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Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673414/influence-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-on-plasma-thyroxine-concentrations-in-black-tailed-prairie-dogs-cynomys-ludovicianus
#1
David Eshar, Sara M Gardhouse, Hugues Beaufrere
Anesthesia can affect measured thyroxine (total T4) concentrations in humans and animals, but its effect in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) has not yet been studied. We used isoflurane to anesthetize 12 prairie dogs for 60 min. Blood samples were obtained from each animal immediately after anesthesia induction and at 30 and 60 min and used foranalysis of plasma T4 concentration. The plasma T4 concentration (mean ± 1 SD) was significantly decreased from baseline(3.49 ± 0.52 μg/dL) at both 30 min (3...
April 19, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669621/effect-of-environmental-enrichment-on-aggression-in-balb-cj-and-balb-cbyj-mice-monitored-by-using-an-automated-system
#2
Jareca M Giles, Julia W Whitaker, Sheryl S Moy, Craig A Fletcher
Aggression among mice remains a common undesirable problem in laboratory settings, and animal welfare and scientific outcomes may become compromised depending on the severity of aggression. This study evaluated the effect of cage enrichment comprising a bilevel, mounted 'mezzanine' compared with a cotton square or shelter on intracage male aggression over a 6-wk period. Our first study involved home-cage behavioral challenges to male mice from a high aggression substrain (BALB/cJ) and low-aggression substrain (BALB/cByJ)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555009/comparison-of-etomidate-benzocaine-and-ms222-anesthesia-with-and-without-subsequent-flunixin-meglumine-analgesia-in-african-clawed-frogs-xenopus-laevis
#3
Briony D Smith, Krystal J Vail, Gwendolyn L Carroll, Maggie C Taylor, Nicholas D Jeffery, Tracy H Vemulapalli, James J Elliott
Often few alternative anesthetics for exotic species are available, due to the small numbers of these animals used in research. In this study, we evaluated the depth and duration of anesthesia in Xenopus laevis after their immersion in 3 doses of etomidate (15, 22.5, and 30 mg/L) and in 3 doses of benzocaine (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%) compared with the 'gold standard,' tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222; 2 g/L). We then chose an optimal dose for each alternative anesthetic according to induction time, duration of surgical plane, and time to complete recovery...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555008/using-cageside-measures-to-evaluate-analgesic-efficacy-in-mice-mus-musculus-after-surgery
#4
Vanessa L Oliver, Sarah E Thurston, Jennifer L Lofgren
Recent studies have revealed some of the most frequently used analgesics in mice are not effectively treating postoperative pain. Our laboratory sought to compare and assess the validity and reliability of 2 cageside pain assessments that we recently developed for use in mice-nesting consolidation and grooming transfer tests. We then applied these tests to compare the efficacy of commonly used analgesics-buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 48 h) and carprofen (30 mg/kg in drinking water for 72 h)-alone and in multimodal combination as a refinement for treating postoperative pain in mice...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555007/comparison-of-diagnostic-methods-and-sampling-sites-for-the-detection-of-demodex-musculi
#5
Melissa A Nashat, Rodolfo J Ricart Arbona, Elyn R Riedel, Olga Francino, Lluis Ferrer, Kerith R Luchins, Neil S Lipman
Demodex mites are microscopic, cigar-shaped, follicular mites often regarded as commensal microfauna in mammals. Although Demodex spp. can cause dermatologic disease in any immunocompromised mammal, they are rarely reported in laboratory mice. Recent identification of Demodex musculi in a colony of immunodeficient mice with dermatitis afforded us the opportunity to investigate the comparative sensitivity of 4 antemortem diagnostic techniques to detect D. musculi-superficial skin scrape (SSS), tape impression (TI), fur pluck (FP), and deep skin scrape (DSS)-which we performed on 4 anatomic sites (face, interscapular region [IS], caudal ventrum [CV], and caudal dorsum [CD]) in 46 mice...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555006/improvement-of-vivarium-biodecontamination-through-data-acquisition-systems-and-automation
#6
Shakthi Rk Devan, Suresh Vasu, Yogesha Mallikarjuna, Ramkumar Ponraj, Gireesh Kamath, Suresh Poosala
Biodecontamination is important for eliminating pathogens at research animal facilities, thereby preventing contamination within barrier systems. We enhanced our facility's standard biodecontamination method to replace the traditional foggers, and the new system was used effectively after creating bypass ducts in HVAC units so that individual rooms could be isolated. The entire system was controlled by inhouse-developed supervisory control and data-acquisition software that supported multiple cycles of decontamination by equipment, which had different decontamination capacities, operated in parallel, and used different agents, including H2O2 vapor and ClO2 gas...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555005/using-a-time-driven-activity-based-costing-model-to-determine-the-actual-cost-of-services-provided-by-a-transgenic-core
