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Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074740/what-goes-around-can-come-around-an-unexpected-deleterious-effect-of-using-mouse-running-wheels-for-environmental-enrichment
#1
Renee Y
Environmental enrichment items such as running wheels can promote the wellbeing of laboratory mice. Growing evidencesuggests that wheel running simulates exercise effects in many mouse models of human conditions, but this activityalso might change other aspects of mouse behavior. In this case study, we show that the presence of running wheels leadsto pronounced and permanent circling behavior with route-tracing in a proportion of the male mice of a genetically distinctcohort. The genetic background of this cohort includes a mutation in Arhgap19, but genetic crosses showed that an unknownsecond-site mutation likely caused the induced circling behavior...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931327/aclam-position-statement-on-adequate-veterinary-care
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931326/aclam-position-statement-on-reproducibility
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931325/aclam-position-statement-on-rodent-surgery
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931324/aclam-position-statement-on-pain-and-distress-in-research-animals
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931323/lidocaine-hydrochloride-compared-with-ms222-for-the-euthanasia-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#6
Chereen Collymore, E Kate Banks, Patricia V Turner
Despite several shortcomings, MS222 is the most commonly used chemical agent for euthanasia of zebrafish. Although lidocaine hydrochloride has some advantages over MS222, its effectiveness as a euthanasia agent for zebrafish is unknown. Larvae at 9 to 16 d postfertilization were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, or 1000 mg/L lidocaine and observed for cessation of heartbeat. Adult zebrafish were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, or 600 mg/L lidocaine; times to loss of righting reflex, cessation of opercular movement, and complete recovery; body length; aversive behavior; and gross and microscopic evidence of acute toxicity were evaluated...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931322/interstrain-differences-in-co2-induced-pulmonary-hemorrhage-in-mice
#7
Suhrim Fisher, Winona L Burgess, Kenneth D Hines, Gary L Mason, James R Owiny
Carbon dioxide is the most commonly used gas for euthanasia of rodents. The current AVMA Guidelines recommend slowly filling the container with CO2 (SF) and now indicate that the practice of placing conscious animals in containers prefilled with CO2 (PF) is unacceptable. An investigator noted pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) in BALB/c mice euthanized by SF that was not observed after PF. Here we evaluated whether the air-displacement rate (SF compared with PF) influenced the development of PH or nasal hemorrhage (NH) in 2 commonly used mouse strains...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931321/evaluation-of-mice-undergoing-serial-oral-gavage-while-awake-or-anesthetized
#8
Carissa P Jones, Kelli L Boyd, Jeanne M Wallace
Although oral gavage is the most straightforward approach to achieve precise enteric administration in rodents, it is associated with potential adverse consequences. Here we compare the effects of serial oral gavage in awake compared with anesthetized mice. Female C57BL/6J mice (n = 20 per group) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (control, awake gavage, or anesthetized gavage) and gavaged daily with 0.2 mL of saline (with no manipulation on weekends) for a total of 18 treatment days. Body weight and clinical appearance were monitored throughout the treatment period, after which mice were euthanized and necropsied...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931320/constant-rate-infusion-of-dexmedetomidine-to-manage-thiopental-anesthesia-during-intracranial-surgery-in-cynomolgus-macaques-macaca-fascicularis
#9
Noemi Romagnoli, Alessandra Buonacucina, Carlotta Lambertini, Domenico Ventrella, Angelo Peli
Macaques (Macaca spp.) are often used as animal models in biomedical research involving a neurosurgical approach. The development of new anesthetic techniques is pivotal for these studies. Studies in human anesthesia for intracranial surgery have shown that dexmedetomidine infusion reduces the incidence of cardiocirculatory complications in the perioperative period, reduces the need for supplemental analgesia, and provides an analgesic effect analogous to that of remifentanil. Data regarding the anesthetic effects of dexmedetomidine infusion in NHP including Macaca spp...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931319/subcutaneous-compared-with-intraperitoneal-ketaminexylazine-for-anesthesia-of-mice
#10
Maya Levin-Arama, Lital Abraham, Trevor Waner, Alon Harmelin, David M Steinberg, Tal Lahav, Mickey Harlev
Mice are commonly anesthetized intraperitoneally with a ketamine-xylazine (KX) solution. Although this route of administration allows rapid uptake of the injected drugs, its disadvantages and potential risks include pain, peritoneal irritation, and perforation of an abdominal organ; some of the risks depend on the operator's experience. We compared the efficacy of intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration of KX in HSD:ICR, BALB/cOlaHsd, and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice in terms of time to onset and duration of surgical anesthesia, procedure safety, and mortality...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931318/pharmacokinetics-and-paw-withdrawal-pressure-in-female-guinea-pigs-cavia-porcellus-treated-with-sustained-release-buprenorphine-and-buprenorphine-hydrochloride
#11
Brian J Smith, Daniel J Wegenast, Ryan J Hansen, Ann M Hess, Lon V Kendall
Providing appropriate analgesia is essential in minimizing pain and maintaining optimal animal care and welfare in laboratory animals. Guinea pigs are common animal models in biomedical research, often requiring analgesic support. Here we evaluated the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of a sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (Bup-SR) in this species. Guinea pigs (n = 7 each group) received either Bup-HCl (0.05 mg/kg BID for 3 d) or Bup-SR (0.3 mg/kg once). Plasma collection and measurement of paw-withdrawal pressure (PWP) was conducted at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 26, 48, and 72 h after treatment...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931317/influence-of-rack-design-and-disease-prevalence-on-detection-of-rodent-pathogens-in-exhaust-debris-samples-from-individually-ventilated-caging-systems
