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Frontiers in Microbiology

Alessandra Fontana, Carla Zacconi, Lorenzo Morelli
Lactobacillus casei/Lactobacillus paracasei group of species contains strains adapted to a wide range of environments, from dairy products to intestinal tract of animals and fermented vegetables. Understanding the gene acquisitions and losses that induced such different adaptations, implies a comparison between complete genomes, since evolutionary differences spread on the whole sequence. This study compared 12 complete genomes of L. casei/paracasei dairy-niche isolates and 7 genomes of L. casei/paracasei isolated from other habitats (i...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Cari Stek, Brian Allwood, Naomi F Walker, Robert J Wilkinson, Lutgarde Lynen, Graeme Meintjes
Impaired lung function is common in people with a history of tuberculosis. Host-directed therapy added to tuberculosis treatment may reduce lung damage and result in improved lung function. An understanding of the pathogenesis of pulmonary damage in TB is fundamental to successfully predicting which interventions could be beneficial. In this review, we describe the different features of TB immunopathology that lead to impaired lung function, namely cavities, bronchiectasis, and fibrosis. We discuss the immunological processes that cause lung damage, focusing on studies performed in humans, and using chest radiograph abnormalities as a marker for pulmonary damage...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Attila Farkas, Bernadett Pap, Éva Kondorosi, Gergely Maróti
The symbiosis specific NCR247 and NCR335 cationic plant peptides of Medicago truncatula have been shown to exert antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microbes. However, their antimicrobial efficiency is clearly limited by divalent cations. Here, the antibacterial and antifungal activities of NCR247 and NCR335 peptides were compared to those of the well-characterized peptide antibiotics polymyxin B and the aminoglycoside streptomycin on three model microbes, Escherichia coli , Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as representatives of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as eukaryotic fungi...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Thomas Jäger, Norman Hembach, Christian Elpers, Arne Wieland, Johannes Alexander, Christian Hiller, Gerhard Krauter, Thomas Schwartz
The occurrence of new chemical and microbiological contaminants in the aquatic environment has become an issue of increasing environmental concern. Thus, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play an important part in the distribution of so-called new emerging pathogens and antibiotic resistances. Therefore, the daily loads released by the WWTP were calculated including a model system for the distribution of these loads within the receiving water body. UV-, as well as ozone-treatment in separate or in combination for wastewater treatment were under investigation aiming at the reduction of these loads...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yunho Lee, Sang Eun Jeong, Moonsuk Hur, Sunghwan Ko, Che Ok Jeon
A native microbial consortium for the bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel fuel in Korea was constructed and its biodegradation ability was assessed. Microbial strains isolated from Korean terrestrial environments, with the potential to biodegrade aliphatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, and resins, were investigated and among them, eventually seven microbial strains, Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1, Corynebacterium sp. KSS-2, Pseudomonas sp. AS1, Pseudomonas sp. Neph5, Rhodococcus sp. KOS-1, Micrococcus sp. KSS-8, and Yarrowia sp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chuan Chiang-Ni, Yong-An Shi, Chih-Ho Lai, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
Group A streptococci (GAS) with spontaneous mutations in the CovR/CovS regulatory system are more invasive and related to severe manifestations. GAS can replicate inside phagocytic cells; therefore, phagocytic cells could serve as the niche to select invasive covS mutants. Nonetheless, the encapsulated covS mutant is resistant to phagocytosis. The fate of intracellular covS mutant in phagocytic cells and whether the intracellular covS mutant contributes to invasive infections are unclear. In this study, capsule-deficient (cap- ) strains were utilized to study how intracellular bacteria interacted with phagocytic cells...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xuegui Wang, Changwei Gong, Yun Zhao, Litao Shen
The pathogen Botrytis cinerea is a very dangerous pathogen that infects many economically important crops such as grape, strawberry, tomato, and eggplant. Cyprodinil, a pyrimidine amine fungicide, and fenhexamid, an amide fungicide, are new reagents for controlling gray mold with special efficacy. It is necessary to understand the change trends in the toxicological and physiological characteristics of B. cinerea with successive selective pressures of cyprodinil and fenhexamid to elongate the serving life of these fungicides for effective disease control...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jan Hubert, Marta Nesvorna, Bruno Sopko, Jaroslav Smrz, Pavel Klimov, Tomas Erban
