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Frontiers in Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919891/moderate-intensity-exercise-affects-gut-microbiome-composition-and-influences-cardiac-function-in-myocardial-infarction-mice
#1
Zuheng Liu, Hai-Yue Liu, Haobin Zhou, Qiong Zhan, Wenyan Lai, Qingchun Zeng, Hao Ren, Dingli Xu
Physical exercise is commonly regarded as protective against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies have reported that exercise alters the gut microbiota and that modification of the gut microbiota can influence cardiac function. Here, we focused on the relationships among exercise, the gut microbiota and cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice were exercised on a treadmill for 4 weeks before undergoing left coronary artery ligation. Cardiac function was assessed using echocardiography...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919890/pathobiomes-differ-between-two-diseases-affecting-reef-building-coralline-algae
#2
Anne-Leila Meistertzheim, Maggy M Nugues, Gaëlle Quéré, Pierre E Galand
Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are major benthic calcifiers that play crucial roles in coral reef ecosystems. Two diseases affecting CCA have recently been investigated: coralline white band syndrome (CWBS) and coralline white patch disease (CWPD). These diseases can trigger major losses in CCA cover on tropical coral reefs, but their causative agents remain unknown. Here, we provide data from the first investigation of the bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased CCA tissues. We show that Neogoniolithon mamillare diseased tissues had distinct microbial communities compared to healthy tissues and demonstrate that CWBS and CWPD were associated with different pathobiomes, indicating that they had different disease causations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919889/dehalococcoides-as-a-potential-biomarker-evidence-for-uncharacterized-organohalides-in-environmental-samples
#3
Qihong Lu, Ling Yu, Zhiwei Liang, Qingyun Yan, Zhili He, Tiangang Luan, Dawei Liang, Shanquan Wang
The massive production and improper disposal of organohalides resulted in worldwide contamination in soil and water. However, their environmental survey based on chromatographic methods was hindered by challenges in testing the extremely wide variety of organohalides. Dehalococcoides as obligate organohalide-respiring bacteria exclusively use organohalides as electron acceptors to support their growth, of which the presence could be coupled with organohalides and, therefore, could be employed as a biomarker of the organohalide pollution...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919888/the-sporothrix-schenckii-gene-encoding-for-the-ribosomal-protein-l6-has-constitutive-and-stable-expression-and-works-as-an-endogenous-control-in-gene-expression-analysis
#4
Elías Trujillo-Esquivel, José A Martínez-Álvarez, Diana M Clavijo-Giraldo, Nahúm V Hernández, Alberto Flores-Martínez, Patricia Ponce-Noyola, Héctor M Mora-Montes
Sporothrix schenckii is one of the causative agents of sporotrichosis, a worldwide-distributed mycosis that affects humans and other mammals. The interest in basic and clinical features of this organism has significantly increased in the last years, yet little progress in molecular aspects has been reported. Gene expression analysis is a set of powerful tools that helps to assess the cell response to changes in the extracellular environment, the genetic networks controlling metabolic pathways, and the adaptation to different growth conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919887/complete-circular-genome-sequence-and-temperature-independent-adaptation-to-anaerobiosis-of-listeria-weihenstephanensis-dsm-24698
#5
Elena Ferrari, Mathias C Walter, Christopher Huptas, Siegfried Scherer, Stefanie Müller-Herbst
The aim of this study was to analyze the adaptation of the environmental Listeria weihenstephanensis DSM 24698 to anaerobiosis. The complete circular genome sequence of this species is reported and the adaptation of L. weihenstephanensis DSM 24698 to oxygen availability was investigated by global transcriptional analyses via RNAseq at 18 and 34°C. A list of operons was created based on the transcriptional data. Forty-two genes were upregulated anaerobically and 62 genes were downregulated anaerobically. The oxygen dependent gene expression of selected genes was further validated via qPCR...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919886/dna-adenine-methyltransferase-dam-overexpression-impairs-photorhabdus-luminescens-motility-and-virulence
#6
Amaury Payelleville, Anne Lanois, Marie Gislard, Emeric Dubois, David Roche, Stéphane Cruveiller, Alain Givaudan, Julien Brillard
Dam, the most described bacterial DNA-methyltransferase, is widespread in gamma-proteobacteria. Dam DNA methylation can play a role in various genes expression and is involved in pathogenicity of several bacterial species. The purpose of this study was to determine the role played by the dam ortholog identified in the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. Complementation assays of an Escherichia coli dam mutant showed the restoration of the DNA methylation state of the parental strain. Overexpression of dam in P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919885/trypanosoma-cruzi-evades-the-complement-system-as-an-efficient-strategy-to-survive-in-the-mammalian-host-the-specific-roles-of-host-parasite-molecules-and-trypanosoma-cruzi-calreticulin
#7
REVIEW
Galia Ramírez-Toloza, Arturo Ferreira
