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Proceedings of SPIE

Ximiao Hou, Michael C DeSantis, Chunjuan Tian, Wei Cheng
Although Ashkin and Dziedzic first demonstrated optical trapping of individual tobacco mosaic viruses in suspension as early as 1987, this pioneering work has not been followed up only until recently. Using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as a model virus, we have recently demonstrated that a single HIV-1 virion can be stabled trapped, manipulated and measured in physiological media with high precision. The capability to optically trap a single virion in suspension not only allows us to determine, for the first time, the refractive index of a single virus with high precision, but also quantitate the heterogeneity among individual virions with single-molecule resolution, the results of which shed light on the molecular mechanisms of virion infectivity...
August 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Angelo Gulinatti, Francesco Ceccarelli, Ivan Rech, Massimo Ghioni
In order to fulfill the requirements of many applications, we recently developed a new technology aimed at combining the advantages of traditional thin and thick silicon Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD). In particular we demonstrated single-pixel detectors with a remarkable improvement in the Photon Detection Efficiency in the red/near-infrared spectrum (e.g. 40% at 800nm) while maintaining a timing jitter better than 100ps. In this paper we discuss the limitations of such Red-Enhanced (RE) technology from the point of view of the fabrication of small arrays of SPAD and we propose modifications to the structure aimed at overcoming these issues...
April 17, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Ervin Sejdić, Faezeh Movahedi, Zhenwei Zhang, Atsuko Kurosu, James L Coyle
Acquiring swallowing accelerometry signals using a comprehensive sensing scheme may be a desirable approach for monitoring swallowing safety for longer periods of time. However, it needs to be insured that signal characteristics can be recovered accurately from compressed samples. In this paper, we considered this issue by examining the effects of the number of acquired compressed samples on the calculated swallowing accelerometry signal features. We used tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals acquired from seventeen stroke patients (106 swallows in total)...
April 17, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Hongyu Zhou, Weiping Qian, Fatih M Uckun, Zhiyang Zhou, Liya Wang, Andrew Wang, Hui Mao, Lily Yang
Low drug delivery efficiency and drug resistance from highly heterogeneous cancer cells and tumor microenvironment represent major challenges in clinical oncology. Growth factor receptor, IGF-1R, is overexpressed in both human tumor cells and tumor associated stromal cells. The level of IGF-1R expression is further up-regulated in drug resistant tumor cells. We have developed IGF-1R targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) carrying multiple anticancer drugs into human tumors. This IGF-1R targeted theranostic nanoparticle delivery system has an iron core for non-invasive MR imaging, amphiphilic polymer coating to ensure the biocompatibility as well as for drug loading and conjugation of recombinant human IGF-1 as targeting molecules...
April 17, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Paul Lemaillet, Catherine C Cooksey, Zachary H Levine, Adam L Pintar, Jeeseong Hwang, David W Allen
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has maintained scales for reflectance and transmittance over several decades. The scales are primarily intended for regular transmittance, mirrors, and solid surface scattering diffusers. The rapidly growing area of optical medical imaging needs a scale for volume scattering of diffuse materials that are used to mimic the optical properties of tissue. Such materials are used as phantoms to evaluate and validate instruments under development intended for clinical use...
March 24, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Lotta M Ellingsen, Snehashis Roy, Aaron Carass, Ari M Blitz, Dzung L Pham, Jerry L Prince
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) affects older adults and is thought to be caused by obstruction of the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). NPH typically presents with cognitive impairment, gait dysfunction, and urinary incontinence, and may account for more than five percent of all cases of dementia. Unlike most other causes of dementia, NPH can potentially be treated and the neurological dysfunction reversed by shunt surgery or endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), which drain excess CSF. However, a major diagnostic challenge remains to robustly identify shunt-responsive NPH patients from patients with enlarged ventricles due to other neurodegenerative diseases...
