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Proceedings of SPIE

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280284/the-fiber-optic-system-for-the-advanced-topographic-laser-altimeter-system-atlas-instrument
#1
Melanie N Ott, Joe Thomes, Eleanya Onuma, Robert Switzer, Richard Chuska, Diana Blair, Erich Frese, Marc Matyseck
The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm...
August 28, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807391/arterial-wall-perfusion-measured-with-photon-counting-spectral-x-ray-ct
#2
Steven M Jorgensen, Mark J Korinek, Andrew J Vercnocke, Jill L Anderson, Ahmed Halaweish, Shuai Leng, Cynthia H McCollough, Erik L Ritman
Early atherosclerosis changes perfusion of the arterial wall due to localized proliferation of the vasa vasorum. When contrast agent passes through the artery, some enters the vasa vasorum and increases radiopacity of the arterial wall. Technical challenges to detecting changes in vasa vasorum density include the thin arterial wall, partial volume averaging at the arterial lumen/wall interface and calcification within the wall. We used a photon-counting spectral CT scanner to study carotid arteries of anesthetized pigs and micro-CT of these arteries to quantify vasa vasorum density...
August 28, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795606/evaluation-of-a-photon-counting-medipix3rx-czt-spectral-x-ray-detector
#3
Steven M Jorgensen, Andrew J Vercnocke, David S Rundle, Philip H Butler, Cynthia H McCollough, Erik L Ritman
We assessed the performance of a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based Medipix3RX x-ray detector as a candidate for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging. This technology was developed at CERN for the Large Hadron Collider. It features an array of 128 by 128, 110 micrometer square pixels, each with eight simultaneous threshold counters, five of which utilize real-time charge summing, significantly reducing the charge sharing between contiguous pixels. Pixel response curves were created by imaging a range of x-ray intensities by varying x-ray tube current and by varying the exposure time with fixed x-ray current...
August 28, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746582/optical-manipulation-of-a-single-human-virus-for-study-of-viral-cell-interactions
#4
Ximiao Hou, Michael C DeSantis, Chunjuan Tian, Wei Cheng
Although Ashkin and Dziedzic first demonstrated optical trapping of individual tobacco mosaic viruses in suspension as early as 1987, this pioneering work has not been followed up only until recently. Using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as a model virus, we have recently demonstrated that a single HIV-1 virion can be stabled trapped, manipulated and measured in physiological media with high precision. The capability to optically trap a single virion in suspension not only allows us to determine, for the first time, the refractive index of a single virus with high precision, but also quantitate the heterogeneity among individual virions with single-molecule resolution, the results of which shed light on the molecular mechanisms of virion infectivity...
August 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942095/bridging-the-gap-between-sample-collection-and-laboratory-analysis-using-dried-blood-spots-to-identify-human-exposure-to-chemical-agents
#5
Elizabeth I Hamelin, Thomas A Blake, Jonas W Perez, Brian S Crow, Rebecca L Shaner, Rebecca M Coleman, Rudolph C Johnson
Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper...
May 13, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761058/silicon-technologies-for-arrays-of-single-photon-avalanche-diodes
#6
Angelo Gulinatti, Francesco Ceccarelli, Ivan Rech, Massimo Ghioni
In order to fulfill the requirements of many applications, we recently developed a new technology aimed at combining the advantages of traditional thin and thick silicon Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD). In particular we demonstrated single-pixel detectors with a remarkable improvement in the Photon Detection Efficiency in the red/near-infrared spectrum (e.g. 40% at 800nm) while maintaining a timing jitter better than 100ps. In this paper we discuss the limitations of such Red-Enhanced (RE) technology from the point of view of the fabrication of small arrays of SPAD and we propose modifications to the structure aimed at overcoming these issues...
April 17, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695157/the-effects-of-compressive-sensing-on-extracted-features-from-tri-axial-swallowing-accelerometry-signals
#7
Ervin Sejdić, Faezeh Movahedi, Zhenwei Zhang, Atsuko Kurosu, James L Coyle
Acquiring swallowing accelerometry signals using a comprehensive sensing scheme may be a desirable approach for monitoring swallowing safety for longer periods of time. However, it needs to be insured that signal characteristics can be recovered accurately from compressed samples. In this paper, we considered this issue by examining the effects of the number of acquired compressed samples on the calculated swallowing accelerometry signal features. We used tri-axial swallowing accelerometry signals acquired from seventeen stroke patients (106 swallows in total)...
