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Frontiers in Microbiology

Lihong Zhu, Fei Luo, Wenjing Hu, Yang Han, Yuezhu Wang, Huajun Zheng, Xiaokui Guo, Jinhong Qin
The idea that healthy uterine cavity is sterile is challenged nowadays. It is still debatable whether the bacteria present in the uterine cavity during pregnancy are residents or invaders. To reveal microbiome composition and its characteristics in the womb of pregnant women, 41 decidual tissue samples and 64 amniotic fluid samples were taken from pregnant Chinese women. DNA extraction was followed by pyrosequencing of the hypervariable V4 region of the 16S rDNA gene to characterize womb microbiome. Both types of samples had low diversity microbiome with Enterobacteriaceae being the dominant phylotypes at family level...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dongchang Sun
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important role in bacterial evolution. It is well accepted that DNA is pulled/pushed into recipient cells by conserved membrane-associated DNA transport systems, which allow the entry of only single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). However, recent studies have uncovered a new type of natural bacterial transformation in which double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is taken up into the cytoplasm, thus complementing the existing methods of DNA transfer among bacteria. Regulated by the stationary-phase regulators RpoS and cAMP receptor protein (CRP), Escherichia coli establishes competence for natural transformation with dsDNA, which occurs in agar plates...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yonggang Yang, Ou Luo, Guannan Kong, Bin Wang, Xiaojing Li, Enze Li, Jianjun Li, Feifei Liu, Meiying Xu
Microbial anode respiration in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can enhance the degradations of many electron acceptor-type contaminants which are presumed to be competitive to anode respiration. The mechanisms underlying those counterintuitive processes are important for MFCs application but are unclear. This study integrated MFCs with anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), termed MFC-ABR, to enhance the reduction of azo dye acid orange-7 (AO-7). Compare with ABR, MFC-ABR enhanced the degradation of AO-7, especially at high AO-7 concentration (800 mg/L)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Natalia S Brizuela, Bárbara M Bravo-Ferrada, Yolanda Curilén, Lucrecia Delfederico, Adriana Caballero, Liliana Semorile, M Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, E Elizabeth Tymczyszyn
The malolactic fermentation (MLF) of Patagonian Malbec wine inoculated with blend cultures of selected native strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Oenococcus oeni was monitored during 14 days, analyzing the strains ability to modify the content of some organic acids and to change the volatile compounds profile. The performance of the LAB strains was tested as single and blends cultures of both species. An implantation control by RAPD PCR was also carried out to differentiate among indigenous and inoculated strains...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nisrine Chelkha, Anthony Levasseur, Pierre Pontarotti, Didier Raoult, Bernard La Scola, Philippe Colson
Acanthamoeba are ubiquitous phagocytes predominant in soil and water which can ingest many microbes. Giant viruses of amoebae are listed among the Acanthamoeba -resisting microorganisms. Their sympatric lifestyle within amoebae is suspected to promote lateral nucleotide sequence transfers. Some Acanthamoeba species have shown differences in their susceptibility to giant viruses. Until recently, only the genome of a single Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff was available. We analyzed the draft genome sequences of Acanthamoeba polyphaga through several approaches, including comparative genomics, phylogeny, and sequence networks, with the aim of detecting putative nucleotide sequence exchanges with giant viruses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ernest Oppong-Danquah, Delphine Parrot, Martina Blümel, Antje Labes, Deniz Tasdemir
Fungi represent a rich source of bioactive metabolites and some are marketed as alternatives to synthetic agrochemicals against plant pathogens. However, the culturability of fungal strains in artificial laboratory conditions is still limited and the standard mono-cultures do not reflect their full spectrum chemical diversity. Phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria have successfully been used in the activation of cryptic biosynthetic pathways to promote the production of new secondary metabolites in co-culture experiments...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Raj K Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Rekha Khandia, Ashok Munjal, Sandip K Khurana, Sandip Chakraborty, Yashpal S Malik, Nitin Virmani, Rajendra Singh, Bhupendra N Tripathi, Muhammad Munir, Johannes H van der Kolk
