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Frontiers in Microbiology

Heng-Li Chen, Pei-Yi Su, Shu-Chen Kuo, Tsai-Ling Y Lauderdale, Chiaho Shih
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has threatened our health worldwide. There is an urgent need for novel antibiotics. Previously, we identified a novel 37-mer antimicrobial peptide (AMP), HBcARD, with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Here, we improved the efficacy of HBcARD, by re-engineering the peptide, including the addition of a new cysteine to its C-terminus (CTC). The new 28-mer derivative, D-150-177C, contains all D-form arginines, in addition to a C-terminal cycteine. This peptide can kill antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria, and is more potent than the parental HBcARD peptide in a mouse sepsis model...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhouqi Cui, Xiaochen Yuan, Ching-Hong Yang, Regan B Huntley, Weimin Sun, Jie Wang, George W Sundin, Quan Zeng
Dickeya dadantii is a bacterial plant pathogen that causes soft rot disease on a wide range of host plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an important virulence factor in D. dadantii . Expression of the T3SS is induced in the plant apoplast or in hrp -inducing minimal medium (hrp-MM), and is repressed in nutrient-rich media. Despite the understanding of induction conditions, how individual cells in a clonal bacterial population respond to these conditions and modulate T3SS expression is not well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bin Liang, Xin-Jun Du, Ping Li, Chan-Chan Sun, Shuo Wang
Monascus purpureus YY-1 is widely used in food colorant production in China. Our previous study clearly illustrated the whole-genome data for YY-1 and provided useful insight into evolutionary research and industrial applications. However, the presence of citrinin, which has nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and carcinogenic activities, has attracted attention to the safety of Monascus products. In an effort to reduce the harmful effects of citrinin in Monascus- related products, a random mutant of M. purpureus YY-1 with low citrinin production (designated as "winter") was obtained in this study...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rocío Colello, María J Ruiz, Valeria M Padín, Ariel D Rogé, Gerardo Leotta, Nora Lía Padola, Analía I Etcheverría
The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in the pork production chain and to characterize Salmonella isolates. From 764 samples, 35 (4.6%) were positive for Salmonella spp., as determined by biochemical tests and the presence of the invA gene. From these, 2.6, 2.0, 8.8, and 8.0% corresponded to samples collected from farms, slaughterhouses, boning rooms and retail markets, respectively. Salmonella strains were classified into five serotypes and distributed as follows: S. Typhimurium in the pork production chain, S ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marlynn Cadena, Lisa M Durso, Daniel N Miller, Heidi M Waldrip, B L Castleberry, Rhae A Drijber, Charles Wortmann
There is widespread agreement that agricultural antibiotic resistance should be reduced, however, it is unclear from the available literature what an appropriate target for reduction would be. Organic farms provide a unique opportunity to disentangle questions of agricultural antibiotic drug use from questions of antibiotic resistance in the soil. In this study, soil was collected from 12 certified organic farms in Nebraska, evaluated for the presence of tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes ( n = 15 targets), and correlated to soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xinchi Shi, Yanan Zou, Yong Chen, Hanjie Ying
Redox homeostasis is essential to the maintenance of cell metabolism. Changes in the redox state cause global metabolic and transcriptional changes. Our previous study indicated that the overexpression of NADH oxidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to increased glucose consumption and ethanol production. Gene expression related to thiamine synthesis and osmotolerance as well as HAP4 expression was increased in response to redox change caused by the overexpression of NADH oxidase. To identify detailed relationships among cofactor levels, thiamine synthesis, expression of HAP4, and osmotolerance, and to determine whether these changes are interdependent, THI4 and HAP4 were overexpressed in S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qiang Zheng, Qi Chen, Yongle Xu, Curtis A Suttle, Nianzhi Jiao
In recent metagenomic studies, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses that infect bacteria have been shown to be diverse and prevalent in the ocean; however, there are few isolates of marine ssDNA phages. Here, we report on a cultivated ssDNA phage (vB_Cib_ssDNA_P1) that infects Citromicrobium bathyomarinum RCC1878 (family Sphingomonadaceae ), and other members of the genus. This is the first ssDNA phage reported to infect marine alphaproteobacteria, and represents a newly recognized lineage of the Microviridae infecting members of Sphingomonadaceae , the Amoyvirinae ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhong Peng, Wan Liang, Fei Wang, Zhuofei Xu, Zhihao Xie, Zhenghan Lian, Lin Hua, Rui Zhou, Huanchun Chen, Bin Wu
