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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909746/brain-glutamate-in-anorexia-nervosa-a-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-case-control-study-at-7-tesla
#1
Beata R Godlewska, Alexandra Pike, Ann L Sharpley, Agnes Ayton, Rebecca J Park, Philip J Cowen, Uzay E Emir
RATIONALE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder with high morbidity and mortality. There are no established pharmacological treatments and the neurobiology of the condition is poorly understood. Previous studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have shown that AN may be associated with reductions in indices of brain glutamate; however, at conventional field strengths (≤3 T), it is difficult to separate glutamate from its precursor and metabolite, glutamine...
December 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894920/effects-of-repeated-dizocilpine-treatment-on-glutamatergic-activity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-an-animal-model-of-schizophrenia-an-in-vivo-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-at-9-4t
#2
Chi-Hyeon Yoo, Kyu-Ho Song, Song-I Lim, Do-Wan Lee, Dong-Cheol Woo, Bo-Young Choe
Repeated exposure to dizocilpine (MK-801) can be used as a model of schizophrenia that incorporates disease progression. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) has been widely used to investigate schizophrenia-related alterations in glutamate (Glu). The purpose of this study was to investigate metabolic alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in an animal model of schizophrenia by using in vivo (1)H MRS. Because of the spectral overlap of Glu and glutamine (Gln), high-field (1)H MRS with short echo time (TE) was used...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889838/changes-of-brain-metabolite-concentrations-during-maturation-in-different-brain-regions-measured-by-chemical-shift-imaging
#3
Eva Bültmann, Thomas Nägele, Heinrich Lanfermann, Uwe Klose
INTRODUCTION: We examined the effect of maturation on the regional distribution of brain metabolite concentrations using multivoxel chemical shift imaging. METHODS: From our pool of pediatric MRI examinations, we retrospectively selected patients showing a normal cerebral MRI scan or no pathologic signal abnormalities at the level of the two-dimensional 1H MRS-CSI sequence and an age-appropriate global neurological development, except for focal neurological deficits...
November 26, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882082/early-identification-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-by-combination-of-magnetic-resonance-mr-imaging-and-proton-mr-spectroscopy
#4
Lili Guo, Dehang Wang, Genji Bo, Hui Zhang, Weijing Tao, Ying Shi
Brain damage following a perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can be diagnosed by different techniques. The aim of the present study was to combine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with proton MR spectroscopy in HIE diagnosis and to evaluate their correlation with outcome. A prospective observational cohort study was performed between February 2012 and February 2013. Consecutive newborns, 24 full-term neonates with HIE (mild to moderate and severe group) and 5 normal neonates, were included. Two sequential MR studies were performed; a conventional MR imaging for observation in T1 weighted image (WI) and T2WI, and proton MR spectroscopy for observation in the left or right basal ganglia and thalamus...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869127/main-effects-of-diagnoses-brain-regions-and-their-interaction-effects-for-cerebral-metabolites-in-bipolar-and-unipolar-depressive-disorders
#5
Hai-Zhu Tan, Hui Li, Chen-Feng Liu, Ji-Tian Guan, Xiao-Bo Guo, Can-Hong Wen, Shao-Min Ou, Yin-Nan Zhang, Jie Zhang, Chong-Tao Xu, Zhi-Wei Shen, Ren-Hua Wu, Xue-Qin Wang
Previous studies suggested patients with bipolar depressive disorder (BDd) or unipolar depressive disorder (UDd) have cerebral metabolites abnormalities. These abnormalities may stem from multiple sub-regions of gray matter in brain regions. Thirteen BDd patients, 20 UDd patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to investigate these abnormalities. Absolute concentrations of 5 cerebral metabolites (glutamate-glutamine (Glx), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), creatine (Cr), parietal cortex (PC)) were measured from 4 subregions (the medial frontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and parietal cortex (PC)) of gray matter...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847932/neurochemical-alterations-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-bipolar-disorder-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study-1h-mrs
#6
Beata Galińska-Skok, Beata Konarzewska, Bożena Kubas, Eugeniusz Tarasów, Agata Szulc