Background: Tyrophagus putrescentiae is a ubiquitous mite species in soil, stored products and house dust and infests food and causes allergies in people. T. putrescentiae populations harbor different bacterial communities, including intracellular symbionts and gut bacteria. The spread of microorganisms via the fecal pellets of T. putrescentiae is a possibility that has not been studied in detail but may be an important means by which gut bacteria colonize subsequent generations of mites. Feces in soil may be a vector for the spread of microorganisms...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fernando Pérez-García, João M P Jorge, Annika Dreyszas, Joe Max Risse, Volker F Wendisch
The dicarboxylic acid glutarate is an important building-block gaining interest in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Here, a synthetic pathway for fermentative production of glutarate by the actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum has been developed. The pathway does not require molecular oxygen and operates via lysine decarboyxylase followed by two transamination and two NAD-dependent oxidation reactions. Using a genome-streamlined L-lysine producing strain as basis, metabolic engineering was performed to enable conversion of L-lysine to glutarate in a five-step synthetic pathway comprising lysine decarboxylase, putrescine transaminase and γ-aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli and GABA/5AVA amino transferase and succinate/glutarate semialdehyde dehydrogenase either from C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tuanwei Chen, Ju Lu, Binbin Kang, Mengshi Lin, Lijie Ding, Lingyan Zhang, Guoying Chen, Shaojun Chen, Hetong Lin
Pestalotiopsis microspora ( P. microspora ) is one of dominant pathogenic fungi causing rotten disease in harvested Chinese olive ( Canarium album Lour.) fruits. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the antifungal activities of ginger oleoresin (GO) against P. microspora and to illuminate the underlying action mechanisms. The in vitro assays indicate that GO exhibited strong antifungal activity against mycelial growth of P. microspore , and with 50%-inhibition concentration ( EC 50 ) and 90%-inhibition concentration ( EC 90 ) at 2...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Svetlana Makarova, Antonida Makhotenko, Nadezhda Spechenkova, Andrew J Love, Natalia O Kalinina, Michael Taliansky
Potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) plants are exposed to diverse environmental stresses, which may modulate plant-pathogen interactions, and potentially cause further decreases in crop productivity. To provide new insights into interactive molecular responses to heat stress combined with virus infection in potato, we analyzed expression of genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins [markers of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant defense] and heat shock proteins (HSPs), in two potato cultivars that differ in tolerance to elevated temperatures and in susceptibility to potato virus Y (PVY)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Michael Kock, Stefan Brückner, Nina Wozniak, Manuel Maestre-Reyna, Maik Veelders, Julia Schlereth, Hans-Ulrich Mösch, Lars-Oliver Essen
Cell-cell and cell-substrate based adhesion of yeasts are major determinants of their adoption of different life styles. Genome-mining of ascomycetous GPI-anchored cell wall proteins with lectin-like PA14 domains identified a unique class of putative adhesins in the clade of methylotrophic Komagataella yeasts, many of which are known to colonize plants and insects involving yet unknown adhesion mechanisms. Here, we report the functional and structural analysis of two of its members: Kp Flo1 (=Cea1), that is highly specific for terminal N -acetylglucosamine moieties, and Kp Flo2, which represents an orphan lectin with intact binding site but unknown specificity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
N Luisa Hiller, Raquel Sá-Leão
The Gram positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major human pathogen. It is a common colonizer of the human host, and in the nasopharynx, sinus, and middle ear it survives as a biofilm. This mode of growth is optimal for multi-strain colonization and genetic exchange. Over the last decades, the far-reaching use of antibiotics and the widespread implementation of pneumococcal multivalent conjugate vaccines have posed considerable selective pressure on pneumococci. This scenario provides an exceptional opportunity to study the evolution of the pangenome of a clinically important bacterium, and has the potential to serve as a case study for other species...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Claire Lallement, Cécile Pasternak, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Thomas Jové
