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Frontiers in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428783/corrigendum-effects-of-short-term-warming-and-altered-precipitation-on-soil-microbial-communities-in-alpine-grassland-of-the-tibetan-plateau
#1
Kaoping Zhang, Yu Shi, Xin Jing, Jin-Sheng He, Ruibo Sun, Yunfeng Yang, Ashley Shade, Haiyan Chu
[This corrects the article on p. 1032 in vol. 7, PMID: 27446064.].
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428782/a-recombinant-potato-virus-y-infectious-clone-tagged-with-the-rosea1-visual-marker-pvy-ros1-facilitates-the-analysis-of-viral-infectivity-and-allows-the-production-of-large-amounts-of-anthocyanins-in-plants
#2
Teresa Cordero, Mohamed A Mohamed, Juan-José López-Moya, José-Antonio Daròs
Potato virus Y (PVY) is a major threat to the cultivation of potato and other solanaceous plants. By inserting a cDNA coding for the Antirrhinum majus Rosea1 transcription factor into a PVY infectious clone, we created a biotechnological tool (PVY-Ros1) that allows infection by this relevant plant virus to be tracked by the naked eye with no need for complex instrumentation. Rosea1 is an MYB-type transcription factor whose expression activates the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments in a dose-specific and cell-autonomous manner...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428781/analysis-of-the-listeria-monocytogenes-population-structure-among-isolates-from-1931-to-2015-in-australia
#3
Amy V Jennison, Jesse J Masson, Ning-Xia Fang, Rikki M Graham, Mark I Bradbury, Narelle Fegan, Kari S Gobius, Trudy M Graham, Christine J Guglielmino, Janelle L Brown, Edward M Fox
Listeriosis remains among the most important bacterial illnesses, with a high associated mortality rate. Efforts to control listeriosis require detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease itself, and its etiological bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes. In this study we provide an in-depth analysis of the epidemiology of 224 L. monocytogenes isolates from Australian clinical and non-clinical sources. Non-human sources included meat, dairy, seafood, fruit, and vegetables, along with animal and environmental isolates...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428780/genomic-and-transcriptomic-insights-into-calcium-carbonate-biomineralization-by-marine-actinobacterium-brevibacterium-linens-bs258
#4
Yuying Zhu, Ning Ma, Weihua Jin, Shimei Wu, Chaomin Sun
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) biomineralization has been investigated due to its wide range of scientific and technological implications, however, the molecular mechanisms of this important geomicrobiological process are largely unknown. Here, a urease-positive marine actinobacterium Brevibacterium linens BS258 was demonstrated to effectively form CaCO3 precipitates. Surprisingly, this bacterium could also dissolve the formed CaCO3 with the increase of the Ca(2+) concentration. To disclose the mechanisms of biomineralization, the genome of B...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428779/application-of-%C3%AE-resorcylic-acid-as-potential-antimicrobial-feed-additive-to-reduce-campylobacter-colonization-in-broiler-chickens
#5
Basanta R Wagle, Abhinav Upadhyay, Komala Arsi, Sandip Shrestha, Kumar Venkitanarayanan, Annie M Donoghue, Dan J Donoghue
Campylobacter is one of the major foodborne pathogens that result in severe gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Chickens are the reservoir host of Campylobacter, where the pathogen colonizes the ceca, thereby leading to contamination of carcass during slaughter. A reduction in cecal colonization by Campylobacter would directly translate into reduced product contamination and risk of human infections. With increasing consumer demand for antibiotic free chickens, significant research is being conducted to discover natural, safe and economical antimicrobials that can effectively control Campylobacter colonization in birds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428778/evidence-for-nitric-oxide-synthase-activity-in-staphylococcus-xylosus-mediating-nitrosoheme-formation
#6
Geoffrey Ras, Véronique Zuliani, Patrick Derkx, Tim M Seibert, Sabine Leroy, Régine Talon
Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in fermented meat products and contributes to color formation by the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Nitrite is a food additive that is chemically turned to nitric oxide (NO) in meat but its safety has been questioned. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of NO synthase (NOS) of S. xylosus C2a to produce NO. For this purpose, a nos deletion mutant (Δnos) in S. xylosus was constructed and NO production was evaluated in a test based on its ability to form nitrosomyoglobin and nitrosoheme...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428777/lactobacillus-fermentum-postbiotic-induced-autophagy-as-potential-approach-for-treatment-of-acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity
#7
Miroslav Dinić, Jovanka Lukić, Jelena Djokić, Marina Milenković, Ivana Strahinić, Nataša Golić, Jelena Begović
The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of postbiotics originated from Lactobacillus fermentum BGHV110 strain (HV110) to counteract acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells. This strain was selected according to its autophagy inducing potential, based on previous studies reporting protective role of autophagy in APAP caused cellular damage. Cell viability was assessed using MTT and LDH assays, while autophagy was monitored by qPCR analysis of BECN1, Atg5, p62/SQSTM1, and PINK1 mRNA expression and by Western blot analysis of p62/SQSTM1 and lipidated LC3 accumulation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428776/mapping-and-identification-of-antifungal-peptides-in-the-putative-antifungal-protein-afpb-from-the-filamentous-fungus-penicillium-digitatum