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine neurochemical alterations in bipolar disorder using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). METHODS: We investigated a group of 27 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (with manic and mixed episodes, depression and after remission of symptoms) and 10 healthy subjects. MR imaging and 1H-MRS were performed on a 1.5 T scanner. Voxels of 8 cm3 were positioned in the anterior cingulate, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847299/an-mrspec-database-query-and-visualization-engine-with-applications-as-a-clinical-diagnostic-and-research-tool
#7
Filip Miscevic, Justin Foong, Benjamin Schmitt, Susan Blaser, Michael Brudno, Andreas Schulze
PURPOSE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRspec), one of the very few techniques for in vivo assessment of neuro-metabolic profiles, is often complicated by lack of standard population norms and paucity of computational tools. METHODS: 7035 scans and clinical information from 4430 pediatric patients were collected from 2008 to 2014. Scans were conducted using a 1.5T (n=3664) or 3T scanner (n=3371), and with either a long (144ms, n=5559) or short echo time (35ms, n=1476)...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817843/prefrontal-structure-varies-as-function-of-pain-symptoms-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#8
Marieke E van der Schaaf, Floris P De Lange, Iris C Schmits, Dirk E M Geurts, Karin Roelofs, Jos W M van der Meer, Ivan Toni, Hans Knoop
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by severe fatigue persisting for ≥6 months and leading to considerable impairment in daily functioning. Neuroimaging studies of patients with CFS have revealed alterations in prefrontal brain morphology. However, it remains to be determined whether these alterations are specific for fatigue or whether they relate to other common CFS symptoms (e.g., chronic pain, lower psychomotor speed, and reduced physical activity). METHODS: We used magnetic resonance imaging to quantify gray matter volume (GMV) and the N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate/creatine ratio (NAA/Cr) in a group of 89 women with CFS...
August 31, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816519/cognitive-decline-in-type-2-diabetic-db-db-mice-may-be-associated-with-brain-region-specific-metabolic-disorders
#9
Hong Zheng, Yongquan Zheng, Liangcai Zhao, Minjiang Chen, Guanghui Bai, Yongsheng Hu, Wenyi Hu, Zhihan Yan, Hongchang Gao
Type 2 diabetes has been associated with cognitive decline, but its metabolic mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we attempted to investigate brain region-specific metabolic changes in db/db mice with cognitive decline and explore the potential metabolic mechanism linking type 2 diabetes and cognitive decline. We analyzed the metabolic changes in seven brain regions of two types of mice (wild-type mice and db/db mice with cognitive decline) using a (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach. Then, a mixed-model analysis was used to evaluate the effects of mice type, brain region, and their interaction on metabolic changes...
November 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797114/diffusion-weighted-j-resolved-spectroscopy
#10
Karl Landheer, Rolf Schulte, Ben Geraghty, Christopher Hanstock, Albert P Chen, Charles H Cunningham, Simon J Graham
PURPOSE: To develop a novel diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DW-MRS) technique in conjunction with J-resolved spatially localized spectroscopy (JPRESS) to measure the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of brain metabolites beyond N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA), creatine (Cr), and choline (Cho) at 3T. This technique will be useful to probe tissue microstructures in vivo, as the various metabolites have different physiological characteristics. METHODS: Two JPRESS spectra were collected (high b-value and low b-value), and the ADCs of 16 different metabolites were estimated...
October 31, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772535/1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-evidence-for-occipital-involvement-in-treatment-naive-paediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Maria Ljungberg, Marie K L Nilsson, Karin Melin, Lars Jönsson, Arvid Carlsson, Åsa Carlsson, Eva Forssell-Aronsson, Tord Ivarsson, Maria Carlsson, Göran Starck
OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder leading to considerable distress and disability. Therapies are effective in a majority of paediatric patients, however, many only get partial response. It is therefore important to study the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. METHODS: 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to study the concentration of brain metabolites in four different locations (cingulate gyrus and sulcus, occipital cortex, thalamus and right caudate nucleus)...