April 17, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313332/igf-1-receptor-targeted-nanoparticles-for-image-guided-therapy-of-stroma-rich-and-drug-resistant-human-cancer
#8
Hongyu Zhou, Weiping Qian, Fatih M Uckun, Zhiyang Zhou, Liya Wang, Andrew Wang, Hui Mao, Lily Yang
Low drug delivery efficiency and drug resistance from highly heterogeneous cancer cells and tumor microenvironment represent major challenges in clinical oncology. Growth factor receptor, IGF-1R, is overexpressed in both human tumor cells and tumor associated stromal cells. The level of IGF-1R expression is further up-regulated in drug resistant tumor cells. We have developed IGF-1R targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) carrying multiple anticancer drugs into human tumors. This IGF-1R targeted theranostic nanoparticle delivery system has an iron core for non-invasive MR imaging, amphiphilic polymer coating to ensure the biocompatibility as well as for drug loading and conjugation of recombinant human IGF-1 as targeting molecules...
April 17, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453623/national-institute-of-standards-and-technology-measurement-service-of-the-optical-properties-of-biomedical-phantoms-current-status
#9
Paul Lemaillet, Catherine C Cooksey, Zachary H Levine, Adam L Pintar, Jeeseong Hwang, David W Allen
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has maintained scales for reflectance and transmittance over several decades. The scales are primarily intended for regular transmittance, mirrors, and solid surface scattering diffusers. The rapidly growing area of optical medical imaging needs a scale for volume scattering of diffuse materials that are used to mimic the optical properties of tissue. Such materials are used as phantoms to evaluate and validate instruments under development intended for clinical use...
March 24, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199501/segmentation-and-labeling-of-the-ventricular-system-in-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-using-patch-based-tissue-classification-and-multi-atlas-labeling
#10
Lotta M Ellingsen, Snehashis Roy, Aaron Carass, Ari M Blitz, Dzung L Pham, Jerry L Prince
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) affects older adults and is thought to be caused by obstruction of the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). NPH typically presents with cognitive impairment, gait dysfunction, and urinary incontinence, and may account for more than five percent of all cases of dementia. Unlike most other causes of dementia, NPH can potentially be treated and the neurological dysfunction reversed by shunt surgery or endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), which drain excess CSF. However, a major diagnostic challenge remains to robustly identify shunt-responsive NPH patients from patients with enlarged ventricles due to other neurodegenerative diseases...
March 21, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053825/pdt-dose-dosimeter-for-pleural-photodynamic-therapy
#11
Michele M Kim, Arash Darafsheh, Mahmoud Ahmad, Jarod C Finlay, Timothy C Zhu
PDT dose is the product of the photosensitizer concentration and the light fluence in the target tissue. For improved dosimetry during plural photodynamic therapy (PDT), a PDT dose dosimeter was developed to measure both the light fluence and the photosensitizer concentration simultaneously in the same treatment location. Light fluence and spectral data were rigorously compared to other methods of measurement (e.g. photodiode, multi-fiber spectroscopy contact probe) to assess the accuracy of the measurements as well as their uncertainty...
March 17, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053827/an-improved-analytic-function-for-predicting-light-fluence-rate-in-circular-fields-on-a-semi-infinite-geometry
#12
Timothy C Zhu, Amy Lu, Yi-Hong Ong
Accurate determination of in-vivo light fluence rate is critical for preclinical and clinical studies involving photodynamic therapy (PDT). This study compares the longitudinal light fluence distribution inside biological tissue in the central axis of a 1 cm diameter circular uniform light field for a range of in-vivo tissue optical properties (absorption coefficients (μa) between 0.01 and 1 cm(-1) and reduced scattering coefficients (μs') between 2 and 40 cm(-1)). This was done using Monte-Carlo simulations for a semi-infinite turbid medium in an air-tissue interface...
March 7, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053826/deformable-medical-image-registration-of-pleural-cavity-for-photodynamic-therapy-by-using-finite-element-based-method
#13
Rozhin Penjweini, Michele M Kim, Andrea Dimofte, Jarod C Finlay, Timothy C Zhu
When the pleural cavity is opened during the surgery portion of pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant mesothelioma, the pleural volume will deform. This impacts the delivered dose when using highly conformal treatment techniques. To track the anatomical changes and contour the lung and chest cavity, an infrared camera-based navigation system (NDI) is used during PDT. In the same patient, a series of computed tomography (CT) scans of the lungs are also acquired before the surgery. The reconstructed three-dimensional contours from both NDI and CTs are imported into COMSOL Multiphysics software, where a finite element-based (FEM) deformable image registration is obtained...