Among all the emerging and re-emerging animal diseases, influenza group is the prototype member associated with severe respiratory infections in wide host species. Wherein, Equine influenza (EI) is the main cause of respiratory illness in equines across globe and is caused by equine influenza A virus (EIV-A) which has impacted the equine industry internationally due to high morbidity and marginal morality. The virus transmits easily by direct contact and inhalation making its spread global and leaving only limited areas untouched...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Claire E Sanderson, J Tyler Fox, Eric R Dougherty, Andrew D S Cameron, Kathleen A Alexander
Little is known about the role of surface water in the propagation of antibiotic resistance (AR), or the relationship between AR and water quality declines. While healthcare and agricultural sectors are considered the main contributors to AR dissemination, few studies have been conducted in their absence. Using linear models and Bayesian kriging, we evaluate AR among Escherichia coli water isolates collected bimonthly from the Chobe River in Northern Botswana ( n = 1997, n = 414 water samples; July 2011-May 2012) in relation to water quality dynamics ( E...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jiapeng Wu, Yiguo Hong, Xiang He, Lijing Jiao, Xiaomei Wen, Shuai Chen, Guangshi Chen, Yiben Li, Tianzheng Huang, Yaohao Hu, Xiaohan Liu
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been proven to be an important nitrogen removal process in terrestrial ecosystems, particularly paddy soils. However, the contribution of anammox in acidic red soils to nitrogen loss has not been well-documented to date. Here, we investigated the activity, abundance, and distribution of anammox bacteria in red soils collected from nine provinces of Southern China. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that Candidatus Brocadia dominates the anammox bacterial community (93...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mo Zhou, Muhammad Abid, Hang Yin, Hongxia Wu, Teshale Teklue, Hua-Ji Qiu, Yuan Sun
Conventional genetic engineering of pseudorabies virus (PRV) is essentially based on homologous recombination or bacterial artificial chromosome. However, these techniques require multiple plaque purification, which is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient, direct, and flexible genetic manipulation platform for PRV. To this end, the PRV genomic DNA was extracted from purified PRV virions and sheared into approximately 30-45-kb DNA fragments. After end-blunting and phosphorylation, the DNA fragments were separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the recovered DNA fragments were inserted into the cloning-ready fosmids...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kiran Thakur, Guan-Yi Xu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Fang Zhang, Fei Hu, Zhao-Jun Wei
The present study explored the possible prebiotic application of potato peel and bamboo shoot extracts for the proliferation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from diverse niches and their tolerance ability to simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions was also examined. Initially, the complete 16S rDNA sequencing of selected isolates revealed them as Lactobacillus paracasei (6), Staphylococcus simulans (2), and Streptococcus thermophilus (1). Higher cell densities and rapid pH change were obtained from cultured media supplemented with BS (2%) and PP (2%) as a carbon source...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alejandro Montón Silva, Christian Otten, Jacob Biboy, Eefjan Breukink, Michael VanNieuwenhze, Waldemar Vollmer, Tanneke den Blaauwen
The enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the peptidoglycan (PG) layer constitute a fundamental target for a large group of antibiotics. The family of β-lactam antibiotics inhibits the DD-transpeptidase (TPase) activity of the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), whereas its subgroup of carbapenems can also block the TPase activity of the LD-TPases. D-Ala fluorescent probes, such as NADA, are incorporated into the PG presumably by TPases in Escherichia coli and can be used to study conditions that are required for their function...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Takeshi Naganuma, Yoshiakira Iinuma, Hitomi Nishiwaki, Ryota Murase, Kazuo Masaki, Ryosuke Nakai
In a search for life-supporting, not life-assisting, D-amino acid metabolism, an environmental strain that grows better with D-glutamate as the sole carbon source was isolated from an ordinary river. The strain, designated as A25, exhibited a faster growth rate and greater cell yield with D-glutamate than with L-glutamate. Conversely, the D/L ratio of total cellular glutamate was as low as 4/96, which suggests that D-glutamate is more likely catabolized than anabolized. Strain A25 was phylogenetically most closely related to the gamma-proteobacterial species Raoultella ornithinolytica , with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 100%...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Melanie Eger, Michael Graz, Susanne Riede, Gerhard Breves