October 24, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748207/metabolic-abnormality-in-the-right-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#12
Shin-Eui Park, Nam-Gil Choi, Gwang-Woo Jeong
OBJECTIVE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to evaluate metabolic changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: In total, 14 OCD patients (mean age 28.9±7.2 years) and 14 healthy controls (mean age 32.6±7.1 years) with no history of neurological and psychiatric illness participated in this study. Brain metabolite concentrations were measured from a localised voxel on the right DLPFC using a 3-Tesla 1H-MRS...
October 17, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718422/low-episodic-memory-performance-in-cognitively-normal-elderly-subjects-is-associated-with-increased-posterior-cingulate-gray-matter-n-acetylaspartate-a-1-h-mrsi-study-at-7%C3%A2-tesla
#13
Simon J Schreiner, Thomas Kirchner, Michael Wyss, Jiri M G Van Bergen, Frances C Quevenco, Stefanie C Steininger, Erica Y Griffith, Irene Meier, Lars Michels, Anton F Gietl, Sandra E Leh, Adam M Brickman, Christoph Hock, Roger M Nitsch, Klaas P Pruessmann, Anke Henning, Paul G Unschuld
Low episodic memory performance characterizes elderly subjects at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect neuronal dysfunction within the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (PCP) region. To investigate a potential association between cerebral neurometabolism and low episodic memory in the absence of cognitive impairment, tissue-specific magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at ultrahigh field strength of 7 Tesla was used to investigate the PCP region in a healthy elderly study population (n = 30, age 70 ± 5...
August 31, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717881/n-acetylaspartate-supports-the-energetic-demands-of-developmental-myelination-via-oligodendroglial-aspartoacylase
#14
Jeremy S Francis, Ireneusz Wojtas, Vladimir Markov, Steven J Gray, Thomas J McCown, R Jude Samulski, Larissa T Bilaniuk, Dah-Jyuu Wang, Darryl C De Vivo, Christopher G Janson, Paola Leone
Breakdown of neuro-glial N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) metabolism results in the failure of developmental myelination, manifest in the congenital pediatric leukodystrophy Canavan disease caused by mutations to the sole NAA catabolizing enzyme aspartoacylase. Canavan disease is a major point of focus for efforts to define NAA function, with available evidence suggesting NAA serves as an acetyl donor for fatty acid synthesis during myelination. Elevated NAA is a diagnostic hallmark of Canavan disease, which contrasts with a broad spectrum of alternative neurodegenerative contexts in which levels of NAA are inversely proportional to pathological progression...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709268/the-neuronal-metabolite-naa-regulates-histone-h3-methylation-in-oligodendrocytes-and-myelin-lipid-composition
#15
N K Singhal, H Huang, S Li, R Clements, J Gadd, A Daniels, E E Kooijman, P Bannerman, T Burns, F Guo, D Pleasure, E Freeman, L Shriver, J McDonough
The neuronal mitochondrial metabolite N-acetylaspartate (NAA) is decreased in the multiple sclerosis (MS) brain. NAA is synthesized in neurons by the enzyme N-acetyltransferase-8-like (NAT8L) and broken down in oligodendrocytes by aspartoacylase (ASPA) into acetate and aspartate. We have hypothesized that NAA links the metabolism of axons with oligodendrocytes to support myelination. To test this hypothesis, we performed lipidomic analyses using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to identify changes in myelin lipid composition in postmortem MS brains and in NAT8L knockout (NAT8L(-/-)) mice which do not synthesize NAA...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702600/evaluation-of-neuron-glia-integrity-by-in-vivo-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-implications-for-psychiatric-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Haiyun Xu, Handi Zhang, Jie Zhang, Qingjun Huang, Zhiwei Shen, Renhua Wu