March 21, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Michele M Kim, Arash Darafsheh, Mahmoud Ahmad, Jarod C Finlay, Timothy C Zhu
PDT dose is the product of the photosensitizer concentration and the light fluence in the target tissue. For improved dosimetry during plural photodynamic therapy (PDT), a PDT dose dosimeter was developed to measure both the light fluence and the photosensitizer concentration simultaneously in the same treatment location. Light fluence and spectral data were rigorously compared to other methods of measurement (e.g. photodiode, multi-fiber spectroscopy contact probe) to assess the accuracy of the measurements as well as their uncertainty...
March 17, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Timothy C Zhu, Amy Lu, Yi-Hong Ong
Accurate determination of in-vivo light fluence rate is critical for preclinical and clinical studies involving photodynamic therapy (PDT). This study compares the longitudinal light fluence distribution inside biological tissue in the central axis of a 1 cm diameter circular uniform light field for a range of in-vivo tissue optical properties (absorption coefficients (μa) between 0.01 and 1 cm(-1) and reduced scattering coefficients (μs') between 2 and 40 cm(-1)). This was done using Monte-Carlo simulations for a semi-infinite turbid medium in an air-tissue interface...
March 7, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Rozhin Penjweini, Michele M Kim, Andrea Dimofte, Jarod C Finlay, Timothy C Zhu
When the pleural cavity is opened during the surgery portion of pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant mesothelioma, the pleural volume will deform. This impacts the delivered dose when using highly conformal treatment techniques. To track the anatomical changes and contour the lung and chest cavity, an infrared camera-based navigation system (NDI) is used during PDT. In the same patient, a series of computed tomography (CT) scans of the lungs are also acquired before the surgery. The reconstructed three-dimensional contours from both NDI and CTs are imported into COMSOL Multiphysics software, where a finite element-based (FEM) deformable image registration is obtained...
March 7, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
James Dormer, Xulei Qin, Ming Shen, Silun Wang, Xiaodong Zhang, Rong Jiang, Mary B Wagner, Baowei Fei
Accurate extraction of cardiac fiber orientation from diffusion tensor imaging is important for determining heart structure and function. However, the acquisition of magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor images is costly and time consuming. By comparison, cardiac ultrasound imaging is rapid and relatively inexpensive, but it lacks the capability to directly measure fiber orientations. In order to create a detailed heart model from ultrasound data, a three-dimensional (3D) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with known fiber orientations can be registered to an ultrasound volume through a geometric mask...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Ling Ma, Rongrong Guo, Zhiqiang Tian, Rajesh Venkataraman, Saradwata Sarkar, Xiabi Liu, Peter T Nieh, Viraj V Master, David M Schuster, Baowei Fei
This paper proposes a new semi-automatic segmentation method for the prostate on 3D transrectal ultrasound images (TRUS) by combining the region and classification information. We use a random walk algorithm to express the region information efficiently and flexibly because it can avoid segmentation leakage and shrinking bias. We further use the decision tree as the classifier to distinguish the prostate from the non-prostate tissue because of its fast speed and superior performance, especially for a binary classification problem...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Ling Ma, Rongrong Guo, Zhiqiang Tian, Rajesh Venkataraman, Saradwata Sarkar, Xiabi Liu, Funmilayo Tade, David M Schuster, Baowei Fei
Prostate segmentation on CT images is a challenging task. In this paper, we explore the population and patient-specific characteristics for the segmentation of the prostate on CT images. Because population learning does not consider the inter-patient variations and because patient-specific learning may not perform well for different patients, we are combining the population and patient-specific information to improve segmentation performance. Specifically, we train a population model based on the population data and train a patient-specific model based on the manual segmentation on three slice of the new patient...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Guolan Lu, Xulei Qin, Dongsheng Wang, Susan Muller, Hongzheng Zhang, Amy Chen, Zhuo Georgia Chen, Baowei Fei