Pasteurella multocida is a leading cause of respiratory diseases in many host species. To understand the genetic characteristics of P. multocida strains isolated from different host species, we sequenced the genomic DNA of P. multocida isolated from pigs and analyzed the genetic characteristics of strains from avian species, bovine species, pigs, and rabbits using whole genome sequence (WGS) data. Our results found that a capsular: lipopolysaccharide (LPS): multilocus sequence typing (MLST) genotype A: L1: ST129 (43...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiaobin Shi, Gong Chen, Huipeng Pan, Wen Xie, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Yong Liu, Xuguo Zhou, Youjun Zhang
The sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci , is one of the most invasive insect pests worldwide. The two most destructive whitefly cryptic species are MEAM1/B and MED/Q. Given that MED/Q has replaced MEAM1/B in China and the invasion of MED/Q has coincided with the outbreak of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), we hypothesize that pre-infestation with viruliferous B. tabaci will affect the subsequent host preferences. To test this hypothesis, we (1) conducted bioassays to compare the host preference of viruliferous and non-viruliferous MEAM1/B and MED/Q, respectively, on plants pre-infested with viruliferous and non-viruliferous MEAM1/B and MED/Q; (2) profiled plant volatiles using GC-MS; and (3) functionally characterized chemical cues could potentially modulate B...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Saki Miyaue, Erika Suzuki, Yoko Komiyama, Yu Kondo, Miki Morikawa, Sumio Maeda
Persister cells, or persisters, are a specific subpopulation of bacterial cells that have acquired temporary antibiotic-resistant phenotypes. In this study, we showed that Escherichia coli produces many more persister cells in colony-biofilm culture than in the usual liquid culture and that these persisters can be maintained in higher numbers than those from liquid culture for up to 4 weeks at 37°C in a fresh, nutrient-rich, antibiotic-containing medium, even after complete withdrawal from the colony-biofilm culture...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alexandra Tsitsopoulou, Raquel Posso, Lorna Vale, Scarlett Bebb, Elizabeth Johnson, P L White
Background/Objectives: Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus associated with the TR34/L98H mutations in the cyp51A gene have been increasingly reported. Determining the environmental resistance rate has been deemed important when considering front-line therapy for invasive aspergillosis. The aim of the study was to determine prevalence of azole resistance in environmental A. fumigatus isolates across South Wales. Methods: Over 5 months in 2015, 513 A. fumigatus isolates were cultured from 671 soil and 44 air samples and were screened for azole resistance using VIPcheck™ agar plates containing itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Anushila Chatterjee, Breck A Duerkop
For decades, a wealth of information has been acquired to define how host associated microbial communities contribute to health and disease. Within the human microbiota this has largely focused on bacteria, yet there is a myriad of viruses that occupy various tissue sites, the most abundant being bacteriophages that infect bacteria. Animal hosts are colonized with niche specific microbial communities where bacteria are continuously co-evolving with phages. Bacterial growth, metabolic activity, pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance, interspecies competition and evolution can all be influenced by phage infection and the beneficial nature of such interactions suggests that to an extent phages are tolerated by their hosts...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Helen M de Jesus Affe, Janaina Rigonato, José M de Castro Nunes, Mariângela Menezes
This study assessed the species composition, distribution, and functional profiles of cyanobacteria in Camamu Bay, a tropical oligotrophic estuarine system on the northeast coast of Brazil, using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Surface-water samples were evaluated in two different rainfall periods (rainy and dry seasons), at nine stations in the three hydrodynamic regions of the bay. At a fixed sampling station, on each season, samples were taken over a tidal cycle at 3-h intervals over 12 h. A total of 219 cyanobacterial taxa were identified, demonstrating a diverse community of freshwater, euryhaline, and marine cyanobacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jian Xiao, Li Chen, Stephen Johnson, Yue Yu, Xianyang Zhang, Jun Chen