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) has been widely applied in human studies. There is now a large literature describing findings of brain MRS studies with mental disorder patients including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders. However, the findings are mixed and cannot be reconciled by any of the existing interpretations. Here we proposed the new theory of neuron-glia integrity to explain the findings of brain (1)H-MRS stuies. It proposed the neurochemical correlates of neuron-astrocyte integrity and axon-myelin integrity on the basis of update of neurobiological knowledge about neuron-glia communication and of experimental MRS evidence for impairments in neuron-glia integrity from the authors and the other investigators...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696676/severity-of-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-modulates-changes-in-concentrations-of-cerebral-free-amino-acids
#17
Angela Maria Amorini, Giacomo Lazzarino, Valentina Di Pietro, Stefano Signoretti, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Antonio Belli, Barbara Tavazzi
In this study, concentrations of free amino acids (FAA) and amino group containing compounds (AGCC) following graded diffuse traumatic brain injury (mild TBI, mTBI; severe TBI, sTBI) were evaluated. After 6, 12, 24, 48 and 120 hr aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu), asparagine (Asn), serine (Ser), glutamine (Gln), histidine (His), glycine (Gly), threonine (Thr), citrulline (Cit), arginine (Arg), alanine (Ala), taurine (Tau), γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), tyrosine (Tyr), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), l-cystathionine (l-Cystat), valine (Val), methionine (Met), tryptophane (Trp), phenylalanine (Phe), isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), ornithine (Orn), lysine (Lys), plus N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were determined in whole brain extracts (n = 6 rats at each time for both TBI levels)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696530/stimulation-induced-transient-changes-in-neuronal-activity-blood-flow-and-n-acetylaspartate-content-in-rat-prefrontal-cortex-a-chemogenetic-fmrs-bold-study
#18
Morris H Baslow, Christopher K Cain, Robert Sears, Donald A Wilson, Alvin Bachman, Scott Gerum, David N Guilfoyle
Brain activation studies in humans have shown the dynamic nature of neuronal N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) based on changes in their MRS signals in response to stimulation. These studies demonstrated that upon visual stimulation there was a focal increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and a decrease in NAA or in the total of NAA and NAAG signals in the visual cortex, and that these changes were reversed upon cessation of stimulation. In the present study we have developed an animal model in order to explore the relationships between brain stimulation, neuronal activity, CBF and NAA...
December 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695638/frontal-metabolite-concentration-deficits-in-opiate-dependence-relate-to-substance-use-cognition-and-self-regulation
#19
Donna E Murray, Timothy C Durazzo, Thomas P Schmidt, Christoph Abé, Joseph Guydish, Dieter J Meyerhoff
OBJECTIVE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in opiate dependence showed abnormalities in neuronal viability and glutamate concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Metabolite levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and their neuropsychological correlates have not been investigated in opiate dependence. METHODS: Single-volume proton MRS at 4 Tesla and neuropsychological testing were conducted in 21 opiate-dependent individuals (OD) on buprenorphine maintenance therapy...
August 2016: Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693198/effects-of-tissue-susceptibility-on-brain-temperature-mapping
#20
Andrew A Maudsley, Mohammed Z Goryawala, Sulaiman Sheriff
A method for mapping of temperature over a large volume of the brain using volumetric proton MR spectroscopic imaging has been implemented and applied to 150 normal subjects. Magnetic susceptibility-induced frequency shifts in gray- and white-matter regions were measured and included as a correction in the temperature mapping calculation. Additional sources of magnetic susceptibility variations of the individual metabolite resonance frequencies were also observed that reflect the cellular-level organization of the brain metabolites, with the most notable differences being attributed to changes of the N-Acetylaspartate resonance frequency that reflect the intra-axonal distribution and orientation of the white-matter tracts with respect to the applied magnetic field...
September 28, 2016: NeuroImage
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