The reduction of methane emissions by ruminants is a highly desirable goal to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Various feed additives have already been tested for their ability to decrease methane production; however, practical use is often limited due to negative effects on rumen fermentation or high costs. Organosulphur compounds from garlic ( Allium sativum ) and flavonoids have been identified as promising plant-derived compounds which are able to reduce methane production. Here, we evaluated the effects of a combination of garlic powder and bitter orange ( Citrus aurantium ) extracts, Mootral, on ruminal methane production, ruminal fermentation and the community of methanogenic Archaea by using the rumen simulation technique as ex vivo model...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiaoyan Zhang, Mengjun Tang, Qian Zhou, Jing Zhang, Xingxing Yang, Yushi Gao
Handling and consumption of chicken meat are risk factors for human campylobacteriosis. This study was performed to describe the Campylobacter population in broiler carcasses and environmental samples throughout the slaughter process. Moreover, the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of the Campylobacter strains were evaluated. Cloacal swabs, samples from carcasses at different stages, and environmental samples were collected thrice from the different flocks at the same abattoir located in Central Jiangsu, China...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ping Liu, Jinbiao Zhao, Wei Wang, Pingting Guo, Wenqing Lu, Chunlin Wang, Ling Liu, Lee J Johnston, Yuan Zhao, Xianhua Wu, Chi Xu, Jie Zhang, Xi Ma
Corn bran (CB) has been used as an ingredient for pigs, but the underlying mechanisms that improve gut health is less clear. This study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary CB on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, plasma indices related to gut hormones and immunity, gut microbiota composition, and fermentation products in weaned pigs. A total of 60 weaned pigs were allocated to two dietary treatments, and piglets in each group received control (CON) diet or 5% CB diet for 28 days. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, indices of gut hormones and immunity in plasma were evaluated...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mehran Khan, Rongbo Wang, Benjin Li, Peiqing Liu, Qiyong Weng, Qinghe Chen
Early blight (EB), caused by the pathogen Alternaria solani , is a major threat to global potato and tomato production. Early and accurate diagnosis of this disease is therefore important. In this study, we conducted a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, as well as conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) assays to determine which of these techniques was less time consuming, more sensitive, and more accurate. We based our assays on sequence-characterized amplified regions of the histidine kinase gene with an accession number (FJ424058)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ananda Ayyappan Jaguva Vasudevan, Ulrike Kreimer, Wolfgang A Schulz, Aikaterini Krikoni, Gerald G Schumann, Dieter Häussinger, Carsten Münk, Wolfgang Goering
The most common mutational signature in urothelial carcinoma (UC), the most common type of urinary bladder cancer is assumed to be caused by the misdirected activity of APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases, especially A3A or A3B, which are known to normally restrict the propagation of exogenous viruses and endogenous retroelements such as LINE-1 (L1). The involvement of A3 proteins in urothelial carcinogenesis is unexpected because, to date, UC is thought to be caused by chemical carcinogens rather than viral activity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yuhong Pan, Pengfei Li, Renyong Jia, Mingshu Wang, Zhongqiong Yin, Anchun Cheng
Apoptosis, an indispensable innate immune mechanism, regulates cellular homeostasis by removing unnecessary or damaged cells. It contains three signaling pathways: the mitochondria-mediated pathway, the death receptor pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum pathway. The importance of apoptosis in host defenses is stressed by the observation that multiple viruses have evolved various strategies to inhibit apoptosis, thereby blunting the host immune responses and promoting viral propagation. Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) utilizes various strategies to induce or inhibit programmed cell death...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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