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Advances in Pharmacological Sciences

Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih, Manikya Pramudya, Intan Permata Putri, Dwi Winarni, Nadyatul Ilma Indah Savira, Win Darmanto
Okra pods were widely consumed by Indonesians to maintain health. The aim of this study was at investigating the potential of crude polysaccharides from okra pods on immune response in mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Thirty male Balb/C mice were divided into six groups: normal control, negative control, and treatment groups (administration of crude polysaccharides at doses of 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg). Crude polysaccharides were administrated for fourteen days. Furthermore, mice were exposed to S...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Vesara Ardhe Gatera, Rizky Abdulah, Ida Musfiroh, Raden Tina Dewi Judistiani, Budi Setiabudiawan
To update the guidelines regarding vitamin D status in respiratory distress syndrome, we reviewed recent human and animal studies on the benefits of vitamin D in respiratory distress. We searched PubMed and ProQuest for studies on the use of vitamin D from 2009 to 2017. The common parameters in these studies included the use of lung tissue, phospholipids, blood, and plasma to assess the effects of vitamin D on respiratory syndrome. The metabolized form of vitamin D used in these studies was 1,25(OH)2 D3 in animal studies and 25(OH)D in human studies...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Hanane Makrane, Mouhcine El Messaoudi, Ahmed Melhaoui, Mohammed El Mzibri, Laila Benbacer, Mohammed Aziz
The toxicity of the aqueous extract of Origanum majorana was tested (5 and 10 g/kg) in albino mice. No symptoms of toxicity or mortality were observed. The mice survived being active and healthy during all 14 days of observation. In addition, the weight measurement of the left and right kidneys, heart, and liver shows no significant difference between the control, 5 g/kg, and 10 g/kg. All extracts (aqueous, petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanolic, and depleted aqueous extracts) of Origanum majorana tested against both types of cancer cells showed a more pronounced cytotoxic effect against breast cell line MDA-MB-231 than colon cells line HT-29 cells...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Fazleen Izzany Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar, Norazlin Abdullah, Susi Endrini, Asmah Rahmat
This article aims to provide detailed information on Malaysian plants used for treating inflammation. An extensive search on electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ScienceDirect and conference papers was done to find relevant articles on anti-inflammatory activity of Malaysian medicinal plants. The keyword search terms used were "inflammation," "Malaysia," "medicinal plants," "mechanisms," " in vitro ," and " in vivo ." As a result, 96 articles on anti-inflammatory activity of Malaysian medicinal plants were found and further reviewed...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Abubakar Danmaigoro, Gayathri Thevi Selvarajah, Mohd Hezmee Mohd Noor, Rozi Mahmud, Md Zuki Abu Bakar
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anticancer agent with cytotoxic effects which limit its clinical usage. This effect is due to its nonselective nature causing injury to the cells as a result of reactive free oxygen radical's release. Cockleshell-derived calcium carbonate nanoparticle (CS-CaCO3 NP) is a pH-responsive carrier with targeted delivery potentials. This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity effects of repeated dose administration of DOX-loaded CS-CaCO3 NP in healthy dogs. Fifteen dogs with an average body weight of 15 kg were randomized equally into 5 groups...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Silvy Cherian, Brian Sang Lee, Robin M Tucker, Kevin Lee, Gregory Smutzer
Bitter taste is aversive to humans, and many oral medications exhibit a bitter taste. Bitter taste can be suppressed by the use of inhibitors or by masking agents such as sucralose. Another approach is to encapsulate bitter tasting compounds in order to delay their release. This delayed release can permit the prior release of bitter masking agents. Suppression of bitter taste was accomplished by encapsulating a bitter taste stimulus in erodible stearic acid microspheres, and embedding these 5  µ meter diameter microspheres in pullulan films that contain sucralose and peppermint oil as masking agents, along with an encapsulated masking agent (sucralose)...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Nikola Hadzi-Petrushev, Katerina Dimovska, Nikola Jankulovski, Dine Mitrov, Mitko Mladenov
Oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and the control of lipid status by statins may help to stop the progression of NAFLD. We hypothesized that the addition of antioxidant vitamins C and E to atorvastatin therapy is associated with improved serum enzyme antioxidant status. NAFLD-related serum parameters and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, before and after 3 months of treatment, were determined in patients receiving atorvastatin alone or atorvastatin plus antioxidants...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Ammara Riaz, Azhar Rasul, Ghulam Hussain, Muhammad Kashif Zahoor, Farhat Jabeen, Zinayyera Subhani, Tahira Younis, Muhammad Ali, Iqra Sarfraz, Zeliha Selamoglu
