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N-acetylaspartate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710968/enduring-changes-in-brain-metabolites-and-executive-functioning-in-abstinent-cocaine-users
#1
Candice E Crocker, Scot E Purdon, Christopher C Hanstock, Bonnie Lakusta, Peter Seres, Philip G Tibbo
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data connecting the metabolic and cognitive functioning of abstinent cocaine users. This is a pressing public health concern as approximately 1% of the Canadian population and 0.4% of the global population is estimated to have used cocaine in the past year. METHODS: Our clinical study compared the in vivo neurochemical profiles in the prefrontal cortex to cognitive tests associated with the same region in 21 moderate term abstinent cocaine users (average 187days abstinent, range 15-1432days), and 30 healthy controls using 3T (1)H MRS...
June 28, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702353/longitudinal-mr-spectroscopy-of-neurodegeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis-with-diffusion-of-the-intra-axonal-constituent-n-acetylaspartate
#2
Emily Turner Wood, Ece Ercan, Pascal Sati, Irene C M Cortese, Itamar Ronen, Daniel S Reich
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a pathologically complex CNS disease: inflammation, demyelination, and neuroaxonal degeneration occur concurrently and may depend on one another. Current therapies are aimed at the immune-mediated, inflammatory destruction of myelin, whereas axonal degeneration is ongoing and not specifically targeted. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy can measure the diffusivity of metabolites in vivo, such as the axonal/neuronal constituent N-acetylaspartate, allowing compartment-specific assessment of disease-related changes...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699178/task-based-changes-in-proton-mr-spectroscopy-signal-during-configural-working-memory-in-human-medial-temporal-lobe
#3
Kyle F Shattuck, John W VanMeter
PURPOSE: To detect local cholinergic changes in human medial temporal lobe during configural working memory performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) measurements were acquired at 3T from a 2 × 2 × 3 cm voxel in right medial temporal lobe from 36 subjects during performance of a configural visual working memory task (cWMT). In order to compensate for expected task-based blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) T2 * effects, resonance signal changes of unbound choline-containing metabolites (Cho) were referenced to an internal standard of creatine + phosphocreatine metabolites (Cre) and compared between four task blocks: rest, memorization, active memory maintenance, and recognition...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668395/gc-ms-based-metabolomics-of-csf-and-blood-serum-metabolic-phenotype-for-a-rat-model-of-cefoperazone-induced-disulfiram-like-reaction
#4
Linsheng Liu, Chengrong Huang, Yicong Bian, Liyan Miao
Cefoperazone are most popularly used in the treatment of complicated infections clinically. Concomitant ingestion of ethnaol and cefoperazone may cause a disulfiram-like reaction. However, very little is known about the possible interactions between cefoperazone treatment and an alcohol with regard to the induction of disulfiram-like reaction. Study of the metabolic impact of cotreatment with cefoperazone and alcohol on animals can facilitate the identification of markers relevant to disulfiram-like reaction...
June 28, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664650/social-isolation-stress-and-chronic-glutathione-deficiency-have-a-common-effect-on-the-glutamine-to-glutamate-ratio-and-myo-inositol-concentration-in-the-mouse-frontal-cortex
#5
Alberto Corcoba, Rolf Gruetter, Kim Q Do, João M N Duarte
Environmental stress can interact with genetic predisposition to increase the risk of developing psychopathology. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that social isolation stress interacts with impaired glutathione synthesis and have cumulative effects on the neurochemical profile of the frontal cortex. A mouse model with chronic glutathione deficit induced by knockout (-/-) of the glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit (Gclm) was exposed to social isolation stress from weaning to post-natal day 65...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651252/combined-diffusion-tensor-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging-methodology-for-automated-regional-brain-analysis-application-in-a-normal-pediatric-population
#6
Nirmalya Ghosh, Barbara Holshouser, Udo Oyoyo, Stanley Barnes, Karen Tong, Stephen Ashwal
During human brain development, anatomic regions mature at different rates. Quantitative anatomy-specific analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data may improve our ability to quantify and categorize these maturational changes. Computational tools designed to quickly fuse and analyze imaging information from multiple, technically different datasets would facilitate research on changes during normal brain maturation and for comparison to disease states...
