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Frontiers in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649240/decoding-the-role-of-glycans-in-malaria
#1
REVIEW
Pollyanna S Gomes, Daniel F Feijó, Alexandre Morrot, Celio G Freire-de-Lima
Complications arising from malaria are a concern for public health authorities worldwide, since the annual caseload in humans usually exceeds millions. Of more than 160 species of Plasmodium, only 4 infect humans, with the most severe cases ascribed to Plasmodium falciparum and the most prevalent to Plasmodium vivax. Over the past 70 years, since World War II, when the first antimalarial drugs were widely used, many efforts have been made to combat this disease, including vectorial control, new drug discoveries and genetic and molecular approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649239/insights-into-the-classical-genetics-of-clitopilus-passeckerianus-the-pleuromutilin-producing-mushroom
#2
Kate M J de Mattos-Shipley, Gary D Foster, Andy M Bailey
Clitopilus passeckerianus is the fungal species responsible for the production of pleuromutilin, a diterpene antibiotic that is gaining in commercial interest. Production of the antibiotic is constrained by the low titers typically obtained from isolates. We therefore set out to investigate the possibility of using classical breeding techniques coupled with genetic manipulation as a means to develop such fungi. We show that the original production strain of C. passeckerianus is able to fruit under laboratory conditions, giving viable haploid meiotic basidiospores...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649238/clostridium-chauvoei-an-evolutionary-dead-end-pathogen
#3
Lorenz Rychener, Saria InAlbon, Steven P Djordjevic, Piklu R Chowdhury, Rosangela E Ziech, Agueda C de Vargas, Joachim Frey, Laurent Falquet
Full genome sequences of 20 strains of Clostridium chauvoei, the etiological agent of blackleg of cattle and sheep, isolated from four different continents over a period of 64 years (1951-2015) were determined and analyzed. The study reveals that the genome of the species C. chauvoei is highly homogeneous compared to the closely related species C. perfringens, a widespread pathogen that affects human and many animal species. Analysis of the CRISPR locus is sufficient to differentiate most C. chauvoei strains and is the most heterogenous region in the genome, containing in total 187 different spacer elements that are distributed as 30 - 77 copies in the various strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649237/outer-membrane-vesicles-omvs-of-gram-negative-bacteria-a-perspective-update
#4
REVIEW
Arif Tasleem Jan
Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria are spherical membrane-enclosed entities of endocytic origin. Reported in the consortia of different bacterial species, production of OMVs into extracellular milieu seems essential for their survival. Enriched with bioactive proteins, toxins, and virulence factors, OMVs play a critical role in the bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. Emergence of OMVs as distinct cellular entities helps bacteria in adaptating to diverse niches, in competing with other bacteria to protect members of producer species and more importantly play a crucial role in host-pathogen interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649236/the-validation-and-implications-of-using-whole-genome-sequencing-as-a-replacement-for-traditional-serotyping-for-a-national-salmonella-reference-laboratory
#5
Chris A Yachison, Catherine Yoshida, James Robertson, John H E Nash, Peter Kruczkiewicz, Eduardo N Taboada, Matthew Walker, Aleisha Reimer, Sara Christianson, Anil Nichani, Celine Nadon
Salmonella serotyping remains the gold-standard tool for the classification of Salmonella isolates and forms the basis of Canada's national surveillance program for this priority foodborne pathogen. Public health officials have been increasingly looking toward whole genome sequencing (WGS) to provide a large set of data from which all the relevant information about an isolate can be mined. However, rigorous validation and careful consideration of potential implications in the replacement of traditional surveillance methodologies with WGS data analysis tools is needed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649235/detection-of-mycobacteria-by-culture-and-dna-based-methods-in-animal-derived-food-products-purchased-at-spanish-supermarkets
#6
Iker A Sevilla, Elena Molina, Maitane Tello, Natalia Elguezabal, Ramón A Juste, Joseba M Garrido
Mycobacteria include obligate and opportunistic pathogens that cause significant human and animal disease. The burden of tuberculosis has been largely reduced in developed territories but remains a huge problem worldwide. The significance of nontuberculous mycobacteria is growing considerably, especially in developed regions with higher life expectancy and more therapy-related immunosuppressed individuals. Due to their robustness mycobacteria can contaminate animal products by direct transmission from infected individuals or by environmental contamination during processing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649234/ecological-succession-pattern-of-fungal-community-in-soil-along-a-retreating-glacier
#7
Jianqing Tian, Yuchen Qiao, Bing Wu, Huai Chen, Wei Li, Na Jiang, Xiaoling Zhang, Xingzhong Liu
