analogs", "fentanyl laced heroin" and "fentanyl overdose"...
December 16, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042768/blood-serum-atherogenicity-cellular-test-for-the-development-of-anti-atherosclerotic-therapy
#2
Veronika A Myasoedova, Galina A Ivashinnikova, Igor A Sobenin, Ekaterina A Ivanova, Alexander N Orekhov
Atherosclerosis is one of the main problems in modern medical practice. This multifactorial disease can remain asymptomatic for a long time before manifesting itself in cardiovascular disorders, causing ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction and even sudden death. Many synthetic drugs have been developed to reduce the symptoms of atherosclerosis, however, their efficacy in terms of reduction of atherosclerotic lesions progression is a matter of debate. Adverse effects of the exiting therapy should also be taken into account...
January 2, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995830/mechanisms-responsible-for-the-hypocholesterolaemic-effect-of-regular-consumption-of-probiotics
#3
S A Reis, L L Conceição, D D Rosa, N P Siqueira, M C G Peluzio
CVD affect a large proportion of the world's population, with dyslipidaemia as the major risk factor. The regular consumption of both probiotic bacteria and yeast has been associated with improvement in the serum lipid profile. Thus, the present review aims to describe and discuss the potential mechanisms responsible for the hypocholesterolaemic effect of regular consumption of probiotic bacteria and yeast. Regarding the hypocholesterolaemic effect of probiotic bacteria, the potential mechanisms responsible include: deconjugation of bile salts; modulation of lipid metabolism; and decreased absorption of intestinal cholesterol through co-precipitation of intestinal cholesterol with the deconjugated bile salts, incorporation and assimilation of cholesterol in the cell membrane of the probiotics, intestinal conversion of cholesterol in coprostanol, and inhibition of the expression of the intestinal cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) in the enterocytes...
December 20, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994443/relationship-between-patients-knowledge-and-medication-adherence-among-patients-with-hypertension
#4
Beata Jankowska-Polańska, Izabella Uchmanowicz, Krzysztof Dudek, Grzegorz Mazur
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between knowledge on arterial hypertension (AH) and its management, and adherence to pharmaceutical treatment. METHODS: The study included 233 patients diagnosed with AH and treated with hypotensive drugs for at least 1 year. The 8-item © Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and the Hypertension Knowledge-Level Scale (HK-LS) were used. RESULTS: Sixty-three percent of the patients had a low level of knowledge on AH, with the smallest proportion of correct answers provided for items related to non-pharmaceutical treatment, diet, hypertension definition, and drug adherence...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981021/effectiveness-of-vaccination-and-wearing-masks-on-seasonal-influenza-in-matsumoto-city-japan-in-the-2014-2015-season-an-observational-study-among-all-elementary-schoolchildren
#5
Mitsuo Uchida, Minoru Kaneko, Yoshihiko Hidaka, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Takayuki Honda, Shouhei Takeuchi, Masaya Saito, Shigeyuki Kawa
Measures of seasonal influenza control are generally divided into two categories: pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions. The effectiveness of these measures remains unclear, because of insufficient study sample size and/or differences in study settings. This observational epidemiological study involved all elementary schoolchildren in Matsumoto City, Japan, with seasonal influenza during the 2014/2015 season. Questionnaires, including experiences with influenza diagnosis and socio-demographic factors, were distributed to all 29 public elementary schools, involving 13,217 children, at the end of February 2015...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890574/modeling-the-role-of-information-and-limited-optimal-treatment-on-disease-prevalence
#6
Anuj Kumar, Prashant K Srivastava, Yasuhiro Takeuchi
Disease outbreaks induce behavioural changes in healthy individuals to avoid contracting infection. We first propose a compartmental model which accounts for the effect of individual's behavioural response due to information of the disease prevalence. It is assumed that the information is growing as a function of infective population density that saturates at higher density of infective population and depends on active educational and social programmes. Model analysis has been performed and the global stability of equilibrium points is established...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801865/herbal-products-in-italy-the-thin-line-between-phytotherapy-nutrition-and-parapharmaceuticals-a-normative-overview-of-the-fastest-growing-market-in-europe
#7
REVIEW
Marco Biagi, Rita Pecorari, Giovanni Appendino, Elisabetta Miraldi, Anna Rosa Magnano, Paolo Governa, Giulia Cettolin, Daniela Giachetti
The Italian herbal products market is the most prosperous in Europe. The proof is represented by the use of these products in several marketing categories, ranging from medicine to nutrition and cosmetics. Market and legislation in Italy are at the same time cause and consequence of this peculiar situation. In fact, the legislation on botanical food supplements in Italy is very permissive and at the same time the market shows an overall satisfaction of users and strong feedback in terms of consumption, which brings a widening use of medicinal plants, formerly the prerogative of pharmaceuticals, to other fields such as nutrition...
