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Frontiers in Microbiology

Jun-Seob Kim, Thomas K Wood
Persister cells survive antibiotic treatment due to their lack of metabolism, rather than through genetic change, as shown via four seminal experiments conducted by the discoverers of the phenotype (Hobby et al., 1942; Bigger, 1944). Unfortunately, over seven decades of persister cell research, the literature has been populated by misperceptions that do not withstand scrutiny. This opinion piece examines some of those misunderstandings in the literature with the hope that by shining some light on these inaccuracies, the field may be advanced and subsequent manuscripts may be reviewed more critically...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alicia Ponte-Sucre
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and T. brucei gambiense, the causative agents of Human African Trypanosomiasis, are transmitted by tsetse flies. Within the vector, the parasite undergoes through transformations that prepares it to infect the human host. Sequentially these developmental stages are the replicative procyclic (in which the parasite surface is covered by procyclins) and trypo-epimastigote forms, as well as the non-replicative, infective, metacyclic form that develops in the vector salivary glands...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lisanework E Ayalew, Amrutlal K Patel, Amit Gaba, Azharul Islam, Suresh K Tikoo
Earlier, targeting of DDX3 by few viral proteins has defined its role in mRNA transport and induction of interferon production. This study was conducted to investigate the function of bovine adenovirus (BAdV)-3 pVIII during virus infection. Here, we provided evidence regarding involvement of DDX3 in cap dependent cellular mRNA translation and demonstrated that targeting of DDX3 by adenovirus protein VIII interfered with cap-dependent mRNA translation function of DDX3 in virus infected cells. Adenovirus late protein pVIII interacted with DDX3 in transfected and BAdV-3 infected cells...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nipawit Karnbunchob, Ryosuke Omori, Heidi L Tessmer, Kimihito Ito
Human influenza pandemics have historically been caused by reassortant influenza A viruses using genes from human and avian viruses. This genetic reassortment between human and avian viruses has been known to occur in swine during viral circulation, as swine are capable of circulating both avian and human viruses. Therefore, avian-to-swine transmission of viruses plays an important role in the emergence of new pandemic strains. The amino acids at several positions on PB2, PB1, and PA are known to determine the host range of influenza A viruses...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ozan Gundogdu, Daiani T da Silva, Banaz Mohammad, Abdi Elmi, Brendan W Wren, Arnoud H M van Vliet, Nick Dorrell
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. Despite the microaerophilic nature of the bacterium, C. jejuni can survive the atmospheric oxygen conditions in the environment. Bacteria that can survive either within a host or in the environment like C. jejuni require variable responses to survive the stresses associated with exposure to different levels of reactive oxygen species. The MarR-type transcriptional regulators RrpA and RrpB have recently been shown to play a role in controlling both the C...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Wenjuan Tu, Sudha Rao
The ability of the human immune system to protect against infectious disease declines with age and efficacy of vaccination reduces significantly in the elderly. Aging of the immune system, also termed as immunosenescence, involves many changes in human T cell immunity that is characterized by a loss in naïve T cell population and an increase in highly differentiated CD28- memory T cell subset. There is extensive data showing that latent persistent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is also associated with age-related immune dysfunction in the T cells, which might enhance immunosenescence...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ninalynn Daquigan, Christopher J Grim, James R White, Darcy E Hanes, Karen G Jarvis
Culture based methods are commonly employed to detect pathogens in food and environmental samples. These methods are time consuming and complex, requiring multiple non-selective and selective enrichment broths, and usually take at least 1 week to recover and identify pathogens. Improving pathogen detection in foods is a primary goal for regulatory agencies and industry. Salmonella detection in food relies on a series of culture steps in broth formulations optimized to resuscitate Salmonella and reduce the abundance of competitive bacteria...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yulia A Frank, Vitaly V Kadnikov, Sergey N Gavrilov, David Banks, Anna L Gerasimchuk, Olga A Podosokorskaya, Alexander Y Merkel, Nikolai A Chernyh, Andrey V Mardanov, Nikolai V Ravin, Olga V Karnachuk, Elizaveta A Bonch-Osmolovskaya
The goal of this work was to study the diversity of microorganisms inhabiting a deep subsurface aquifer system in order to understand their functional roles and interspecies relations formed in the course of buried organic matter degradation. A microbial community of a deep subsurface thermal aquifer in the Tomsk Region, Western Siberia was monitored over the course of 5 years via a 2.7 km deep borehole 3P, drilled down to a Palaeozoic basement. The borehole water discharges with a temperature of ca. 50°C...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lázaro Molina, Valérie A Geoffroy, Ana Segura, Zulema Udaondo, Juan-Luis Ramos
Pseudomonas putida strains are frequent inhabitants of soil and aquatic niches and they are occasionally isolated from hospital environments. As the available iron sources in human tissues, edaphic, and aquatic niches are different, we have analyzed iron-uptake related genes in different P. putida strains that were isolated from all these environments. We found that these isolates can be grouped into different clades according to the genetics of siderophore biosynthesis and recycling. The pyoverdine locus of the six P...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xianding Deng, Nader Memari, Sarah Teatero, Taryn Athey, Marc Isabel, Tony Mazzulli, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Jonathan B Gubbay
Background: Molecular typing is essential for inferring genetic relatedness between bacterial pathogens. In this study, we applied whole genome sequencing (WGS) for rapid prediction of sequence type and antibiotic resistance for invasive pneumococcal isolates. Methods: 240 isolates from adults (≥50 years old) in Ontario, Canada during 2009 to 2013 were subjected to WGS. Sequence type, antibiotic susceptibility and resistance were predicted directly from short reads. Emerging non-vaccine serotype 22F was further characterized by WGS...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yanming Li, Yu Pang, Xunliang Tong, Huiwen Zheng, Yanlin Zhao, Chen Wang
