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3 Biotech

Anup Ashok, Devarai Santhosh Kumar
Optimization techniques are considered as a part of nature's way of adjusting to the changes happening around it. There are different factors that establish the optimum working condition or the production of any value-added product. A model is accepted for a particular process after its sustainability has been verified on a statistical and analytical level. Optimization techniques can be divided into categories as statistical, nature inspired and artificial neural network each with its own benefits and usage in particular cases...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Fatimah Azizah Riyadi, Md Zahangir Alam, Md Noor Salleh, Hamzah Mohd Salleh
This study enhanced the production of thermostable organic solvent-tolerant (TS-OST) lipase by locally isolated thermotolerant Rhizopus sp. strain using solid-state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The optimum conditions were achieved using a series of statistical approaches. The cultivation parameters, which include fermentation time, moisture content, temperature, pH, inoculum size, various carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as other supplements, were initially screened by the definitive screening design, and one-factor-at-a-time using PKC as the basal medium...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
V R Ranjitha, V Ravishankar Rai
Biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles has received a tremendous attention from the past few decades. The significant progress in the field of nanotechnology has resulted in a cost-effective and eco-friendly process for nanoparticle synthesis. In the present study, the extracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles was carried out using culture supernatant of Streptomyces griseoruber, actinomycetes isolated from the soil. Bioreduction of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectrophotometer that showed the peak between 520 and 550 nm...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Pijush Mallick, Shruti Chattaraj, Samir Ranjan Sikdar
The 12 pfls somatic hybrids and 2 parents of Pleurotus florida and Lentinus squarrosulus were characterized by ISSR and sequencing of rRNA-ITS genes. Five ISSR primers were used and amplified a total of 54 reproducible fragments with 98.14% polymorphism among all the pfls hybrid populations and parental strains. UPGMA-based cluster exhibited a dendrogram with three major groups between the parents and pfls hybrids. Parent P. florida and L. squarrosulus showed different degrees of genetic distance with all the hybrid lines and they showed closeness to hybrid pfls 1m and pfls 1h, respectively...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Natascha Cheikhyoussef, Martha Kandawa-Schulz, Ronnie Böck, Charles de Koning, Ahmad Cheikhyoussef, Ahmed A Hussein
The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and (1)H NMR profiles of Citrullus lanatus and Acanthosicyos horridus melon seed oils were determined and compared among different extraction methods (cold pressing, traditional, and Soxhlet). The oil content was 40.2 ± 3.45 and 37.8 ± 7.26% for C. lanatus and A. horridus, respectively. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among the different extraction methods in the characteristics studied. Physicochemical characteristics of the melon seed oils were saponification value, 180...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Pankaj Parab, Rakhee Khandeparker, Ujwala Amberkar, Vishwas Khodse
Enzymatic hydrolysis of seaweed biomass was studied using xylanase produced from marine bacteria Bacillus sp. strain BT21 through solid-state fermentation of wheat bran. Three types of seaweeds, Ahnfeltia plicata, Padina tetrastromatica and Ulva lactuca, were selected as representatives of red, brown, and green seaweeds, respectively. Seaweed biomass was pretreated with hot water. The efficiency of pretreated biomass to release reducing sugar by the action of xylanase as well as the type of monosaccharide released during enzyme saccharification of seaweed biomass was studied...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Reetika Mahajan, Sajad Majeed Zargar, R K Salgotra, Ravinder Singh, Aijaz Ahmad Wani, Muslima Nazir, Parvaze A Sofi
Micronutrient deficiencies are of major concern in human health and plant metabolism. Iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), iodine (I), selenium (Se) are regarded as micronutrients having major impact on human health. More than 50% of populations mainly from developing countries are suffering from one or the other micronutrient malnutrition. Ensuring adequate supply of these micronutrients through diet consisting of staple foods, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is must. Here, we evaluated common bean genotypes that were collected from various regions of Jammu and Kashmir, India for Fe, Zn and protein contents and used SSRs to identify the markers associated with these traits...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Jingjing Wang, Huan Wang, Tingting Yin, Song Xu, Wei Zhao, Jin Wang, Zhiyong Huang
The persistence and performance of plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) in soil are considered critical features for effectiveness, yet they are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the colonization and activity of a new PGPM, phosphate-solubilizing Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens qzr14, in a pot culture experiment using cucumber as test crop for 20 days. The number of G. liquefaciens and bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere and bulk soil were monitored by real-time PCR and DGGE, respectively...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Prakash M Gopalakrishnan Nair, Ill Min Chung
Rapid growth of nanotechnology has enabled the production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in several industries as well as in agriculture areas. This has raised ecotoxicological concerns due to the release of ENPs to the environment. In the present study, we investigated the effects of interactions of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on physiological, biochemical, and molecular indices in seedlings of an important oil seed crop Brassica napus L. The seedlings were treated with 0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 500 mg/L of CuO NPs for 14 days in half-strength semi-solid Murashige and Skoog medium...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Krishnanand Mishra, Ghazi Alsbeih
The search for efficient radioprotective agents to protect from radiation-induced toxicity, due to planned or accidental radiation exposure, is still ongoing worldwide. Despite decades of research and development of widely different biochemical classes of natural and derivative compounds, a safe and effective radioprotector is largely unmet. In this comprehensive review, we evaluated the evidence for the radioprotective performance of classical thiols, vitamins, minerals, dietary antioxidants, phytochemicals, botanical and bacterial preparations, DNA-binding agents, cytokines, and chelators including adaptogens...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Junming Li, Chengming Sun, Lei Chen, Lihui Sun, Lijun Duan, Qing Zheng, Xuejun Hu