October 29, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768704/a-meta-analysis-of-the-association-between-gender-and-protective-behaviors-in-response-to-respiratory-epidemics-and-pandemics
#8
Kelly R Moran, Sara Y Del Valle
Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use) or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport). Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752251/direct-to-consumer-drug-advertisements-can-paradoxically-increase-intentions-to-adopt-lifestyle-changes
#9
Maya B Mathur, Michael Gould, Nayer Khazeni
Background: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements are thought to induce "boomerang effects," meaning they reduce the perceived effectiveness of a potential alternative option: non-pharmaceutical treatment via lifestyle change. Past research has observed such effects using artificially created, text-only advertisements that may not adequate capture the complex, conflicting portrayal of lifestyle change in real television advertisements. In other risk domains, individual "problem status" often moderates boomerang effects, such that subjects who currently engage in the risky behavior exhibit the strongest boomerang effects...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740671/impact-of-a-clinical-educational-effort-in-driving-transformation-in-health-care
#10
Katharine A Atwood, Stephen R Shamblen, Tracy Gaudet, Adam Rindfleisch, David A Collins, Christine Milovani, Russell Greenfield, David Kiefer, David Rakel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess whether a 2.5 day clinical education course focused on integrative medicine (IM), complementary health (CH), and patient-centered care strategies delivered to staff at Veteran Health Administration (VHA) facilities resulted in changes in attitudes, self-efficacy, preparedness, intentions, and self-reported use of IM strategies. The study also assessed whether there were differential impacts by participant characteristics...
October 2016: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732736/withdrawn-transcutaneous-electrical-stimulation-tes-for-treatment-of-constipation-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Ruey Terng Ng, Way Seah Lee, Hak Lee Ang, Kai Ming Teo, Yee Ian Yik, Nai Ming Lai
BACKGROUND: Childhood constipation is a common problem with substantial health, economic and emotional burdens. Existing therapeutic options, mainly pharmacological, are not consistently effective, and some are associated with adverse effects after prolonged use. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES), a non-pharmacological approach, is postulated to facilitate bowel movement by modulating the nerves of the large bowel via the application of electrical current transmitted through the abdominal wall...
October 12, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705610/supplements-nutrition-and-alternative-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Aric F Logsdon, Linda Nguyen, Ahmed Eltanahay, Ryan C Turner, Patrick Bonasso, Chelsea Knotts, Adam Moeck, Joseph C Maroon, Julian E Bailes, Charles L Rosen
Studies using traditional treatment strategies for mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) have produced limited clinical success. Interest in treatment for mild TBI is at an all time high due to its association with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other neurodegenerative diseases, yet therapeutic options remain limited. Traditional pharmaceutical interventions have failed to transition to the clinic for the treatment of mild TBI. As such, many pre-clinical studies are now implementing non-pharmaceutical therapies for TBI...
October 5, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697777/implication-of-external-price-referencing-and-parallel-trade-on-pharmaceutical-expenditure-indirect-evidence-from-lower-income-european-countries
#13
Péter Elek, Eszter Takács, Gergő Merész, Zoltán Kaló
External price referencing (EPR) is applied more and more frequently worldwide by payers to control pharmaceutical prices. Together with the parallel trade of pharmaceuticals, EPR may result in lower pharmaceutical prices in higher-income countries and higher prices in lower-income countries, which implies that pharmaceutical expenditure grows more rapidly in the latter than in the former group. Our objective was to assess this hypothesis. We used hierarchical linear models on country-level panel data to show that-after controlling for compounding factors such as GDP, the proportion of the old-age population or life expectancy-the annual growth rate of pharmaceutical expenditure was 2...