Mycobacterium kansasii is the second most common cause of slowly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria diseases in China. The aim of the present study was to analyze M. kansasii subtypes isolated from patients in China, and to explore the antimicrobial susceptibility of the differentiation among these diverse subtypes. A total of 78 M. kansasii strains from 16 provinces of China were enrolled in this study. Amikacin (AMK) was the most highly active against M. kansasii strains, and only 4 isolates (5.1%) exhibited in vitro resistance to AMK...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ting Wang, Guo-Dong Feng, Yu Pang, Yi-Ning Yang, Wen Dai, Lin Zhang, Lin-Fu Zhou, Jia-Lei Yang, Li-Ping Zhan, Ben J Marais, Yan-Lin Zhao, Gang Zhao
Background: Microbiological confirmation of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) remains problematic. We assessed the diagnostic performance of a modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) staining method that showed promise in earlier studies. Methods: Patients evaluated for TBM in Shaanxi province, China, were prospectively enrolled from May, 2011 to April, 2013. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were evaluated using the Xpert MTB/RIF® assay, MZN staining, and standard biochemical and microbiological tests, together with detailed clinical and radiological assessment...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Emiliano Ben Guerrero, Marcelo Soria, Ricardo Salvador, Javier A Ceja-Navarro, Eleonora Campos, Eoin L Brodie, Paola Talia
Cotton boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis, are omnivorous coleopteran that can feed on diets with different compositions, including recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. We characterized the changes in the prokaryotic community structure and the hydrolytic activities of A. grandis larvae fed on different lignocellulosic diets. A. grandis larvae were fed on three different artificial diets: cottonseed meal (CM), Napier grass (NG) and corn stover (CS). Total DNA was extracted from the gut samples for amplification and sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Brittany A Leigh, Assunta Liberti, Larry J Dishaw
Microbes associate with animal hosts, often providing shelter in a nutrient-rich environment. The gut, however, can be a harsh environment with members of the microbiome settling in distinct niches resulting in more stable, adherent biofilms. These diverse communities can provide orders of magnitude more gene products than the host genome; selection and maintenance of a functionally relevant and useful microbiome is now recognized to be an essential component of homeostasis. Germ-free (GF) model systems allow dissection of host-microbe interactions in a simple and direct way where each member of the symbiosis can be studied in isolation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Juliano S Mendes, André S Santiago, Marcelo A S Toledo, Maria A C Horta, Alessandra A de Souza, Ljubica Tasic, Anete P de Souza
The phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa causes economic losses in important agricultural crops. Xylem vessel occlusion caused by biofilm formation is the major mechanism underlying the pathogenicity of distinct strains of X. fastidiosa. Here, we provide a detailed in vitro characterization of the extracellular proteins of X. fastidiosa. Based on the results, we performed a comparison with a strain J1a12, which cannot induce citrus variegated chlorosis symptoms when inoculated into citrus plants. We then extend this approach to analyze the extracellular proteins of X...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pina M Fratamico, Chitrita DebRoy, David S Needleman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bo Lv, Lu Zheng, Hao Liu, Jintian Tang, Tom Hsiang, Jinbin Huang
False smut of rice, caused by Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke) Takahashi (teleomorph: Villosiclava virens), is one of the most important diseases affecting rice worldwide. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to identify functional genes in U. virens. In this study, we selected a single-copy insertion mutant T133 with deficiency in producing conidia by screening the T-DNA insertion mutant library of U. virens. The UvPRO1-deletion mutant was successfully obtained after cloning the targeted gene by analysis of the T-DNA insert site of mutant T133...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kyungjin Min, Christoph A Lehmeier, Ford Ballantyne Iv, Sharon A Billings
Microbial transformations of organic carbon (OC) generate a large flux of CO2 into the atmosphere and influence the C balance of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Yet, inherent heterogeneity in natural environments precludes direct quantification of multiple microbial C fluxes that underlie CO2 production. Here we used a continuous flow bioreactor coupled with a stable C isotope analyzer to determine the effects of temperature and C availability (cellobiose concentration) on C fluxes and (13)C discrimination of a microbial population growing at steady-state in a homogeneous, well-mixed environment...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Neil A Holmes, Tabitha M Innocent, Daniel Heine, Mahmoud Al Bassam, Sarah F Worsley, Felix Trottmann, Elaine H Patrick, Douglas W Yu, J C Murrell, Morten Schiøtt, Barrie Wilkinson, Jacobus J Boomsma, Matthew I Hutchings
The attine ants of South and Central America are ancient farmers, having evolved a symbiosis with a fungal food crop >50 million years ago. The most evolutionarily derived attines are the Atta and Acromyrmex leafcutter ants, which harvest fresh leaves to feed their fungus. Acromyrmex and many other attines vertically transmit a mutualistic strain of Pseudonocardia and use antifungal compounds made by these bacteria to protect their fungal partner against co-evolved fungal pathogens of the genus Escovopsis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Eyal Rosen, Igor Tsesis, Shlomo Elbahary, Nimrod Storzi, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
Objectives: This work assesses different methods to interfere with Enterococcus faecalis biofilms formed on human dentin slabs. Methods: First, methods are presented that select for small molecule inhibitors of biofilm targets using multi-well polystyrene biofilm plates. Next, we establish methodologies to study and interfere with biofilm formation on a medically relevant model, whereby biofilms are grown on human root dentin slabs. Results: Non-conventional D-amino acid (D-Leucine) can efficiently disperse biofilms formed on dentin slabs without disturbing planktonic growth...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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