American Trypanosomiasis is an important neglected reemerging tropical parasitism, infecting about 8 million people worldwide. Its agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, exhibits multiple mechanisms to evade the host immune response and infect host cells. An important immune evasion strategy of T. cruzi infective stages is its capacity to inhibit the complement system activation on the parasite surface, avoiding opsonizing, immune stimulating and lytic effects. Epimastigotes, the non-infective form of the parasite, present in triatomine arthropod vectors, are highly susceptible to complement-mediated lysis while trypomastigotes, the infective form, present in host bloodstream, are resistant...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919884/secretome-of-intestinal-bacilli-a-natural-guard-against-pathologies
#8
REVIEW
Olga N Ilinskaya, Vera V Ulyanova, Dina R Yarullina, Ilgiz G Gataullin
Current studies of human gut microbiome usually do not consider the special functional role of transient microbiota, although some of its members remain in the host for a long time and produce broad spectrum of biologically active substances. Getting into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) with food, water and probiotic preparations, two representatives of Bacilli class, genera Bacillus and Lactobacillus, colonize epithelium blurring the boundaries between resident and transient microbiota. Despite their minor proportion in the microbiome composition, these bacteria can significantly affect both the intestinal microbiota and the entire body thanks to a wide range of secreted compounds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919883/a-pcr-based-assay-targeting-the-major-capsid-protein-gene-of-a-dinorna-like-ssrna-virus-that-infects-coral-photosymbionts
#9
Jose Montalvo-Proaño, Patrick Buerger, Karen D Weynberg, Madeleine J H van Oppen
The coral-Symbiodinium association is a critical component of coral reefs as it is the main primary producer and builds the reef's 3-dimensional structure. A breakdown of this endosymbiosis causes a loss of the dinoflagellate photosymbiont, Symbiodinium, and/or its photosynthetic pigments from the coral tissues (i.e., coral bleaching), and can lead to coral mortality. Coral bleaching has mostly been attributed to environmental stressors, and in some cases to bacterial infection. Viral lysis of Symbiodinium has been proposed as another possible cause of some instances of coral bleaching, but this hypothesis has not yet been experimentally confirmed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919882/effects-of-soil-pre-treatment-with-basamid%C3%A2-granules-brassica-juncea-raphanus-sativus-and-tagetes-patula-on-bacterial-and-fungal-communities-at-two-apple-replant-disease-sites
#10
Bunlong Yim, Heike Nitt, Andreas Wrede, Samuel Jacquiod, Søren J Sørensen, Traud Winkelmann, Kornelia Smalla
Nurseries producing apple and rose rootstock plants, apple orchards as well as rose production often experience replanting problems after several cultivations at the same site when a chemical soil disinfectant is not applied. The etiology of apple and rose replanting problems is most likely caused by soil-borne pathogen complex, defined as "replant disease (RD)". Symptoms typical of RD are reduced shoot and root growth, a smaller leaf area, a significant decrease in plant biomass, yield and fruit quality and a shorter life span...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919881/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-growth-supporting-dehalogenation-of-chlorinated-methanes-in-methylobacterium
#11
Pauline Chaignaud, Bruno Maucourt, Marion Weiman, Adriana Alberti, Steffen Kolb, Stéphane Cruveiller, Stéphane Vuilleumier, Françoise Bringel
Bacterial adaptation to growth with toxic halogenated chemicals was explored in the context of methylotrophic metabolism of Methylobacterium extorquens, by comparing strains CM4 and DM4, which show robust growth with chloromethane and dichloromethane, respectively. Dehalogenation of chlorinated methanes initiates growth-supporting degradation, with intracellular release of protons and chloride ions in both cases. The core, variable and strain-specific genomes of strains CM4 and DM4 were defined by comparison with genomes of non-dechlorinating strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912773/hirsutine-an-indole-alkaloid-of-uncaria-rhynchophylla-inhibits-late-step-in-dengue-virus-lifecycle
#12
Takayuki Hishiki, Fumihiro Kato, Shigeru Tajima, Kazufumi Toume, Masahito Umezaki, Tomohiko Takasaki, Tomoyuki Miura
Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes and is a public health issue worldwide. No antiviral drugs specific for treating dengue infection are currently available. To identify novel DENV inhibitors, we analyzed a library of 95 compounds and 120 extracts derived from crude drugs (herbal medicines). In the primary screening, A549 cells infected with DENV-1 were cultured in the presence of each compound and extract at a final concentration of 10 μM (compound) and 100 μg/mL (extract), and reduction of viral focus formation was assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912772/an-anthropocentric-view-of-the-virosphere-host-relationship
#13
Rodrigo A L Rodrigues, Ana C Dos S P Andrade, Paulo V de M Boratto, Giliane de S Trindade, Erna G Kroon, Jônatas S Abrahão
For over a century, viruses have been known as the most abundant and diverse group of organisms on Earth, forming a virosphere. Based on extensive meta-analyses, we present, for the first time, a wide and complete overview of virus-host network, covering all known viral species. Our data indicate that most of known viral species, regardless of their genomic category, have an intriguingly narrow host range, infecting only 1 or 2 host species. Our data also show that the known virosphere has expanded based on viruses of human interest, related to economical, medical or biotechnological activities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912771/selection-of-functional-quorum-sensing-systems-by-lysogenic-bacteriophages-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Miguel A Saucedo-Mora, Paulina Castañeda-Tamez, Adrián Cazares, Judith Pérez-Velázquez, Burkhard A Hense, Daniel Cazares, Wendy Figueroa, Marco Carballo, Gabriel Guarneros, Berenice Pérez-Eretza, Nelby Cruz, Yoshito Nishiyama, Toshinari Maeda, Javier A Belmont-Díaz, Thomas K Wood, Rodolfo García-Contreras