March 7, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250572/a-semi-automatic-framework-of-measuring-pulmonary-arterial-metrics-at-anatomic-airway-locations-using-ct-imaging
#14
Dakai Jin, Junfeng Guo, Timothy M Dougherty, Krishna S Iyer, Eric A Hoffman, Punam K Saha
Pulmonary vascular dysfunction has been implicated in smoking-related susceptibility to emphysema. With the growing interest in characterizing arterial morphology for early evaluation of the vascular role in pulmonary diseases, there is an increasing need for the standardization of a framework for arterial morphological assessment at airway segmental levels. In this paper, we present an effective and robust semi-automatic framework to segment pulmonary arteries at different anatomic airway branches and measure their cross-sectional area (CSA)...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203039/quality-assurance-using-outlier-detection-on-an-automatic-segmentation-method-for-the-cerebellar-peduncles
#15
Ke Li, Chuyang Ye, Zhen Yang, Aaron Carass, Sarah H Ying, Jerry L Prince
Cerebellar peduncles (CPs) are white matter tracts connecting the cerebellum to other brain regions. Automatic segmentation methods of the CPs have been proposed for studying their structure and function. Usually the performance of these methods is evaluated by comparing segmentation results with manual delineations (ground truth). However, when a segmentation method is run on new data (for which no ground truth exists) it is highly desirable to efficiently detect and assess algorithm failures so that these cases can be excluded from scientific analysis...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942094/glioma-grading-using-cell-nuclei-morphologic-features-in-digital-pathology-images
#16
Syed M S Reza, Khan M Iftekharuddin
This work proposes a computationally efficient cell nuclei morphologic feature analysis technique to characterize the brain gliomas in tissue slide images. In this work, our contributions are two-fold: 1) obtain an optimized cell nuclei segmentation method based on the pros and cons of the existing techniques in literature, 2) extract representative features by k-mean clustering of nuclei morphologic features to include area, perimeter, eccentricity, and major axis length. This clustering based representative feature extraction avoids shortcomings of extensive tile [1] [2] and nuclear score [3] based methods for brain glioma grading in pathology images...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773960/effects-of-spatial-resolution-on-image-registration
#17
Can Zhao, Aaron Carass, Amod Jog, Jerry L Prince
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the effect of spatial resolution on image registration. Based on the assumption of additive Gaussian noise on the images, the mean and variance of the distribution of the sum of squared differences (SSD) were estimated. Using these estimates, we evaluate a distance between the SSD distributions of aligned images and non-aligned images. The experimental results show that by matching the resolutions of the moving and fixed images one can get a better image registration result...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660384/determining-cardiac-fiber-orientation-using-fsl-and-registered-ultrasound-dti-volumes
#18
James Dormer, Xulei Qin, Ming Shen, Silun Wang, Xiaodong Zhang, Rong Jiang, Mary B Wagner, Baowei Fei
Accurate extraction of cardiac fiber orientation from diffusion tensor imaging is important for determining heart structure and function. However, the acquisition of magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor images is costly and time consuming. By comparison, cardiac ultrasound imaging is rapid and relatively inexpensive, but it lacks the capability to directly measure fiber orientations. In order to create a detailed heart model from ultrasound data, a three-dimensional (3D) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with known fiber orientations can be registered to an ultrasound volume through a geometric mask...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660383/random-walk-based-segmentation-for-the-prostate-on-3d-transrectal-ultrasound-images
#19
Ling Ma, Rongrong Guo, Zhiqiang Tian, Rajesh Venkataraman, Saradwata Sarkar, Xiabi Liu, Peter T Nieh, Viraj V Master, David M Schuster, Baowei Fei
This paper proposes a new semi-automatic segmentation method for the prostate on 3D transrectal ultrasound images (TRUS) by combining the region and classification information. We use a random walk algorithm to express the region information efficiently and flexibly because it can avoid segmentation leakage and shrinking bias. We further use the decision tree as the classifier to distinguish the prostate from the non-prostate tissue because of its fast speed and superior performance, especially for a binary classification problem...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660382/combining-population-and-patient-specific-characteristics-for-prostate-segmentation-on-3d-ct-images
#20
Ling Ma, Rongrong Guo, Zhiqiang Tian, Rajesh Venkataraman, Saradwata Sarkar, Xiabi Liu, Funmilayo Tade, David M Schuster, Baowei Fei
Prostate segmentation on CT images is a challenging task. In this paper, we explore the population and patient-specific characteristics for the segmentation of the prostate on CT images. Because population learning does not consider the inter-patient variations and because patient-specific learning may not perform well for different patients, we are combining the population and patient-specific information to improve segmentation performance. Specifically, we train a population model based on the population data and train a patient-specific model based on the manual segmentation on three slice of the new patient...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
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