Recent human microbiome studies have revealed an essential role of the human microbiome in health and disease, opening up the possibility of building microbiome-based predictive models for individualized medicine. One unique characteristic of microbiome data is the existence of a phylogenetic tree that relates all the microbial species. It has frequently been observed that a cluster or clusters of bacteria at varying phylogenetic depths are associated with some clinical or biological outcome due to shared biological function ( clustered signal )...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Olivia Córdova, Rolando Chamy, Lorna Guerrero, Aminael Sánchez-Rodríguez
Microalgae biomethanization is driven by anaerobic sludge associated microorganisms and is generally limited by the incomplete hydrolysis of the microalgae cell wall, which results in a low availability of microalgal biomass for the methanogenic community. The application of enzymatic pretreatments, e.g., with hydrolytic enzymes, is among the strategies used to work around the incomplete hydrolysis of the microalgae cell wall. Despite the proven efficacy of these pretreatments in increasing biomethanization, the changes that a given pretreatment may cause to the anaerobic sludge associated microorganisms during biomethanization are still unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kamila Orlewska, Zofia Piotrowska-Seget, Mariusz Cycoń
The widespread use of cefuroxime (XM) has resulted in the increase in its concentration in hospital and domestic wastewaters. Due to the limited removal of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant genes in conventional systems, the drugs enter the surface water and soils. Moreover, the introduction of XM and/or XM-resistant bacteria into soil may cause a significant modification of the biodiversity of soil bacterial communities. Therefore, the goal of this research was to assess the genetic diversity of a bacterial community in the cefuroxime (XM1 - 1 mg/kg and XM10 - 10 mg/kg) and/or antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas putida strain MC1 (Ps - 1...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Wenying Chen, Chen Li, Boyang Zhang, Zheng Zhou, Yingbin Shen, Xin Liao, Jieyeqi Yang, Yan Wang, Xiaohong Li, Yuzhe Li, Xiao L Shen
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary fungal metabolite that widely takes place in various kinds of foodstuffs and feeds. Human beings and animals are inevitably threatened by OTA as a result. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt various measures to detoxify OTA-contaminated foods and feeds. Biological detoxification methods, with better safety, flavor, nutritional quality, organoleptic properties, availability, and cost-effectiveness, are more promising than physical and chemical detoxification methods. The state-of-the-art research advances of OTA biodetoxification by degradation, adsorption, or enzymes are reviewed in the present paper...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pierre Hellin, Robert King, Martin Urban, Kim E Hammond-Kosack, Anne Legrève
Fusarium culmorum is a fungal pathogen causing economically important diseases on a variety of crops. Fungicides can be applied to control this species with triazoles being the most efficient molecules. F. culmorum strains resistant to these molecules have been reported, but the underlying resistance mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, a tebuconazole-adapted F. culmorum strain was developed with a level of fitness similar to its parental strain. The adapted strain showed cross-resistance to all demethylation inhibitors (DMIs), but not to other classes of fungicides tested...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Claudia Ortega, Daniel Prieto, Cecilia Abreu, Pablo Oppezzo, Agustín Correa
Recombinant protein expression has become an invaluable tool in basic and applied research. The accumulated knowledge in this field allowed the expression of thousands of protein targets in a soluble, pure, and homogeneous state, essential for biochemical and structural analyses. A lot of progress has been achieved in the last decades, where challenging proteins were expressed in a soluble manner after evaluating different parameters such as host, strain, and fusion partner or promoter strength, among others...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andrea R McWhorter, Kapil K Chousalkar
Salmonella remains one of the most common causes of bacterial foodborne gastrointestinal disease in humans. Raw eggs or food items containing undercooked eggs are frequently identified as the source of Salmonella. Salmonella Typhimurium contamination of table eggs most commonly occurs when they are laid in a contaminated environment. Several control strategies, including vaccination, are widely used to mitigate the total Salmonella load. It is unclear, however, whether live attenuated Salmonella vaccines are efficacious over the life span of a layer hen...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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