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Frontiers in Microbiology

J Goordial, Ianina Altshuler, Katherine Hindson, Kelly Chan-Yam, Evangelos Marcolefas, Lyle G Whyte
Significant progress is being made in the development of the next generation of low cost life detection instrumentation with much smaller size, mass and energy requirements. Here, we describe in situ life detection and sequencing in the field in soils over laying ice wedges in polygonal permafrost terrain on Axel Heiberg Island, located in the Canadian high Arctic (79°26'N), an analog to the polygonal permafrost terrain observed on Mars. The life detection methods used here include (1) the cryo-iPlate for culturing microorganisms using diffusion of in situ nutrients into semi-solid media (2) a Microbial Activity Microassay (MAM) plate (BIOLOG Ecoplate) for detecting viable extant microorganisms through a colourimetric assay, and (3) the Oxford Nanopore MinION for nucleic acid detection and sequencing of environmental samples and the products of MAM plate and cryo-iPlate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Byoung-Jun Kim, Bo-Ram Kim, Yoon-Hoh Kook, Bum-Joon Kim
We recently showed that Mycobacterium yongonense could be divided into two genotypes: Type I, in which the rpoB gene has been transferred from Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum, and Type II, in which the rpoB gene has not been transferred. Comparative genome analysis of three M. yongonense Type I, two M. yongonense Type II and M. parascrofulaceum type strains were performed in this study to gain insight into gene transfer from M. parascrofulaceum into M. yongonense Type I strains. We found two genome regions transferred from M...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ying Yang, Jiafang Xie, Hua Li, Shuwen Tan, Yanfeng Chen, Hui Yu
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of foodborne infections in China and a threat to human health worldwide. The main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and characteristic of V. parahaemolyticus isolates in fish, oyster and shrimp samples from the South China domestic consumer market. To accomplish this, we examined 504 seafood samples from 11 provinces of China. The prevalence rates were 9.38, 30.36, and 25.60%, respectively. In summer (33.33%), the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was more common than that detected in the winter (14...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maryam Chaib De Mares, Detmer Sipkema, Sixing Huang, Boyke Bunk, Jörg Overmann, Jan Dirk van Elsas
Sponges are engaged in intimate symbioses with a diversity of microorganisms from all three domains of life, namely Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. Sponges have been well studied and categorized for their bacterial communities, some displaying a high microbial abundance (HMA), while others show low microbial abundance (LMA). However, the associated Archaea and Eukarya have remained relatively understudied. We assessed the bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic diversities in the LMA sponge species Dysidea avara and Dysidea etheria by deep amplicon sequencing, and compared the results to those in the HMA sponges Aplysina aerophoba and Aplysina cauliformis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Barbara Koch, Timothy M Tucey, Tricia L Lo, Stevan Novakovic, Peter Boag, Ana Traven
The interactions of mitochondria with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are crucial for maintaining proper mitochondrial morphology, function and dynamics. This enables cells to utilize their mitochondria optimally for energy production and anabolism, and it further provides for metabolic control over developmental decisions. In fungi, a key mechanism by which ER and mitochondria interact is via a membrane tether, the protein complex ERMES (ER-Mitochondria Encounter Structure). In the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial GTPase Gem1 interacts with ERMES, and it has been proposed to regulate its activity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marion Pohlner, Julius Degenhardt, Avril J E von Hoyningen-Huene, Bernd Wemheuer, Nora Erlmann, Bernhard Schnetger, Thomas H Badewien, Bert Engelen
By now, only limited information on the Roseobacter group thriving at the seafloor is available. Hence, the current study was conducted to determine their abundance and diversity within Pacific sediments along the 180° meridian. We hypothesize a distinct biogeographical distribution of benthic members of the Roseobacter group linked to nutrient availability within the sediments and productivity of the water column. Lowest cell numbers were counted at the edge of the south Pacific gyre and within the north Pacific gyre followed by an increase to the north with maximum values in the highly productive Bering Sea...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sonja Haertle, Ibrahim Alzuheir, Florian Busalt, Victoria Waters, Pete Kaiser, Benedikt B Kaufer
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a cell associated alphaherpesvirus that causes fatal lymphoma in chickens. One factor that plays a crucial role in MDV pathogenesis is the viral CXC chemokine vIL-8 that was originally named after chicken interleukin 8 (cIL-8). However, a recent study demonstrated that vIL-8 recruits B cells and a subset of T cells but not neutrophils, suggesting that vIL-8 is not a cIL-8 orthologue. In this study, we set to identify the cellular orthologues and receptor of vIL-8 using in silico analyses, binding and chemotaxis assays...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Masako Nomaguchi, Naoya Doi, Tomoya Yoshida, Takaaki Koma, Shun Adachi, Hirotaka Ode, Yasumasa Iwatani, Masaru Yokoyama, Hironori Sato, Akio Adachi