Accelerated by global climate changing, retreating glaciers leave behind soil chronosequences of primary succession. Current knowledge of primary succession is mainly from studies of vegetation dynamics, whereas information about belowground microbes remains unclear. Here, we combined shifts in community assembly processes with microbial primary succession to better understand mechanisms governing the stochastic/deterministic balance. We investigated fungal succession and community assembly via high-throughput sequencing along a well-established glacier forefront chronosequence that spans 2-188 years of deglaciation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649233/microbial-community-response-to-terrestrially-derived-dissolved-organic-matter-in-the-coastal-arctic
#8
Rachel E Sipler, Colleen T E Kellogg, Tara L Connelly, Quinn N Roberts, Patricia L Yager, Deborah A Bronk
Warming at nearly twice the global rate, higher than average air temperatures are the new 'normal' for Arctic ecosystems. This rise in temperature has triggered hydrological and geochemical changes that increasingly release carbon-rich water into the coastal ocean via increased riverine discharge, coastal erosion, and the thawing of the semi-permanent permafrost ubiquitous in the region. To determine the biogeochemical impacts of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (tDOM) on marine ecosystems we compared the nutrient stocks and bacterial communities present under ice-covered and ice-free conditions, assessed the lability of Arctic tDOM to coastal microbial communities from the Chukchi Sea, and identified bacterial taxa that respond to rapid increases in tDOM...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642757/the-fungal-pathogen-candida-glabrata-does-not-depend-on-surface-ferric-reductases-for-iron-acquisition
#9
Franziska Gerwien, Abu Safyan, Stephanie Wisgott, Sascha Brunke, Lydia Kasper, Bernhard Hube
Iron acquisition is a crucial virulence determinant for many bacteria and fungi, including the opportunistic fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. glabrata. While the diverse strategies used by C. albicans for obtaining iron from the host are well-described, much less is known about the acquisition of this micronutrient from host sources by C. glabrata - a distant relative of C. albicans with closer evolutionary ties to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which nonetheless causes severe clinical symptoms in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642756/high-prevalence-of-macrolide-resistance-and-molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-isolates-circulating-in-china-from-2009-to-2016
#10
Binghuai Lu, Yujie Fang, Yanyan Fan, Xingchun Chen, Junrui Wang, Ji Zeng, Yi Li, Zhijun Zhang, Lei Huang, Hongxia Li, Dong Li, Fengxia Zhu, Yanchao Cui, Duochun Wang
Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A Streptococcus, is a pathogen responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild skin and soft tissue infections and pharyngitis to severe diseases. Its epidemiological characteristics should be comprehensively under surveillance for regulating the national prevention and treatment practice. Herein, a total of 140 S. pyogenes, including 38 invasive and 102 noninvasive isolates, were collected from infected patients in 10 tertiary general hospitals from 7 cities/provinces in China during the years 2009-2016...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642755/vaginal-and-uterine-bacterial-communities-in-postpartum-lactating-cows
#11
Brooke A Clemmons, Sydney T Reese, Felipe G Dantas, Gessica A Franco, Timothy P L Smith, Olusoji I Adeyosoye, Ky G Pohler, Phillip R Myer
Reproductive inefficiency in cattle has major impacts on overall productivity of cattle operations, increasing cost of production, and impacting the sustainability of the cattle enterprise. Decreased reproductive success and associated disease states have been correlated with the presence of specific microbes and microbial community profiles, yet details of the relationship between microbial communities and host physiology are not well known. The present study profiles and compares the microbial communities in the bovine uterus and vagina using 16S rRNA sequencing of the V1-V3 hypervariable region at the time of artificial insemination...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642754/editorial-spores-and-spore-formers
#12
EDITORIAL
Imrich Barák
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642753/suhb-regulates-the-motile-sessile-switch-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-through-the-gac-rsm-pathway-and-c-di-gmp-signaling
#13
Kewei Li, Guangjian Yang, Alexander B Debru, Pingping Li, Li Zong, Peizhen Li, Teng Xu, Weihui Wu, Shouguang Jin, Qiyu Bao
Many Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence traits that contribute to human infections are accepted as being associated with its environmental lifestyle. Therefore, identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern the lifestyle choice is of high significance. We previously reported that a mutation in suhB results in a decrease in swimming motility and increased biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain. Yet, little is known about how this occurs. In this study, we demonstrated that SuhB inversely regulates motility and biofilm formation through the GacA-RsmY/Z-RsmA cascade...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642752/a-comprehensive-epidemiological-research-for-clinical-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-in-shanghai
#14
Huan Li, Rong Tang, Yang Lou, Zelin Cui, Wenjing Chen, Qing Hong, Zhaohuan Zhang, Pradeep K Malakar, Yingjie Pan, Yong Zhao