#7
Philip M Gerwin, Rada M Norinsky, Ravi J Tolwani
Laboratory animal programs and core laboratories often set service rates based on cost estimates. However, actual costs may be unknown, and service rates may not reflect the actual cost of services. Accurately evaluating the actual costs of services can be challenging and time-consuming. We used a time-driven activity-based costing (ABC) model to determine the cost of services provided by a resource laboratory at our institution. The time-driven approach is a more efficient approach to calculating costs than using a traditional ABC model...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555004/bias-in-rating-of-rodent-distress-during-anesthesia-induction-for-anesthesia-compared-with-euthanasia
#8
Brittany A Baker, Debra L Hickman
Selection of an appropriate method of euthanasia involves balancing the wellbeing of the animal during the procedure with the intended use of the animal after death and the physical and psychologic safety of the observer or operator. The recommended practices for anesthesia as compared with euthanasia are very disparate, despite the fact that all chemical methods of euthanasia are anesthetic overdoses. To explain this disparity, this study sought to determine whether perception bias is inherent in the discussion of euthanasia compared with anesthesia...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555003/evaluation-of-extended-sanitation-interval-for-cage-top-components-in-individually-ventilated-mouse-cages
#9
Brianne Ls Ball, Kathleen M Donovan, Steven Clegg, James T Sheets
Sanitation frequency of mouse cage components can be determined through verification of microenvironment, including microbiologic load and air quality within the cage. Here we demonstrate a consistent microbiologic load on wire IVC lids that were used for as long as 8 continuous weeks to house 4 or 5 mice and significant decreases in the microbial load on filter tops at 4, 6, and 8 wk compared with 2 wk. In addition, air quality, represented by intracage ammonia concentration at the time of bedding change, did not differ between 2-, 4-, and 6-wk time points in cages containing same-sex groups of 4 or 5 male or female adult mice...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555002/porches-as-enrichment-for-singly-housed-cynomolgus-macaques-macaca-fascicularis
#10
Corrine K Lutz, Tara A Brown
Effective environmental enrichment is used by animals, promotes species-typical behavior, and decreases abnormal behavior. Porches attached to the front of an animal's cage provide additional space, perching opportunities, and a better view of the surroundings. Here we assessed the effectiveness of porches as a form of enrichment and identified characteristics of the animals most likely to use the porches. We videorecorded and scored the behavior of 18 (9 male, 9 female) singly housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) during 3 observation intervals (15 min each) the week before, during, and after exposure to the porches...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555001/out-like-a-light-the-effects-of-a-diurnal-husbandry-schedule-on-mouse-sleep-and-behavior
#11
Amy L Robinson-Junker, Bruce F O'hara, Brianna N Gaskill
Sleep disruption in humans, caused by shift work, can be detrimental to physical and behavioral health. Nocturnal laboratory mice may experience a similar disruption caused by human daytime activities, but whether this disruption affects their welfare is unknown. We used 48 mice (CD1, C57BL/6, and BALB/c of both sexes) in a factorial design to test a sleep disruption treatment, in which mice were disturbed by providing routine husbandry at either 1000 or 2200 during a 12:12-h light:dark cycle, with lights on at 0700...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555000/effect-of-prepregnancy-obesity-on-litter-size-in-primiparous-minipigs
#12
Hong-Quan Luo, Wei-Wang Gu, Li-Wen Huang, Li-Hong Wu, Yu-Guang Tian, Chun-Hua Zheng, Min Yue
Obesity is a public health problem in both developed and developing countries, and the negative effects of obesity on reproductive physiology have been highlighted recently. We evaluated the effects of porcine obesity index, sex hormones, and peptide hormones on litter size in various breeds of minipigs. Blood samples were collected from sedated 8-,10-, and 12-mo-old minipigs to measure preovulatory levels of sex hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and prolactin) and peptide hormones (insulin-like growth factor, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, insulin, and leptin)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554999/reproductive-performance-after-unilateral-or-bilateral-oviduct-transfer-of-2-cell-embryos-in-mice
#13
Esther Mahabir, Ruth Volland, Adrian Landsberger, Sabine Manz, Ellen Na, Iris Urban, Geert Michel