Natural products, an infinite treasure of bioactive chemical entities, persist as an inexhaustible resource for discovery of drugs. This review article intends to emphasize on one of the naturally occurring flavonoids, astragalin (kaempferol 3-glucoside), which is a bioactive constituent of various traditional medicinal plants such as Cuscuta chinensis . This multifaceted compound is well known for its diversified pharmacological applications such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, antiobesity, antiosteoporotic, anticancer, antiulcer, and antidiabetic properties...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Babe Guyasa, Yadessa Melaku, Milkyas Endale
Embelia schemperi Vatke is one of the medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of intestinal tape worm, dysmenorrheal, bacterial, and fungal infections. Phytochemical screening test of the dichloromethane/methanol (1 : 1) and methanol extracts revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids whereas terpenoids, glycoside, and phytosterols were absent. Silica gel column chromatographic separation of the methanol extract afforded 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavan, named epicatechin ( 1 ), along with a close flavan derivative ( 2 )...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Yos Adi Prakoso, Chylen Setiyo Rini, Roeswandono Wirjaatmadja
The tropical area has a lot of herbal medicines such as Aloe vera (AV), Ananas comosus (AC), and Sansevieria masoniana (SM). All the three have a unique potential effect as an antibacterial and wound-healing promoter. The aim of this study is to explore the role of AV, AC, and SM on the skin wound infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Forty-five adult female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 250-300 grams were divided into 5 groups. All the groups were exposed to two round full-thickness punch biopsy and infected with MRSA...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Terence Nguema Ongone, Redouane Achour, Mostafa El Ghoul, Latifa El Ouasif, Khalid Taghzouti, Meryem El Jemli, Yahia Cherrah, Katim Alaoui, Amina Zellou
The objective of our work is to make a pharmacological study of molecules derived from 4-phenyl-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one carrying long chains so that they have a structure similar to surfactants, with the benzodiazepine as a hydrophilic head and a carbon chain as a hydrophobic tail. First, we studied the acute toxicity of the above mentioned 4-phenyl-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one derivatives. This study was conducted according to OECD 423 guidelines in female mice and revealed that these compounds are nontoxic. We then assessed the psychotropic effects of our products on the central nervous system (CNS)...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Lamyae El Khalki, Mounir Tilaoui, Abdeslam Jaafari, Hassan Ait Mouse, Abdelmajid Zyad
The present study attempts to investigate the cytotoxic activity of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the Moroccan Berberis vulgaris and its major component berberine, together with exploring their antioxidant properties. It also consists of studying the combination effect of berberine and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, against the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Using the MTT assay, we report a differential cytotoxic effect of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts since the ethanol extract is more cytotoxic than the ethyl acetate one, with IC50  = 3...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Abere Habtamu, Yadessa Melaku
Vernonia amygdalina is traditionally used in Ethiopia to treat various diseases. This prompted us to isolate bioactive compounds from the flowers of this plant. The CHCl3 extract after silica gel column chromatography has led to the isolation of two compounds identified as tricosane (1) and vernolide (2) , while the acetone extract furnished isorhamnetin (3) and luteolin (4) . The acetone extract and isorhamnetin significantly scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by 91.6 and 94%, respectively...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Newman Osafo, Kwesi Boadu Mensah, Oduro Kofi Yeboah
Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Cryptolepis sanguinolenta is a scrambling thin-stemmed shrub found in Africa. Traditionally in West Africa, it is employed in the treatment of malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory conditions. This review discusses the traditional importance as well as the phytochemical, ethnomedical, pharmacological, and toxicological importance of this plant. Materials and Methods: Excerpta Medica Database, Google Scholar, Springer, and PubMed Central were the electronic databases used to search for and filter primary studies on Cryptolepis sanguinolenta ...