#8
Sandra Garrigues, Mónica Gandía, Attila Borics, Florentine Marx, Paloma Manzanares, Jose F Marcos
Antifungal proteins (AFPs) from Ascomycetes are small cysteine-rich proteins that are abundantly secreted and show antifungal activity against non-producer fungi. A gene coding for a class B AFP (AfpB) was previously identified in the genome of the plant pathogen Penicillium digitatum. However, previous attempts to detect the AfpB protein were not successful despite the high expression of the corresponding afpB gene. In this work, the structure of the putative AfpB was modeled. Based on this model, four synthetic cysteine-containing peptides, PAF109, PAF112, PAF118, and PAF119, were designed and their antimicrobial activity was tested and characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428775/genomics-reveals-a-unique-clone-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-harboring-an-actively-excising-novel-genomic-island
#9
Prashant P Patil, Swapna Mali, Samriti Midha, Vikas Gautam, Lona Dash, Sunil Kumar, Jayanthi Shastri, Lipika Singhal, Prabhu B Patil
Burkholderia cenocepacia is a clinically dominant form among the other virulent species of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). In the present study, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of seven nosocomial Bcc isolates, five of which were isolated from the bloodstream infections and two isolates were recovered from the hospital setting during the surveillance. Genome-based species identification of the Bcc isolates using a type strain explicitly identified the species as B. cenocepacia. Moreover, single nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed that the six isolates were clonal and phylogenetically distinct from the other B...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428774/biochar-addition-increases-the-rates-of-dissimilatory-iron-reduction-and-methanogenesis-in-ferrihydrite-enrichments
#10
Guo-Wei Zhou, Xiao-Ru Yang, Christopher W Marshall, Hu Li, Bang-Xiao Zheng, Yu Yan, Jian-Qiang Su, Yong-Guan Zhu
Biochar contains quinones and aromatic structures that facilitate extracellular electron transfer between microbial cells and insoluble minerals. In this study, granulated biochar (1.2-2 mm) and powdered biochar (<0.15 mm) were amended to two ferrihydrite (in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite) enrichments to investigate the effect of biochar with different particle sizes on dissimilatory iron(III)-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and methanogens. Biochar addition significantly stimulated the reduction of both in situ ferrihydrite and ex situ ferrihydrite and the production of methane...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428773/mutation-at-g103-of-mtbftsz-altered-their-sensitivity-to-coumarins
#11
Duggirala Sridevi, Karpagam U Sudhakar, Ragamanvitha Ananthathatmula, Rakesh P Nankar, Mukesh Doble
Coumarins are natural polyphenol lactones comprising of fused rings of benzene and α-pyrone. The current study demonstrates the inhibitory effect of coumarins with various substitutions on Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155. We also demonstrate the effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum) extract containing ellagic acid, on M. smegmatis as well as their affect on MtbFtsZ (FtsZ from Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The ellagic acid extracts from pomegranate peels inhibit mycobacteria with a MIC of 25 μM and 0.3 to 3...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428772/molecular-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-bovine-mastitis-and-close-human-contacts-in-south-african-dairy-herds-genetic-diversity-and-inter-species-host-transmission
#12
Tracy Schmidt, Marleen M Kock, Marthie M Ehlers
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common etiological agents of contagious bovine mastitis worldwide. The purpose of this study was to genetically characterize a collection of S. aureus isolates (bovine = 146, human = 12) recovered from cases of bovine mastitis and nasal swabs of close human contacts in the dairy environment. Isolates were screened for a combination of clinically significant antimicrobial and virulence gene markers whilst the molecular epidemiology of these isolates and possible inter-species host transmission was investigated using a combination of genotyping techniques...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424680/induction-of-protective-immunity-against-toxoplasma-gondii-in-mice-by-nucleoside-triphosphate-hydrolase-ii-ntpase-ii-self-amplifying-rna-vaccine-encapsulated-in-lipid-nanoparticle-lnp
#13
Fangjun Luo, Lina Zheng, Yue Hu, Shuxian Liu, Yan Wang, Zhongkui Xiong, Xin Hu, Feng Tan
RNA-based vaccine represents an irresistible and safe immunization strategy with decreasing theoretical risks of genomic integration and malignant cell transformation. To our knowledge, however, there is no report about development of RNA vaccine against Toxoplasma gondii infection. We have previously demonstrated that the recombinant T. gondii nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase-II (NTPase-II) protein is able to provide protective Th1 cell-mediated immunity against T. gondii. Herein, we evaluated the immunogenic potential of a self-amplifying RNA vaccine-encoding T...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424679/linking-diet-to-colorectal-cancer-the-emerging-role-of-microrna-in-the-communication-between-plant-and-animal-kingdoms
#14
REVIEW
Manuela Del Cornò, Gloria Donninelli, Lucia Conti, Sandra Gessani
