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3 Biotech

Flavio Padilla, Norman Soria, Abrahan Oleas, Darwin Rueda, Bangeppagari Manjunatha, Rajesh R Kundapur, Naga Raju Maddela, Bugude Rajeswari
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of application of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of pollen grains of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.). The study was performed at Patate, Tungurahua province, Ecuador and was divided into two phases. Phase one dedicated to the study of morphology, viability, and identification of nutrient solution for better germination of pollen grains and phase two for the analysis of the effect of conventional, organic, and biological pesticides on pollen grain germination and pollen tube length...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
Parveen Fatemeh Rupani, Asha Embrandiri, Mahamd Hakimi Ibrahim, Mohammad Shahadat, Sune Balle Hansen, Nur Naha Abu Mansor
Several technologies are being applied for treatment of palm oil mill wastes. Among them, the biological treatments (vermicomposting) have widely been recognized as one of the most efficient and eco-friendly methods for converting organic waste materials into valuable products. The present study focuses on vermicomposting of acidic palm oil mill effluent (POME) mixed with the palm pressed fibre (PPF) which are found difficult to decompose in the environment. The industrial waste (POME) was vermicomposted using Lumbricus rubellus under laboratory conditions for a period of 45 days...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
P P Goswami, Gokul Chand, N S Prasad, R Deb, S H Basagoudanavar
Johne's disease or paratuberculosis is a chronic infectious enteric disease of ruminants caused by the intracellular pathogen. The control of the Johne's disease is hampered by lack of specific diagnostic tests. In this study, we have cloned and expressed the N-terminal region of the locus tag Map 1637c encoding 20.8-kDa (r20.8) protein of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The recombinant protein r20.8 was expressed in high levels in Escherichia coli. The protein r20.8 was purified by single-step chromatography using Ni-NTA agarose...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
Dhirendra Kumar, Kashyap Kumar Dubey
Betulinic acid as a derivative of betulin is widely reported for its anti-HIV and antitumor activities. Betulin has three most significant positions, i.e., primary hydroxyl group at position C-28, secondary hydroxyl group at position C-3, and alkene moiety at position C-20, where chemical modifications were performed to yield pharmacologically more active derivatives. Bioconversion optimization was performed for the enhancement in the percentage of conversion using statistical approach by opting temperature, pH and betulin concentration as independent variables...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
Neeraj Kumar Aggarwal, Varsha Goyal, Anita Saini, Anita Yadav, Ranjan Gupta
Alkali-assisted acid pretreated rice straw was saccharified using cellulase from Aspergillus niger BK01. The cellulase production by the fungus was enhanced by parametric optimization using solid-state fermentation conditions. Maximum cellulase production (12.0 U/gds of carboxymethyl cellulase, CMCase) was achieved in 96 h, using 6.0% substrate concentration, 7.5% inoculum concentration, 1:2 solid to liquid ratio, at pH 5.5, and temperature 28 °C, by supplementation of the fermentation medium with 0.1% carboxymethylcellulose and 0...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
Chandrasekhar Kathera, Esther Lebonah Dulla, Venkata Prasad Chinahadri, Thanu Sree Mallakuntla Ramesh, Sreedevi Basavaraju, Pramodakumari Jasti
The present study emphases the comparative proteomic analysis of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 under cocoti palm wine stress and identified differentially expressed proteins. Protein samples were analyzed by 2-D, MALDI-TOF combined with MS access. In 2-D electrophoresis, eight differentially expressed proteins were identified: five up-regulated, two down-regulated and one newly expressed protein. Protein spots were digested with trypsin for MALDI-TOF-MS analysis; protein sequences were obtained from MASCOT search...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Anvarsadat Kianmehr, Rahman Mahdizadeh, Morteza Oladnabi, Javad Ansari
Diaphorases are flavin-containing enzymes with potential applications in biotransfomation reactions, biosensor design and in vitro diagnostic tests. In this communication, we describe recombinant expression, characterization and application of a lipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) with diaphorase activity from a strain of Bacillus sphaericus. The DLD gene consisting of 1413 bp encoding a protein of 470 amino acids was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and the recombinant enzyme was characterized. B. sphaericus DLD catalyzed the reduction of NAD(+) by dihydrolipoamide and exhibited NADH-dependent diaphorase activity...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Chioma Blaise Chikere, Christopher Chibueze Azubuike, Evan Miebaka Fubara
Acute and chronic pollution of environments with crude oil does not bode well for biota living within the vicinity of polluted environments. This is due to environmental and public health concerns on the negative impact of crude oil pollution on living organisms. Enhancing microbial activities by adding nutrients and other amendments had proved effective in pollutant removal during bioremediation. This study was carried out to determine how microbial group respond during remediation by enhanced natural attenuation (RENA) during a field-scale bioremediation...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Paramananda Barman, Ashish Kumar Choudhary, R Geeta
Extraction of RNA from Dioscorea is difficult because of rich mucilage and secondary metabolite content. High-quality RNA is required for RT-PCR and transcriptome analysis. Different protocols and common extraction kits were used for RNA extraction in Dioscorea, but the results were not satisfactory. A CTAB based protocol with lithium chloride precipitation yielded good quality RNA. The RNA isolated using this protocol was successfully used for RT-PCR and transcriptome sequencing experiments. Mucilage content varies at different developmental stages of Dioscorea and the present protocol was effective in isolating RNA from such samples...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Hua Wang, Wenxi Zhou, Hua Li, Bu Rie, Chunhong Piao