Human C-reactive protein (CRP), a classical human acute-phase plasma protein, is not only a sensitive systemic inflammatory marker but also an independent risk predictor of cardiovascular diseases. However, existing heterologous expression systems for expressing CRP is not efficient and cost-effective for large-scale industrial production of CRP to meet the growing market demand for CRP. This study aims to improve the secretion of recombinant CRP by Pichia pastoris via optimizing signal peptides, promoters and carbon sources...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Aphisit Poonsrisawat, Atchara Paemanee, Sittichoke Wanlapatit, Kuakoon Piyachomkwan, Lily Eurwilaichitr, Verawat Champreda
In this study, an efficient ethanol production process using simultaneous saccharification and viscosity reduction of raw cassava pulp with no prior high temperature pre-gelatinization/liquefaction step was developed using a crude starch- and cell wall-degrading enzyme preparation from Aspergillus aculeatus BCC17849. Proteomic analysis revealed that the enzyme comprised a complex mixture of endo- and exo-acting amylases, cellulases, xylanases, and pectina ses belonging to various glycosyl hydrolase families...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Abdullah A Abood, Abdullah M Al-Ansari, Hussein M Migdadi, Mohammad K Okla, Abdulaziz M Assaeed, Ahmad K Hegazy, Aref M Alshameri, Mohamad Altaf Khan
This study aimed to assess genetic variability at molecular and phytochemical levels among the four most commonly grown olive cultivars and the wild-type olive of Saudi Arabia. Sixty-six and 80 amplicons were generated from 9 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) primers, each, producing an average of 95.9 and 86.44% polymorphism for the two markers, respectively. The PIC values were 82.2% for the RAPD and 85.4% for the ISSR markers and the discrimination power for both the markers was 11...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Kumar Sambhav Verma, Shamshad Ul Haq, Sumita Kachhwaha, S L Kothari
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) shows high levels of variation in fruit color, fruit stripe pattern, seed coat color, and size. Thirty-eight accessions of C. colocynthis plants from different parts of semi-arid Rajasthan were collected and genetic diversity was assessed using random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Out of 65 RAPD decamer primers, 50 primers produced 549 scorable bands of which 318 were polymorphic. Polymorphic banding patterns with the number of amplified fragments varied from 5 (OPA-08 and OPF-9) to 19 (OPT-20) in the molecular size range of 150-6000 bp...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Fatima Henkrar, Jamal El-Haddoury, Driss Iraqi, Najib Bendaou, Sripada M Udupa
Glutenin is a major protein fraction contributing to the functional properties of gluten and dough. The glutenin constitutes 30-40% of the protein in wheat flour and about half of that in gluten. It is essential to identify correct glutenin alleles and to improve wheat quality by selecting alleles that exert favorable effects. Moroccan wheat cultivars are unique in West Asia and North Africa region, since many of them possess resistance to Hessian fly, a pest, which is becoming important in other countries in the region...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
M F Zaranyika, W Nyati
The aim of the present work was to demonstrate the existence of metal-metal interactions in plants and their implications for the absorption of toxic elements like Cr. Typha capensis, a good accumulator of heavy metals, was chosen for the study. Levels of Fe, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were determined in the soil and roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves of T. capensis from three Sites A, B and C polluted by effluent from a chrome ore processing plant, a gold ore processing plant, and a nickel ore processing plant, respectively...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Vijayakumar Poondla, Rajasekhar Chikati, Monika Kallubai, Vidyasagar Chennupati, Rajagopal Subramanyam, Vijaya Sarathi Reddy Obulam
Earlier, low-temperature-active polygalacturonase isoforms from Saccharomyces cerevisiae PVK4 were isolated and purified. Substrate specificity of polygalacturonase isoforms indicated high affinity for pectins and very low enzyme activity towards non-pectic polysaccharides. To characterize the polygalacturonase isoforms, biochemical, spectral, and in silico approaches were used. The apparent Km and Vmax values for hydrolysis of pectin and galacturonic acid were 0.31 mg/ml and 3.15 mmol min/mg, respectively...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Zahra Zinhari, Shahram Pourseyedi, Jefar Zolalo
The present research is carried out to study Lepidium draba gene transformation for the first time, using direct shoot explants. As a prerequisite for gene transformation, the regeneration conditions in L. draba were optimized. We achieved an efficient and reproducible protocol for successful direct shoot regeneration without intervening callus formation. The results indicate that L. draba is the insistent species of Brassicaceae in direct shoot regeneration. Various explants of L. draba were genetically transformed with different strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, viz...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Luo Tao, Pan Junting, Meng Xi, Huang Hailong, Long Yan, Xiong Xia, Huang Ruyi, Mei Zili
Long-term production in commercial straw biogas plants has been rare in China due to inefficiencies in the logistics stream. Biomass densification could be a potential solution to this issue. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate whether biomass densification is a more efficient and sustainable option. We performed methane production experiments to investigate fermentation characteristics of briquettes (with a new pretreatment, model II) and rubs (with a common pretreatment, model I). A 3000-m(3) biogas plant was used to conduct a comparative analysis with solar eMergy joules...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Kavita Kumari, Madan Lal, Sangeeta Saxena
An efficient, simple and commercially applicable protocol for rapid micropropagation of sugarcane has been designed using variety Co 05011. Pretreatment of shoot tip explants with thidiazuron (TDZ) induced high frequency regeneration of shoot cultures with improved multiplication ratio. The highest frequency (80%) of shoot initiation in explants pretreated with 10 mg/l of TDZ was obtained during the study. Maximum 65% shoot cultures could be established from the explants pretreated with TDZ as compared to minimum 40% establishment in explants without pretreatment...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
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