June 27, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640119/relationships-between-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-metabolic-change-and-cognitive-impairment-in-first-episode-neuroleptic-naive-schizophrenia-patients
#7
Man-Li Huang, Thong-Teck Khoh, Shao-Jia Lu, Fen Pan, Jin-Kai Chen, Jian-Bo Hu, Shao-Hua Hu, Wei-Juan Xu, Wei-Hua Zhou, Ning Wei, Hong-Li Qi, De-Sheng Shang, Yi Xu
The present study aimed to explore the possible associations between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) metabolites and the cognitive function in first-episode schizophrenia (FES).This study included 58 patients with FES (29 males and 29 females; mean age, 22.66 ± 7.64 years) recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, and 43 locally recruited healthy controls (16 males and 27 females; mean age, 23.07 ± 7.49 years). The single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA); complex of glutamate, glutamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (Glx); choline-containing compounds; and myo-inositol in the DLPFC...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635952/yunis-var%C3%A3-n-syndrome-caused-by-biallelic-vac14-mutations
#8
Matthew A Lines, Yoko Ito, Kristin D Kernohan, Wendy Mears, Julie Hurteau-Miller, Sunita Venkateswaran, Leanne Ward, Karine Khatchadourian, Jeff McClintock, Priya Bhola, Philippe M Campeau, Kym M Boycott, Jean Michaud, André Bp van Kuilenburg, Sacha Ferdinandusse, David A Dyment
Yunis-Varón syndrome (YVS) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising skeletal anomalies, dysmorphism, global developmental delay and intracytoplasmic vacuolation in brain and other tissues. All hitherto-reported pathogenic variants affect FIG4, a lipid phosphatase involved in phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] metabolism. FIG4 interacts with PIKfyve, a lipid kinase, via the adapter protein VAC14; all subunits of the resulting complex are essential for PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis in the endolysosomal membrane compartment...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626388/increasing-n-acetylaspartate-in-the-brain-during-postnatal-myelination-does-not-cause-the-cns-pathologies-of-canavan-disease
#9
Abhilash P Appu, John R Moffett, Peethambaran Arun, Sean Moran, Vikram Nambiar, Jishnu K S Krishnan, Narayanan Puthillathu, Aryan M A Namboodiri
Canavan disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding aspartoacylase (ASPA), a deacetylase that catabolizes N-acetylaspartate (NAA). The precise involvement of elevated NAA in the pathogenesis of Canavan disease is an ongoing debate. In the present study, we tested the effects of elevated NAA in the brain during postnatal development. Mice were administered high doses of the hydrophobic methyl ester of NAA (M-NAA) twice daily starting on day 7 after birth. This treatment increased NAA levels in the brain to those observed in the brains of Nur7 mice, an established model of Canavan disease...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623673/a-prominent-lactate-peak-as-a-potential-key-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-mrs-feature-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-pml-spectrum-pattern-observed-in-three-patients
#10
Duško Kozić, Mladen Bjelan, Jasmina Boban, Jelena Ostojić, Vesna Turkulov, Aleksandar Todorović, Slobodanka Lemajić-Komazec, Snežana Brkić
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, often fatal, opportunistic infection, associated with demyelinating process. PML is caused by John Cunningham (JC) polyomavirus, and predominantly involves patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease or other immunocompromised conditions. The purpose of this report was to determine the role of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in establishing the diagnosis of PML. MRS with long and short echo time was performed in two patients with PML associated with HIV infection and in one PML patient associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia...
June 17, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621205/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-children-with-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-psychometric-neurophysiologic-and-radiologic-evaluation
#11
M S Elalfy, R H Aly, H Azzam, K Aboelftouh, R H Shatla, M Tarif, M Abdatty, R M Elsayed
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of iron chelating drugs and serum ferritin on the neurocognitive functions of patients with β thalassemia major (β-TM), using psychometric, neurophysiologic and radiologic tests. METHODS: Eighty children with β-TM were enrolled into the study and were compared to 40 healthy controls. All participants were evaluated by measuring serum ferritin, neurocognitive assessment by Benton Visual Retention Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wisconsin Card Sort Test, P300 and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
June 16, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607048/intraoperative-assessment-of-tumor-margins-during-glioma-resection-by-desorption-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#12
Valentina Pirro, Clint M Alfaro, Alan K Jarmusch, Eyas M Hattab, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol, R Graham Cooks
Intraoperative desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is used to characterize tissue smears by comparison with a library of DESI mass spectra of pathologically determined tissue types. Measurements are performed in the operating room within 3 min. These mass spectra provide direct information on tumor infiltration into white or gray brain matter based on N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and on membrane-derived complex lipids. The mass spectra also indicate the isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation status of the tumor via detection of 2-hydroxyglutarate, currently assessed postoperatively on biopsied tissue using immunohistochemistry...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599998/-pet-scan-and-nmr-spectroscopy-for-the-differential-diagnosis-between-brain-radiation-necrosis-and-tumour-recurrence-after-stereotactic-irradiation-of-brain-metastases-place-in-the-decision-tree
#13
I Menoux, G Noël, I Namer, D Antoni
PURPOSE: After stereotactic radiation therapy for brain metastases, one of the complications is radionecrosis. Differential diagnosis with tumour recurrence can be helped by different methods of imaging, although histology remains the gold standard. According to the treatment centres, practice diverges. The objective of this single-centre retrospective study was to define the power of MRI, PET scan and NMR spectroscopy to establish a decision tree. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included patients who underwent stereotactic radiation therapy for brain metastases, and required, during follow-up, both a PET scan and NMR spectroscopy in order to differentiate a radiation necrosis and tumour recurrence...