October 3, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694489/effects-of-a-nutrition-plus-exercise-programme-on-physical-function-in-sarcopenic-obese-elderly-people-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Shan-Shan Shen, Jiao-Jiao Chu, Lei Cheng, Xing-Kun Zeng, Ting He, Li-Yu Xu, Jiang-Ru Li, Xu-Jiao Chen
INTRODUCTION: With a rapidly ageing population, sarcopenic obesity, defined as decreased muscle mass and function combined with increased body fat, is a complex health problem. Although sarcopenic obesity contributes to a decline in physical function and exacerbates frailty in older adults, evidence from clinical trials about the effect of exercise and nutrition on this complex syndrome in Chinese older adults is lacking. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We devised a study protocol for a single-blind randomised controlled trial...
September 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671724/pathway-based-toxicology-and-fit-for-purpose-assays
#15
Rebecca A Clewell, Patrick D McMullen, Yeyejide Adeleye, Paul L Carmichael, Melvin E Andersen
The field of toxicity testing for non-pharmaceutical chemicals is in flux with multiple initiatives in North America and the EU to move away from animal testing to mode-of-action based in vitro assays. In this arena, there are still obstacles to overcome, such as developing appropriate cellular assays, creating pathway-based dose-response models and refining in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) tools. Overall, it is necessary to provide assurances that these new approaches are adequately protective of human and ecological health...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637496/neuroendocrine-and-neurotrophic-signaling-in-huntington-s-disease-implications-for-pathogenic-mechanisms-and-treatment-strategies
#16
REVIEW
Danielle M Bartlett, Travis M Cruickshank, Anthony J Hannan, Peter R Eastwood, Alpar S Lazar, Mel R Ziman
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. Circadian, sleep and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbances are observed in HD as early as 15 years before clinical disease onset. Disturbances in these key processes result in increased cortisol and altered melatonin release which may negatively impact on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and contribute to documented neuropathological and clinical disease features...
December 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627568/patterns-of-poisoning-in-urban-and-rural-children-a-single-center-study
#17
Elżbieta Pac-Kożuchowska, Paulina Krawiec, Agnieszka Mroczkowska-Juchkiewicz, Beata Mełges, Agnieszka Pawłowska-Kamieniak, Katarzyna Kominek, Dorota Gołyska
BACKGROUND: Poisoning among children is a current issue in pediatrics. The pattern and risk factors of poisoning are heterogeneous and vary within the same country. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyze the determinants in the incidence and nature of poisoning between urban and rural children, in order to identify children at higher risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study entailed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 848 children admitted to the Department of Pediatrics at the Medical University of Lublin, Poland, due to exposure to poison from July 2008 to December 2012...
March 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615026/interventions-to-optimise-the-care-continuum-for-chronic-viral-hepatitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#18
Kali Zhou, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Nick Walsh, Ji Young Kim, Roger Chou, Mellanye Lackey, Julia Scott, Ying-Ru Lo, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Advances in therapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have ushered in a new era in chronic hepatitis treatment. To maximise the effectiveness of these medicines, individuals must be engaged and retained in care. We analysed operational interventions to enhance chronic viral hepatitis testing, linkage to care, treatment uptake, adherence, and viral suppression or cure. METHODS: We did a systematic review of operational interventions, and did meta-analyses for sufficiently comparable data...
December 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583249/the-impact-of-physical-activity-on-non-motor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Melanie E Cusso, Kenneth J Donald, Tien K Khoo
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment; however, non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognized in the management of motor and NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th and 22nd of June 2016 from PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Ovid, SportsDiscuss, and Scopus using the MeSH search terms "Parkinson's," "Parkinson," and "Parkinsonism" in conjunction with "exercise," "physical activity," "physiotherapy," "occupational therapy," "physical therapy," "rehabilitation," "dance," and "martial arts...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580906/fatigue-and-depression-in-multiple-sclerosis-pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-interventions
#20
REVIEW
P Brenner, F Piehl
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory condition with a prominent progressive neurodegenerative facet that typically affects young- or middle-aged adults. Although physical disabilities have been in the foreground by being easier to assess, there is an increasing interest in mental disabilities and psychiatric co-morbidities, which have a disproportionally high impact on important outcome measures such as quality of life and occupational disability. In particular, cognitive impairment, depression and mental fatigue, which mutually interact with each other, seem to be of importance in this context...
September 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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