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the most important pathogen for seafood-borne gastroenteritis in Shanghai and the rest of the world. A total of 42 V. parahaemolyticus strains were isolated from 1900 fecal specimens collected from patients in Shanghai hospital presenting from January 2014 to December 2015. All isolates were evaluated for potential virulence factors [tdh, trh, and type three secretion system (T3SS) genes], typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and screened for antimicrobial resistance phenotype and genotype...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642751/in-vitro-antimicrobial-activity-of-chlorquinaldol-against-microorganisms-responsible-for-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-comparative-evaluation-with-gentamicin-and-fusidic-acid
#15
Monica Bortolin, Alessandro Bidossi, Elena De Vecchi, Maura Avveniente, Lorenzo Drago
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a major therapeutic challenge for clinicians. The emergence of pathogens with decreased susceptibility to available therapies has become an emerging problem often associated with treatment failure. Hence, there is an urgent need for novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of chlorquinaldol as an alternative approach to currently used topical antibiotics for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642750/non-pylori-helicobacters-nhphs-induce-shifts-in-gastric-microbiota-in-helicobacter-pylori-infected-patients
#16
Xianhui Peng, Liya Zhou, Yanan Gong, Zhiqiang Song, Lihua He, Sanren Lin, Jianzhong Zhang
To explore the effects of gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species(NHPH) on the structure and potential function of gastric microbiota, we employed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on 164 gastric biopsy specimens from NHPH (H. suis, H. felis, H. salomonis) /H. pylori coinfection individuals, H. pylori monoinfection individuals and healthy controls. The results demonstrated that marked structural and functional variations between H. pylori mono- and coinfection samples (HPHS, HPHF, HPHM). The changes in bacterial structure induced by NHPH are mainly attributed to their ability of gastric acid secretion inhibition as well as bacterial chemotaxis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642749/rna-seq-reveals-enhanced-sugar-metabolism-in-streptococcus-mutans-co-cultured-with-candida-albicans-within-mixed-species-biofilms
#17
Jinzhi He, Dongyeop Kim, Xuedong Zhou, Sang-Joon Ahn, Robert A Burne, Vincent P Richards, Hyun Koo
Early childhood caries (ECC), which can lead to rampant tooth-decay that is painful and costly to treat, is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting children worldwide. Previous studies support that interactions between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are associated with the pathogenesis of ECC. The presence of Candida enhances S. mutans growth, fitness and accumulation within biofilms in vitro, although the molecular basis for these behaviors is undefined. Using an established co-cultivation biofilm model and RNA-Seq, we investigated how C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642748/helicobacter-hygiene-atopy-and-asthma
#18
REVIEW
Muhammad Miftahussurur, Iswan A Nusi, David Y Graham, Yoshio Yamaoka
The hygiene hypothesis links environmental and microbial exposures in early life to the prevalence of atopy, allergy, and asthma. Helicobacter pylori infection is typically acquired in childhood and acquisition of the infection is associated with poor household hygiene. Some population surveys have shown an inverse association between H. pylori infection and atopy, allergy, and asthma leading to the suggestion that H. pylori infection may be protective against disease; others consider it simply a biomarker for poor household hygiene...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642747/propionibacterium-freudenreichii-surface-protein-slpb-is-involved-in-adhesion-to-intestinal-ht-29-cells
#19
Fillipe L R do Carmo, Houem Rabah, Song Huang, Floriane Gaucher, Martine Deplanche, Stéphanie Dutertre, Julien Jardin, Yves Le Loir, Vasco Azevedo, Gwénaël Jan
Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a beneficial bacterium traditionally used as a cheese ripening starter and more recently for its probiotic abilities based on the release of beneficial metabolites. In addition to these metabolites (short-chain fatty acids, vitamins, and bifidogenic factor), P. freudenreichii revealed an immunomodulatory effect confirmed in vivo by the ability to protect mice from induced acute colitis. This effect is, however, highly strain-dependent. Local action of metabolites and of immunomodulatory molecules is favored by the ability of probiotics to adhere to the host cells...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642746/virucidal-activity-of-fogged-chlorine-dioxide-and-hydrogen-peroxide-based-disinfectants-against-human-norovirus-and-its-surrogate-feline-calicivirus-on-hard-to-reach-surfaces
#20
Naim Montazeri, Clyde Manuel, Eric Moorman, Janak R Khatiwada, Leonard L Williams, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Norovirus is shed in high numbers in the feces and vomitous of infected individuals. Contact surfaces contaminated with bodily fluids harboring infectious virus particles serve as vehicles for pathogen transmission. Environmental stability of NoV and its resistance to many conventional disinfectants necessitate effective inactivation strategies to control the spread of virus. We investigated the efficacy of two commercial disinfectants, hydrogen peroxide (7...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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