June 6, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559071/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-findings-in-patients-with-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas-three-case-reports
#14
Hiroaki Nagashima, Atsushi Fujita, Jun Tanaka, Masaaki Kohta, Takashi Sasayama, Kazuhiro Tanaka, Kohkichi Hosoda, Eiji Kohmura
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a potentially useful modality for evaluating brain metabolites in patients with dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF). Here, we propose a different pattern of MRS-based cerebral metabolism findings in patients with dAVF. CASE DESCRIPTION: We performed MRS in three patients with transverse sigmoid sinus dAVF associated with cortical venous reflux. In case 1, which was associated with vasogenic edema on T2-weighted imaging, decreasing preoperative N-acetylaspartate/creatine, myo-inositol/creatine and increasing lactate/creatine ratios improved after treatment...
May 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555423/improving-the-utility-of-1-h-mrs-for-the-differentiation-of-glioma-recurrence-from-radiation-necrosis
#15
Ian D Crain, Petra S Elias, Kristina Chapple, Adrienne C Scheck, John P Karis, Mark C Preul
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) has shown promise in distinguishing recurrent high-grade glioma from posttreatment radiation effect (PTRE). The purpose of this study was to establish objective (1)H-MRS criteria based on metabolite peak height ratios to distinguish recurrent tumor (RT) from PTRE. A retrospective analysis of magnetic resonance imaging and (1)H-MRS data was performed. Spectral metabolites analyzed included N-acetylaspartate, choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), lactate (Lac), and lipids (Lip)...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537780/science-is-1-inspiration-and-99-biomarkers
#16
Nicolas Dubuisson, Fabiola Puentes, Gavin Giovannoni, Sharmilee Gnanapavan
Neurodegeneration plays a key role in multiple sclerosis (MS) contributing to long-term disability in patients. The prognosis is, however, unpredictable coloured by complex disease mechanisms which can only be clearly appreciated using biomarkers specific to pathobiology of the underlying process. Here, we describe six promising neurodegenerative biomarkers in MS (neurofilament proteins, neurofilament antibodies, tau, N-acetylaspartate, chitinase and chitinase-like proteins and osteopontin), critically evaluating the evidence using a modified Bradford Hill criteria...
May 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525587/assessing-the-psychedelic-after-glow-in-ayahuasca-users-post-acute-neurometabolic-and-functional-connectivity-changes-are-associated-with-enhanced-mindfulness-capacities
#17
Frederic Sampedro, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Marta Valle, Natalia Roberto, Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Matilde Elices, Luís Eduardo Luna, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Draulio B de Araujo, Pablo Friedlander, Steven A Barker, Enrique Álvarez, Joaquim Soler, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Background: Ayahuasca is a plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmala monoamine-oxidase inhibitors. Acute administration leads to neurophysiological modifications in brain regions of the default mode network (DMN), purportedly through a glutamatergic mechanism. Post-acutely, ayahuasca potentiates mindfulness capacities in volunteers, and induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients. However, the mechanisms underlying these fast and maintained effects are poorly understood...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523532/progressive-pathological-changes-in-neurochemical-profile-of-the-hippocampus-and-early-changes-in-the-olfactory-bulbs-of-tau-transgenic-mice-rtg4510
#18
Jieun Kim, In-Young Choi, Karen E Duff, Phil Lee
Tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD-tau) dementia, characterized by pathologic aggregation of the microtubule-associated tau protein and formation of neurofibrillary tangles, have been linked to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. The early detection of cerebral abnormalities and the identification of biological contributors to the continuous pathologic processes of neurodegeneration in tauopathies critically hinge on sensitive and reliable measures of biomarkers in the living brain...
June 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498852/ultra-high-field-7tesla-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#19
Nazem Atassi, Maosheng Xu, Christina Triantafyllou, Boris Keil, Robert Lawson, Paul Cernasov, Elena Ratti, Christopher J Long, Sabrina Paganoni, Alyssa Murphy, Nouha Salibi, Ravi Seethamraju, Bruce Rosen, Eva-Maria Ratai
The main objective of this study was to utilize high field (7T) in vivo proton magnetic resonance imaging to increase the ability to detect metabolite changes in people with ALS, specifically, to quantify levels of glutamine and glutamine separately. The second objective of this study was to correlate metabolic markers with clinical outcomes of disease progression. 13 ALS participants and 12 age-matched healthy controls (HC) underwent 7 Tesla MRI and MRS. Single voxel MR spectra were acquired from the left precentral gyrus using a very short echo time (TE = 5 ms) STEAM sequence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494346/glutamatergic-and-neural-dysfunction-in-postpartum-depression-using-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#20
Carlos E Rosa, Jair C Soares, Felipe P Figueiredo, Ricardo C Cavalli, Marco A Barbieri, Maristela S Schaufelberger, Carlos E G Salmon, Cristina M Del-Ben, Antonio C Santos
Although postpartum depression (PPD) is a prevalent subtype of major depressive disorder, neuroimaging studies on PPD are rare, particularly those identifying neurochemical abnormalities obtained by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS). The dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPF) and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) are part of the neural pathways involved in executive functions and emotional processing, and both structures have been implicated in the neurobiology of depressive disorders. This study aimed to evaluate brain metabolites abnormalities in women with PPD compared with healthy postpartum (HP) women...
April 26, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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