β-Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (β-CGTase) belongs to the α-amylase family of enzymes and converts starch to cyclic oligosaccharides called β-cyclodextrins (β-CD). The β-CGTase from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. N-227 was separately mutagenized to give three site-directed β-CGTase mutants, Y127F, R254F and D355R, that showed enhanced cyclization activity towards a starch substrate from 1.64 to 2.1-folds. Kinetic studies indicate that the mutants had higher affinity towards the substrate than the wild type β-CGTase...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Abir Ben Bacha, Ikram Jemel, Nadine M S Moubayed, Imen Ben Abdelmalek
Protease inhibitors from plants are well known to be potent inhibitors of the growth of bacteria, fungi, and even certain viruses which make them excellent candidates for use as the lead compounds for the development of novel antimicrobial agents for applications in medicine. In this study, Rhamnus frangula was selected as a protease inhibitor source. The maximum recovery of the protease inhibitor against trypsin was recorded in the crude extract made in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and isolated from the mature leaves...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
C Anisha, E K Radhakrishnan
Endophytic fungi associated with rhizomes of four cultivars of Zingiber officinale were identified by molecular and morphological methods and evaluated for their activity against soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum and clinical pathogens. The volatile bioactive metabolites produced by these isolates were identified by GC-MS analysis of the fungal crude extracts. Understanding of the metabolites produced by endophytes is also important in the context of raw consumption of ginger as medicine and spice. A total of fifteen isolates were identified from the four varieties studied...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Manikandan Velu, Jeong-Ho Lee, Woo-Suk Chang, Nanh Lovanh, Yool-Jin Park, Palaniyappan Jayanthi, Velmurugan Palanivel, Byung-Taek Oh
Metal nanoparticles obtained from green route are gaining significant prominence as a result of their potential applications in nanomedicine and material engineering. Overall metal nanoparticles studied, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) clutch prominent place in nanoparticles research field. Herein, we have reported the green synthesis of Saccharum officinarum leaf biomass extract-mediated synthesis of AgNPs. Initial nanoparticle production was confirmed by visual observation as color change from light yellow to bright brown color with yellow shade and spectrophotometrically at 450 nm and the various reaction conditions were optimized...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Tamene Milkessa Jiru, Marizeth Groenewald, Carolina Pohl, Laurinda Steyn, Nicholas Kiggundu, Dawit Abate
Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) SY89, an oleaginous yeast, isolated from Ethiopian soil, was grown under nitrogen-limited media. The capacity this with respect to biomass production, lipid yield and lipid content was evaluated. The influence of inoculum size, carbon sources, variations in glucose concentration, nitrogen sources, C/N ratio, pH, temperature, agitation, and aeration rate and incubation period were investigated. Inoculum size of 10% v/v, glucose as a carbon source at 50 g/L glucose, 0...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
A L Reyaz, L Gunapriya, P Indra Arulselvi
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) being an eco-friendly bioinsecticide is effectively used in pest management strategies and, therefore, isolation and identification of new strains effective against a broad range of target pests is important. In the present study, new indigenous B. thuringiensis strains were isolated and investigated so that these could be used as an alternative and/or support the current commercial strains/cry proteins in use. For this, 159 samples including soil, leaf and spider webs were collected from ten districts of Kashmir valley (India)...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Lina Maloukh, Alagappan Kumarappan, Mohammad Jarrar, Jawad Salehi, Houssam El-Wakil, T V Rajya Lakshmi
DNA barcoding of United Arab Emirates (UAE) native plants is of high practical and scientific value as the plants adapt to very harsh environmental conditions that challenge their identification. Fifty-one plant species belonged to 22 families, 2 monocots, and 20 eudicots; a maximum number of species being legumes and grasses were collected. To authenticate the morphological identification of the wild plant taxa, rbcL and matK regions were used in the study. The primer universality and discriminatory power of rbcL is 100%, while it is 35% for matK locus for these plant species...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Dharmesh H Sur, Mausumi Mukhopadhyay
This paper investigated the effect of mixed cultures of Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Escherichia coli and air as gas on degradation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in three-phase inverse fluidized beds (TPIFBs) for textile effluents with initial COD of 1200 ppm (effluent 1) and 640 ppm (effluent 2). Investigators focused on the importance of different design of gas spargers of the TPIFB for checking its effect on COD reduction performance. For this purpose, four different gas spargers were fabricated for gas flow entry into bioreactor with different  % open area: Gas sparger 1 (18% open area), sparger 2 (10...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
K R Soumya, Suja Philip, Sheela Sugathan, Jyothis Mathew, E K Radhakrishnan
Infections caused by commensal organisms by changing to infectious life style generate much challenge to the current treatment strategies. Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are one of them, with their coexisting biofilm forming and multiple antibiotic resistance properties form important agents of nosocomial infection. To evaluate species distribution, biofilm formation, and antibiogram, CoNS isolates from various clinical samples were isolated. The presence of biofilm and associated genes icaAB, aap, atlE, embp, bhp, and fbe in CoNS was screened by PCR...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Narendra Naik Deshavath, Mood Mohan, Venkata Dasu Veeranki, Vaibhav V Goud, Srinivasa Rao Pinnamaneni, Tamal Benarjee
Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into monomeric carbohydrates is economically beneficial and suitable for sustainable production of biofuels. Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass using high acid concentration results in decomposition of sugars into fermentative inhibitors. Thus, the main aim of this work was to investigate the optimum hydrolysis conditions for sorghum brown midrib IS11861 biomass to maximize the pentose sugars yield with minimized levels of fermentative inhibitors at low acid concentrations...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
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