Genomic RNA of HIV-1 contains localized structures critical for viral replication. Its structural analysis has demonstrated a stem-loop structure, SLSA1, in a nearby region of HIV-1 genomic splicing acceptor 1 (SA1). We have previously shown that the expression level of vif mRNA is considerably altered by some natural single-nucleotide variations (nSNVs) clustering in SLSA1 structure. In this study, besides eleven nSNVs previously identified by us, we totally found nine new nSNVs in the SLSA1-containing sequence from SA1, splicing donor 2, and through to the start codon of Vif that significantly affect the vif mRNA level, and designated the sequence SA1D2prox (142 nucleotides for HIV-1 NL4-3)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Magda A Furmaniak, Agnieszka E Misztak, Martyna D Franczuk, Annick Wilmotte, Małgorzata Waleron, Krzysztof F Waleron
The cyanobacterial genus Arthrospira appears very conserved and has been divided into five main genetic clusters on the basis of molecular taxonomy markers. Genetic studies of seven Arthrospira strains, including genome sequencing, have enabled a better understanding of those photosynthetic prokaryotes. Even though genetic manipulations have not yet been performed with success, many genomic and proteomic features such as stress adaptation, nitrogen fixation, or biofuel production have been characterized. Many of above-mentioned studies aimed to optimize the cultivation conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nathalie L van der Mee-Marquet, Lucie Bénéjat, Seydina M Diene, Adrien Lemaignen, Nadia Gaïa, Annemieke Smet, Freddy Haesebrouck, Abdessalam Cherkaoui, Astrid Ducournau, Sabrina Lacomme, Etienne Gontier, Louis Bernard, Francis Mégraud, Alain Goudeau, Philippe Lehours, Patrice François
We isolated from aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles from a febrile patient, a Helicobacter-like Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium that MALDI-TOF MS failed to identify. Blood agar cultures incubated in a microaerobic atmosphere revealed a motile Gram negative rod, which was oxidase, catalase, nitrate reductase, esterase, and alkaline phosphatase positive. It grew at 42°C with no detectable urease activity. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the organism was susceptible to beta-lactams, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline but resistant to ciprofloxacin...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ruth Gómez Expósito, Irene de Bruijn, Joeke Postma, Jos M Raaijmakers
Disease suppressive soils offer effective protection to plants against infection by soil-borne pathogens, including fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, and nematodes. The specific disease suppression that operates in these soils is, in most cases, microbial in origin. Therefore, suppressive soils are considered as a rich resource for the discovery of beneficial microorganisms with novel antimicrobial and other plant protective traits. To date, several microbial genera have been proposed as key players in disease suppressiveness of soils, but the complexity of the microbial interactions as well as the underlying mechanisms and microbial traits remain elusive for most disease suppressive soils...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Verona Vandieken, Lara Sabelhaus, Tim Engelhardt
Sandy surface sediments of tidal flats exhibit high microbial activity due to the fast and deep-reaching transport of oxygen and nutrients by porewater advection. On the other hand during low tide, limited transport results in nutrient and oxygen depletion concomitant to the accumulation of microbial metabolites. This study represents the first attempt to use flow-through reactors to investigate virus production, virus transport and the impact of tides and season in permeable sediments. The reactors were filled with intertidal sands of two sites (North beach site and backbarrier sand flat of Spiekeroog island in the German Wadden Sea) to best simulate advective porewater transport through the sediments...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Elisabetta Caselli, Daria Bortolotti, Roberto Marci, Antonella Rotola, Valentina Gentili, Irene Soffritti, Maria D'Accolti, Giuseppe Lo Monte, Mariangela Sicolo, Isabel Barao, Dario Di Luca, Roberta Rizzo
Background: We have recently reported the presence of Human herpesvirus-6A (HHV-6A) DNA in the 43% of endometrial epithelial cells from primary idiopathic infertile women, with no positivity in fertile women. To investigate the possible effect of HHV-6A infection in endometrial (e)NK cells functions, we examined activating/inhibitory receptors expressed by eNK cells and the corresponding ligands on endometrial cells during HHV-6A infection. Methods: Endometrial biopsies and uterine flushing samples during the secretory phase were obtained from 20 idiopathic infertile women and twenty fertile women...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Caixia Gao, Xiwen He, Jinqiang Quan, Qian Jiang, Huan Lin, Hongyan Chen, Liandong Qu
Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I molecules play a crucial role in generating specific cellular immune responses against viruses and other intracellular pathogens. They mainly bind and present antigens of intracellular origin to circulating MHC I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Binding of an appropriate epitope to an SLA class I molecule is the single most selective event in antigen presentation and the first step in the killing of infected cells by CD8+ CTLs. Moreover, the antigen epitopes are strictly restricted to specific SLA molecules...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alyssa M Brokaw, Benjamin J Eide, Michael Muradian, Joshua M Boster, Anna D Tischler
Many bacteria regulate gene expression in response to phosphate availability using a two-component signal transduction system, the activity of which is controlled by interaction with the Pst phosphate specific transporter and a cytoplasmic protein PhoU. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, requires its phosphate sensing signal transduction system for virulence and antibiotic tolerance, but the molecular mechanisms of phosphate sensing remain poorly characterized. M. smegmatis serves as a model for studying mycobacterial pathogens including M...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Margarita García, Braulio Esteve-Zarzoso, Julia Crespo, Juan M Cabellos, Teresa Arroyo
There is an increasing trend toward understanding the impact of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the winemaking process. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the predominant species at the end of fermentation, it has been recognized that the presence of non-Saccharomyces species during alcoholic fermentation can produce an improvement in the quality and complexity of the final wines. A previous work was developed for selecting the best combinations between S. cerevisiae and five non-Saccharomyces (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Candida stellata, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and Lachancea thermotolorans) native yeast strains from D...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xinfeng Li, Han Mei, Fang Chen, Qing Tang, Zhaoqing Yu, Xiaojian Cao, Binda T Andongma, Shan-Ho Chou, Jin He
The non-pathogenic bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 has been widely used as a model organism in mycobacterial research, yet a detailed study about its transcription landscape remains to be established. Here we report the transcriptome, expression profiles and transcriptional structures through growth-phase-dependent RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) as well as other related experiments. We found: (1) 2,139 transcriptional start sites (TSSs) in the genome-wide scale, of which eight samples were randomly selected and further verified by 5'-RACE; (2) 2,233 independent monocistronic or polycistronic mRNAs in the transcriptome within the operon/sub-operon structures which are classified into five groups; (3) 47...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mabel T Wong, Weijun Wang, Marie Couturier, Fakhria M Razeq, Vincent Lombard, Pascal Lapebie, Elizabeth A Edwards, Nicolas Terrapon, Bernard Henrissat, Emma R Master
To identify carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) that might be particularly relevant for wood fiber processing, we performed a comparative metagenomic analysis of digestive systems from Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and North American moose (Alces americanus) following 3 years of enrichment on either microcrystalline cellulose or poplar hydrolysate. In total, 9,386 genes encoding CAZymes and carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) were identified, with up to half predicted to originate from Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Proteobacteria phyla, and up to 17% from unknown phyla...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Min Liu, Zheng Yu, Xiaoqing Yu, Yuanyuan Xue, Bangqin Huang, Jun Yang
Invasion by exotic plant species can alter ecosystem function and reduce native plant diversity, but relatively little is known about their effects on belowground microbial communities. Here we investigated the effects of exotic cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) invasion on the distribution of soil bacterial communities in a mangrove nature reserve of the Jiulong River Estuary, southeast China using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and multivariate statistical analysis. Our results showed that S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Matouš Čihák, Zdeněk Kameník, Klára Šmídová, Natalie Bergman, Oldřich Benada, Olga Kofroňová, Kateřina Petříčková, Jan Bobek
Spore awakening is a series of actions that starts with purely physical processes and continues via the launching of gene expression and metabolic activities, eventually achieving a vegetative phase of growth. In spore-forming microorganisms, the germination process is controlled by intra- and inter-species communication. However, in the Streptomyces clade, which is capable of developing a plethora of valuable compounds, the chemical signals produced during germination have not been systematically studied before...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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