We developed a chemically-induced oral cancer animal model and a computer aided method for tongue cancer diagnosis. The animal model allows us to monitor the progress of the lesions over time. Tongue tissue dissected from mice was sent for histological processing. Representative areas of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue from tongue sections were captured for classifying tumor and non-tumor tissue. The image set used in this paper consisted of 214 color images (114 tumor and 100 normal tissue samples)...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Hyunkoo Chung, Guolan Lu, Zhiqiang Tian, Dongsheng Wang, Zhuo Georgia Chen, Baowei Fei
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging imaging modality for medical applications. HSI acquires two dimensional images at various wavelengths. The combination of both spectral and spatial information provides quantitative information for cancer detection and diagnosis. This paper proposes using superpixels, principal component analysis (PCA), and support vector machine (SVM) to distinguish regions of tumor from healthy tissue. The classification method uses 2 principal components decomposed from hyperspectral images and obtains an average sensitivity of 93% and an average specificity of 85% for 11 mice...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Guolan Lu, Xulei Qin, Dongsheng Wang, Susan Muller, Hongzheng Zhang, Amy Chen, Zhuo Georgia Chen, Baowei Fei
Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging modality for medical applications and holds great potential for noninvasive early detection of cancer. It has been reported that early cancer detection can improve the survival and quality of life of head and neck cancer patients. In this paper, we explored the possibility of differentiating between premalignant lesions and healthy tongue tissue using hyperspectral imaging in a chemical induced oral cancer animal model. We proposed a novel classification algorithm for cancer detection using hyperspectral images...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Luoluo Liu, Jeffrey Glaister, Xiaoxia Sun, Aaron Carass, Trac D Tran, Jerry L Prince
Automatic thalamus segmentation is useful to track changes in thalamic volume over time. In this work, we introduce a task-driven dictionary learning framework to find the optimal dictionary given a set of eleven features obtained from T1-weighted MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. In this dictionary learning framework, a linear classifier is designed concurrently to classify voxels as belonging to the thalamus or non-thalamus class. Morphological post-processing is applied to produce the final thalamus segmentation...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Jeffrey Glaister, Aaron Carass, Joshua V Stough, Peter A Calabresi, Jerry L Prince
Segmentation of the thalamus and thalamic nuclei is useful to quantify volumetric changes from neurodegenerative diseases. Most thalamus segmentation algorithms only use T1-weighted magnetic resonance images and current thalamic parcellation methods require manual interaction. Smaller nuclei, such as the lateral and medial geniculates, are challenging to locate due to their small size. We propose an automated segmentation algorithm using a set of features derived from diffusion tensor image (DTI) and thalamic nuclei location priors...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Matthew Leming, Rachel Steiner, Martin Styner
Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS)(6) is a software pipeline widely employed in comparative analysis of the white matter integrity from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) datasets. In this study, we seek to evaluate the relationship between different methods of atlas registration for use with TBSS and different measurements of DTI (fractional anisotropy, FA, axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and medial diffusivity, MD). To do so, we have developed a novel tool that builds on existing diffusion atlas building software, integrating it into an adapted version of TBSS called DAB-TBSS (DTI Atlas Builder-Tract-Based Spatial Statistics) by using the advanced registration offered in DTI Atlas Builder(7)...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Jørn Bersvendsen, Matthew Toews, Adriyana Danudibroto, William M Wells, Stig Urheim, Raúl San José Estépar, Eigil Samset
Registration of multiple 3D ultrasound sectors in order to provide an extended field of view is important for the appreciation of larger anatomical structures at high spatial and temporal resolution. In this paper, we present a method for fully automatic spatio-temporal registration between two partially overlapping 3D ultrasound sequences. The temporal alignment is solved by aligning the normalized cross correlation-over-time curves of the sequences. For the spatial alignment, corresponding 3D Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features are extracted from all frames of both sequences independently of the temporal alignment...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Sonia Dahdouh, Catherine Limperopoulos
At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
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