Environmental and lifestyle factors, including diet and nutritional habits have been strongly linked to colorectal cancer (CRC). Of note, unhealthy dietary habits leading to adiposity represent a main risk factor for CRC and are associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory status. Inflammation is a hallmark of almost every type of cancer and can be modulated by several food compounds exhibiting either protective or promoting effects. However, in spite of an extensive research, the underlying mechanisms by which dietary patterns or bioactive food components may influence tumor onset and outcome have not been fully clarified yet...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424678/microbial-and-isotopic-evidence-for-methane-cycling-in-hydrocarbon-containing-groundwater-from-the-pennsylvania-region
#15
Adrien Vigneron, Andrew Bishop, Eric B Alsop, Kellie Hull, Ileana Rhodes, Robert Hendricks, Ian M Head, Nicolas Tsesmetzis
The Pennsylvania region hosts numerous oil and gas reservoirs and the presence of hydrocarbons in groundwater has been locally observed. However, these methane-containing freshwater ecosystems remain poorly explored despite their potential importance in the carbon cycle. Methane isotope analysis and analysis of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases from 18 water wells indicated that active methane cycling may be occurring in methane-containing groundwater from the Pennsylvania region. Consistent with this observation, multigenic qPCR and gene sequencing (16S rRNA genes, mcrA, and pmoA genes) indicated abundant populations of methanogens, ANME-2d (average of 1...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424677/responses-of-the-housefly-musca-domestica-to-the-hytrosavirus-replication-impacts-on-host-s-vitellogenesis-and-immunity
#16
Henry M Kariithi, Xu Yao, Fahong Yu, Peter E Teal, Chelsea P Verhoeven, Drion G Boucias
Hytrosaviridae family members replicate in the salivary glands (SGs) of their adult dipteran hosts and are transmitted to uninfected hosts via saliva during feeding. Despite inducing similar gross symptoms (SG hypertrophy; SGH), hytrosaviruses (SGHVs) have distinct pathobiologies, including sex-ratio distortions in tsetse flies and refusal of infected housefly females to copulate. Via unknown mechanism(s), SGHV replication in other tissues results in reduced fecundity in tsetse flies and total shutdown of vitellogenesis and sterility in housefly females...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424676/seasonal-fluctuations-of-microbial-aerosol-in-live-poultry-markets-and-the-detection-of-endotoxin
#17
Bo Wu, Kai Meng, Liangmeng Wei, Yumei Cai, Tongjie Chai
Microbial aerosol whose species and concentrations are closely related to human health is ubiquitous. The effect of microbes on human and animal health and production performance is, in many cases, caused by the spreading of air. Samples in this experiment were from a live poultry market (LPM) in Tai'an, China, collected three times a day (8 am, 14 pm, and 20 pm) over three consecutive days each month for 11 months (Original sampling plan was a year, the government due to the environmental protection, the was LPM closed)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424675/safety-protective-immunity-and-diva-capability-of-a-rough-mutant-salmonella-pullorum-vaccine-candidate-in-broilers
#18
Rongxian Guo, Yang Jiao, Zhuoyang Li, Shanshan Zhu, Xiao Fei, Shizhong Geng, Zhiming Pan, Xiang Chen, Qiuchun Li, Xinan Jiao
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (Salmonella Pullorum) is highly adapted to chickens causing an acute systemic disease that results in high mortality. Vaccination represents one approach for promoting animal health, food safety and reducing environmental persistence in Salmonella control. An important consideration is that Salmonella vaccination in poultry should not interfere with the salmonellosis monitoring program. This is the basis of the DIVA (Differentiation of Infected and Vaccinated Animals) program...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424674/global-fecal-and-plasma-metabolic-dynamics-related-to-helicobacter-pylori-eradication
#19
Theresa Wan-Chen Yap, Alex Hwong-Ruey Leow, Ahmad Najib Azmi, Damien L Callahan, Guillermo I Perez-Perez, Mun-Fai Loke, Khean-Lee Goh, Jamuna Vadivelu
Background:Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of more than half of the world's population. There is increasing evidence H. pylori protects against the development of obesity and childhood asthma/allergies in which the development of these diseases coincide with transient dysbiosis. However, the mechanism underlying the association of H. pylori eradication with human metabolic and immunological disorders is not well-established. In this study, we aimed to investigate the local and systemic effects of H...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424673/genome-scale-reconstruction-of-the-metabolic-network-in-oenococcus-oeni-to-assess-wine-malolactic-fermentation
#20
Sebastián N Mendoza, Pablo M Cañón, Ángela Contreras, Magdalena Ribbeck, Eduardo Agosín
Oenococcus oeni is the main responsible agent for malolactic fermentation in wine, an unpredictable and erratic process in winemaking. To address this, we have constructed and exhaustively curated the first genome-scale metabolic model of Oenococcus oeni, comprising 660 reactions, 536 metabolites and 454 genes. In silico experiments revealed that nutritional requirements are predicted with an accuracy of 93%, while 14 amino acids were found to be essential for the growth of this bacterial species. When the model was applied to determine the non-growth associated maintenance, results showed that O...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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