The IS CR1 (Insertion sequence Common Region) element is the most widespread member of the IS CR family, and is frequently present within γ-proteobacteria that occur in clinical settings. IS CR1 is always associated with the 3'Conserved Segment (3'CS) of class 1 integrons. IS CR1 contains outward-oriented promoters POUT , that may contribute to the expression of downstream genes. In IS CR1 , there are two POUT promoters named PCR1-1 and PCR1-2 . We performed an in silico analysis of all publically available IS CR1 sequences and identified numerous downstream genes that mainly encode antibiotic resistance genes and that are oriented in the same direction as the POUT promoters...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Walter Florio, Arianna Tavanti, Emilia Ghelardi, Antonella Lupetti
MALDI-TOF MS technology has made possible revolutionary advances in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Besides allowing rapid and reliable identification of bacteria and fungi, this technology has been recently applied to the detection of antimicrobial resistance. Several approaches have been proposed and evaluated for application of MALDI-TOF MS to antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria, and some of these have been or might be applied also to yeasts. In this context, the comparison of proteomic profiles of bacteria/yeasts incubated with or without antimicrobial drugs is a very promising method...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
David A Aromokeye, Tim Richter-Heitmann, Oluwatobi E Oni, Ajinkya Kulkarni, Xiuran Yin, Sabine Kasten, Michael W Friedrich
Microorganisms can use crystalline iron minerals for iron reduction linked to organic matter degradation or as conduits for direct interspecies electron transfer (mDIET) to syntrophic partners, e.g., methanogens. The environmental conditions that lead either to reduction or conduit use are so far unknown. We investigated microbial community shifts and interactions with crystalline iron minerals (hematite and magnetite) in methanic ferruginous marine sediment incubations during organic matter (glucose) degradation at varying temperatures...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Peiyu Li, Ji Wang, Miao Cao, Qiwen Deng, Shibo Jiang, Mei X Wu, Lu Lu
Skin contains a large number of antigen presenting cells, making intradermal (ID) injection one of the most effective ways for vaccine administration. However, although current adjuvants may cause severe local reactions and inflammations in the skin, no adjuvant has been approved for ID vaccination so far. Here, we report that topical application of all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a vitamin A derivative produced in the human body, augmented cutaneous influenza vaccination. The adjuvant effects were evaluated in a murine vaccination/challenge model by using A/California/07/2009 pandemic vaccine (09V) or a seasonal influenza vaccine (SIV)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xin Fang, Jonathan M Monk, Sergey Nurk, Margarita Akseshina, Qiyun Zhu, Christopher Gemmell, Connor Gianetto-Hill, Nelly Leung, Richard Szubin, Jon Sanders, Paul L Beck, Weizhong Li, William J Sandborn, Scott D Gray-Owen, Rob Knight, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Bernhard O Palsson, Larry Smarr
Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, including elevated abundance of putative leading bacterial triggers such as E. coli in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, is of great interest. To date, most E. coli studies in IBD patients are focused on clinical isolates, overlooking their relative abundances and turnover over time. Metagenomics-based studies, on the other hand, are less focused on strain-level investigations. Here, using recently developed bioinformatic tools, we analyzed the abundance and properties of specific E...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Giulia Spini, Federica Spina, Anna Poli, Anne-Laure Blieux, Tiffanie Regnier, Carla Gramellini, Giovanna C Varese, Edoardo Puglisi
Autochthonous bioaugmentation, by exploiting the indigenous microorganisms of the contaminated environment to be treated, can represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective, we have assessed by molecular methods the evolution of bacterial and fungal communities during the selective enrichment on different pollutants of a soil strongly polluted by mixtures of aliphatic and polycyclic hydrocarbons. Three consecutive enrichments were carried out on soil samples from different soil depths (0-1, 1-2, 2-3 m), and analyzed at each step by means of high-throughput sequencing of bacterial and fungal amplicons biomarkers...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marine Caby, Sébastien Bontemps-Gallo, Peggy Gruau, Brigitte Delrue, Edwige Madec, Jean-Marie Lacroix
Osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) are general constituents of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria. This polymer of glucose is required for full virulence of many pathogens including Dickeya dadantii (D. dadantii) . The phytopathogenic enterobacterium D. dadantii causes soft-rot disease in a wide range of plants. An OPG-defective mutant is impaired in environment sensing. We previously demonstrated that (i) fluctuation of OPG concentration controlled the activation level of the RcsCDB system, and (ii) RcsCDB along with EnvZ/OmpR controlled the mechanism of OPG succinylation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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