Quorum sensing (QS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors, some of which are used as public goods. Since their production is a cooperative behavior, it is susceptible to social cheating in which non-cooperative QS deficient mutants use the resources without investing in their production. Nevertheless, functional QS systems are abundant; hence, mechanisms regulating the amount of cheating should exist. Evidence that demonstrates a tight relationship between QS and the susceptibility of bacteria against the attack of lytic phages is increasing; nevertheless, the relationship between temperate phages and QS has been much less explored...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912770/infectious-agents-as-markers-of-human-migration-toward-the-amazon-region-of-brazil
#15
REVIEW
Ricardo Ishak, Luiz F A Machado, Izaura Cayres-Vallinoto, Marluísa de O Guimarães Ishak, Antonio C R Vallinoto
Infectious agents are common companions of humans and since ancient times they follow human migration on their search for a better place to live. The study of paleomicrobiology was significantly improved in its accuracy of measurement with the constant development of better methods to detect and analyze nucleic acids. Human tissues are constantly used to trace ancient infections and the association of anthropological evidences are important to confirm the microbiological information. Infectious agents which establish human persistent infections are particularly useful to trace human migrations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912769/adaptation-of-surface-associated-bacteria-to-the-open-ocean-a-genomically-distinct-subpopulation-of-phaeobacter-gallaeciensis-colonizes-pacific-mesozooplankton
#16
Heike M Freese, Anika Methner, Jörg Overmann
The marine Roseobacter group encompasses numerous species which occupy a large variety of ecological niches. However, members of the genus Phaeobacter are specifically adapted to a surface-associated lifestyle and have so far been found nearly exclusively in disjunct, man-made environments including shellfish and fish aquacultures, as well as harbors. Therefore, the possible natural habitats, dispersal and evolution of Phaeobacter spp. have largely remained obscure. Applying a high-throughput cultivation strategy along a longitudinal Pacific transect, the present study revealed for the first time a widespread natural occurrence of Phaeobacter in the marine pelagial...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912768/linseed-oil-supplementation-of-lambs-diet-in-early-life-leads-to-persistent-changes-in-rumen-microbiome-structure
#17
Tamsin Lyons, Tommy Boland, Sean Storey, Evelyn Doyle
Diet has been shown to have a significant impact on microbial community composition in the rumen and could potentially be used to manipulate rumen microbiome structure to achieve specific outcomes. There is some evidence that a window may exist in early life, while the microbiome is being established, where manipulation through diet could lead to long-lasting results. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation in early life will have an effect on rumen microbial composition that will persist even once supplementation is ceased...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912767/shifts-in-host-mucosal-innate-immune-function-are-associated-with-ruminal-microbial-succession-in-supplemental-feeding-and-grazing-goats-at-different-ages
#18
Jinzhen Jiao, Chuanshe Zhou, L L Guan, C S McSweeney, Shaoxun Tang, Min Wang, Zhiliang Tan
Gastrointestinal microbiota may play an important role in regulating host mucosal innate immune function. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that age (non-rumination, transition and rumination) and feeding type [Supplemental feeding (S) vs. Grazing (G)] could alter ruminal microbial diversity and maturation of host mucosal innate immune system in goat kids. MiSeq sequencing was applied to investigate ruminal microbial composition and diversity, and RT-PCR was used to test expression of immune-related genes in ruminal mucosa...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912766/environmental-bacteriophages-of-the-emerging-enterobacterial-phytopathogen-dickeya-solani-show-genomic-conservation-and-capacity-for-horizontal-gene-transfer-between-their-bacterial-hosts
#19
Andrew Day, Jiyoon Ahn, Xinzhe Fang, George P C Salmond
Dickeya solani is an economically important phytopathogen widespread in mainland Europe that can reduce potato crop yields by 25%. There are no effective environmentally-acceptable chemical systems available for diseases caused by Dickeya. Bacteriophages have been suggested for use in biocontrol of this pathogen in the field, and limited field trials have been conducted. To date only a small number of bacteriophages capable of infecting D. solani have been isolated and characterized, and so there is a need to expand the repertoire of phages that may have potential utility in phage therapy strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912765/biology-and-genomics-of-an-historic-therapeutic-escherichia-coli-bacteriophage-collection
#20
Abiyad Baig, Joan Colom, Paul Barrow, Catherine Schouler, Arshnee Moodley, Rob Lavigne, Robert Atterbury
We have performed microbiological and genomic characterization of an historic collection of nine bacteriophages, specifically infecting a K1 E. coli O18:K1:H7 ColV(+) strain. These phages were isolated from sewage and tested for their efficacy in vivo for the treatment of systemic E. coli infection in a mouse infection model by Smith and Huggins (1982). The aim of the study was to identify common microbiological and genomic characteristics, which co-relate to the performance of these phages in in vivo study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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