Embryo transfer (ET) is a frequent procedure in contemporary animal and transgenic facilities. We compared the reproductive performance of mice after unilateral and bilateral ET of 15 to 18 two-cell embryos per recipient. The genetic backgrounds of the donors were C57BL/6J (B6J), C57BL/6N (B6N), or fewer than 5 generations of backcrossing to B6 (unknown substrain, <5G B6). The pregnancy rate was significantly higher for bilateral than for unilateral ET for B6J lines (85.4% compared with 79%) but similar between modes for B6N (73...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554998/contribution-of-the-breadth-and-depth-of-iacuc-membership-to-experimental-design-as-a-factor-in-research-reproducibility
#14
Swapna Mohan, Robert W Barbee, Susan B Silk
The IACUC comprises the key component of animal research oversight at any institution or facility and thus has the responsibility to review and approve proposed animal activities. As the primary oversight unit that ensures the quality of animal welfare and therefore contributes to overall research quality, the IACUC can support reproducibility in research by ensuring rigorous experimental design, standardization of care and management, and assessment of the validity of research. An IACUC that is constituted as required by the Animal Welfare Act and the PHS Policy incorporates a wide range of expertise...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554997/the-aalas-journals-2017-in-review
#15
Linda A Toth, Susan Compton, Ravi Tolwani, John Farrar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402355/abstracts-of-scientific-papers-2017-association-of-primate-veterinarians-workshop
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402354/comparison-of-direct-and-indirect-methods-of-measuring-arterial-blood-pressure-in-healthy-male-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#17
Logan K France, Meghan S Vermillion, Caroline M Garrett
Blood pressure is a critical parameter for evaluating cardiovascular health, assessing effects of drugs and procedures, monitoring physiologic status during anesthesia, and making clinical decisions. The placement of an arterial catheter is the most direct and accurate method for measuring blood pressure; however, this approach is invasive and of limited use during brief sedated examinations. The objective of this study was to determine which method of indirect blood pressure monitoring was most accurate compared with measurement by direct arterial catheterization...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402353/effectiveness-of-rapid-cooling-as-a-method-of-euthanasia-for-young-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#18
Chelsea K Wallace, Lauren A Bright, James O Marx, Robert P Andersen, Mary C Mullins, Anthony J Carty
Despite increased use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in biomedical research, consistent information regarding appropriate euthanasia methods, particularly for embryos, is sparse. Current literature indicates that rapid cooling is an effective method of euthanasia for adult zebrafish, yet consistent guidelines regarding zebrafish younger than 6 mo are unavailable. This study was performed to distinguish the age at which rapid cooling is an effective method of euthanasia for zebrafish and the exposure times necessary to reliably euthanize zebrafish using this method...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402352/hydrophobic-sand-versus-metabolic-cages-a-comparison-of-urine-collection-methods-for-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#19
Jessica F Hoffman, Anya X Fan, Elizabeth H Neuendorf, Vernieda B Vergara, John F Kalinich
A common method for urine collection from rats requires the use of a metabolic cage, thus exposing animals to extended periods of isolation in an unfamiliar cage with a wire-mesh floor. A new method involving hydrophobic sand, a material more similar to bedding, has become available recently but has not been extensively compared with metabolic cages in regard to collection efficiency or stress. Using a within-subjects crossover design, we examined differences in stress markers, urinary markers, and urine volume of clinically healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats during 2-, 4-, and 6-h collection sessions in hydrophobic sand and metabolic cages...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402351/accuracy-of-5-point-of-care-glucometers-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#20
Linnea A Morley, Thomas H Gomez, Julia L Goldman, Rene Flores, Mary A Robinson
Despite few published studies that assess the accuracy of glucometers in laboratory animals, glucometers are commonly used in animal research. We set out to determine the accuracy of 5 point-of-care glucometers (POCG) when used to evaluate murine whole blood, plasma, and serum samples. The POCG tested included one veterinary device (POCG A) and 4 humanuse instruments (POCG B through E). Whole blood, plasma, and serum samples from 50 female C57BL/6J mice were analyzed on all POCG, and serum was analyzed on a reference biochemical analyzer...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
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