2017: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Moulay Ali Oukerrou, Mounir Tilaoui, Hassan Ait Mouse, Inass Leouifoudi, Abdeslam Jaafari, Abdelmajid Zyad
The aim of this work is to investigate the in vitro cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of the essential oils of Aloysia citriodora Palau, harvested in different regions of Morocco. The chemical profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The cytotoxic activity against P815, MCF7, and VERO cell lines as well as the normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was evaluated using the MTT assay. Standard, ATCC, strains of bacteria ( Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) were cultivated in Muller Hinton media...
2017: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Ebrahim Nasiri, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr, Jafar Akbari, Mohammad Azadbakht, Soheil Azizi
Background. We compared the efficacy of P. granatum (P) flower extract with that of silver sulfadiazine (SSD) for treating thermal burn injuries in rats. Methods. Ten Wistar rats in each group were topically given base cream, normal saline, cream containing 1% SSD, or creams containing 5% or 10% Punica granatum flower extract. The treatments were administered once daily until complete wound healing was observed. The wound area and healing time were assessed. In addition, percentage wound contraction and histopathological characteristics such as neovascularization and collagen formation were determined...
2017: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Zanelle Bekker, Andrew Walubo, Jan B Du Plessis
The aim of this study was to illustrate the initial subclinical drug-induced liver injury and the associated adaptive immune response by monitoring for the changes in plasma IL-2, IL-10, and some cytochrome P450 activity during chronic administration of nevirapine (NVP), isoniazid (INH), and paracetamol (PAR) in rats without clinical hepatotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups (saline (S), NVP, INH, and PAR) of 25 animals each. The drugs were administered daily for 42 days at therapeutic doses (NVP 200 mg/kg, PAR 500 mg/kg, and INH 20 mg/kg) to the respective groups by oral gavage and five rats per group were sacrificed weekly...
2016: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Nushrat Sharmin Ani, Sudip Chakraborty, Md Moniruzzaman
Murraya koenigii L. is a perennial shrub, belonging to the family Rutaceae. Traditionally, the leaves of this plant are extensively used in treatment of a wide range of diseases and disorders including pain and inflammation. Although researchers have revealed the antinociceptive effects of this plant's leaves during past few years, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unknown. Therefore, the present study evaluated some antinociceptive mechanisms of the methanolic extract of M. koenigii (MEMK) leaves along with its antinociceptive potential using several animal models...
2016: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Florensia Nailufar, Raymond R Tjandrawinata, Maggy T Suhartono
Objective. To evaluate thrombus degrading effect of a fibrinolytic enzyme from food origin Stenotrophomonas sp. of Indonesia. Methods. Prior to animal study, the enzyme safety was tested using cell culture. The effect on expression of tissue plasminogen activator was also analysed in the cell culture. For in vivo studies, 25 Wistar rats were used: normal control, negative control, treatment groups with crude and semipurified enzyme given orally at 25 mg/kg, and positive control group which received Lumbrokinase at 25 mg/kg...
2016: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Md Sharif Hasan, Narhari Das, Zobaer Al Mahmud, S M Abdur Rahman
Purpose. The present study was designed to investigate the antinociceptive, anxiolytic, CNS depressant, and hypoglycemic effects of the naproxen metal complexes. Methods. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing method and radiant heat tail-flick method while anxiolytic activity was evaluated by elevated plus maze model. The CNS depressant activity of naproxen metal complexes was assessed using phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time test and the hypoglycemic test was performed using oral glucose tolerance test...
2016: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
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