#12
Beth A Bauer, Cynthia Besch-Williford, Robert S Livingston, Marcus J Crim, Lela K Riley, Matthew H Myles
Sampling of bedding debris within the exhaust systems of ventilated racks may be a mechanism for detecting murine pathogens in colony animals. This study examined the effectiveness of detecting pathogens by PCR analysis of exhaust debris samples collected from ventilated racks of 2 different rack designs, one with unfiltered air flow from within the cage to the air-exhaust pathway, and the other had a filter between the cage and the air-exhaust pathway. For 12 wk, racks were populated with either 1 or 5 cages of mice (3 mice per cage) infected with one of the following pathogens: mouse norovirus (MNV), mouse parvovirus (MPV), mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), Helicobacter spp...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931316/exhaust-air-dust-monitoring-is-superior-to-soiled-bedding-sentinels-for-the-detection-of-pasteurella-pneumotropica-in-individually-ventilated-cage-systems
#13
Manuel Miller, Brbel Ritter, Julia Zorn, Markus Brielmeier
Reliable detection of unwanted organisms is essential for meaningful health monitoring in experimental animal facilities. Currently, most rodents are housed in IVC systems, which prevent the aerogenic transmission of pathogens between cages. Typically soiled-bedding sentinels (SBS) exposed to soiled bedding collected from a population of animals within an IVC rack are tested as representatives, but infectious agents often go undetected due to inefficient transmission. Pasteurellaceae are among the most prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated from experimental mice, and the failure of SBS to detect these bacteria is well established...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931315/factors-affecting-the-vocational-calling-of-laboratory-animal-care-and-research-employees
#14
Gregory P Boivin, Ronald J Markert
We surveyed laboratory animal care and research workers to determine the factors affecting their vocational calling. The survey comprised 56 questions in 4 groups: passion, job stability or happiness, work volition, and demographics. We hypothesized that personnel who worked in the field a longer time, were older, had higher education levels, were involved with AALAS, and in higher positions in their organization were more likely to indicate a calling to the laboratory animal care field. In addition, we hypothesized that job satisfaction and classifying one's job as a calling were positively related to organizational support and work volition...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931314/developing-a-performance-standard-for-adequate-sanitization-of-wire-bar-lids
#15
Linna E Srn, Louise K Hammarberg, Robin J Kastenmayer, Liselotte C Hallengren
The wire-bar lids on rodent cages are an integral part of the microenvironment and as such can impact rodent health and wellbeing. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends changing wire-bar lids every other week but does not include a predetermined performance standard. To develop a sanitization performance standard, we evaluated the bacterial and other cellular burden of wire-bar lids over 4 wk. The results show no significant difference in ATP or bacterial burden over 3 wk of continuous use in conventional cages with standard rodent pelleted or high-fat diet or in IVC with an irradiated diet...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931313/behavioral-effects-of-an-enhanced-enrichment-program-for-group-housed-sooty-mangabeys-cercocebus-atys
#16
Jessica Crast, Mollie A Bloomsmith, Trina J Jonesteller
Evaluating the behavioral effects of enrichment on animals housed in biomedical facilities is necessary to effectively support their care and wellbeing. We tested the cumulative effects of an enhanced enrichment program on sooty mangabey behavior: locomotion, feeding and foraging, manipulating items in the enclosure, social affiliation, aggression, and abnormal behavior. The enhanced enrichment program included the addition of a substrate (timothy hay), widely distributing small pieces of produce and a forage mixture in the hay, adding structures and perching, and increasing the variety of food items, foraging devices, and other manipulable items...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931312/effect-of-overcrowding-on-hair-corticosterone-concentrations-in-juvenile-male-wistar-rats
#17
Duvn G Uarquin, Jerrold S Meyer, Fernando P Cardenas, Manuel J Rojas
In many species, chronic stress due to overcrowding during the juvenile period triggers several metabolic and behavioral pathologies in adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine whether a chronic stress condition (overcrowding) induces changes in plasma and hair corticosterone concentrations, overall growth, and organ weights in young Wistar rats. The experimental subjects were divided into 2 groups (control and overcrowded); the overcrowded subjects were exposed to overcrowding during days 38 through 65 after birth...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931311/cryopreservation-of-cynomolgus-macaque-macaca-fascicularis-sperm-by-using-a-commercial-egg-yolkfree-freezing-medium
#18
Yaping Yan, Lei Ao, Hong Wang, Yanchao Duan, Shaohui Chang, Bingbing Chen, Dalong Zhi, Sujuan Li, Yuyu Niu, Weizhi Ji, Wei Si
Conventional TRISegg yolk (TEY) freezing medium for the cryopreservation of NHP sperm has the risk of contamination due to widespread zoonotic diseases. This study was aimed at determining the optimal glycerol concentration, freezing rate, and holding time in liquid N2 vapor for the cryopreservation of cynomolgus macaque sperm by using a commercial egg-yolkfree freezing medium (SC medium) designed for human sperm cryopreservation. Sperm motility and acrosomal integrity after freezing were assessed. Sperm in SC medium (dilution ratio, 3:1) frozen at cooling rates of 67 and 183C/min in liquid N2 vapor showed higher post-thaw motility than did samples frozen at 435C/min...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931310/booklice-liposcelis-spp-grain-mites-acarus-siro-and-flour-beetles-tribolium-spp-other-pests-occasionally-found-in-laboratory-animal-facilities
#19
Elizabeth A Clemmons, Douglas K Taylor
Pests that infest stored food products are an important problem worldwide. In addition to causing loss and consumer rejection of products, these pests can elicit allergic reactions and perhaps spread disease-causing microorganisms. Booklice (Liposcelis spp.), grain mites (Acarus siro), and flour beetles (Tribolium spp.) are common stored-product pests that have previously been identified in our laboratory animal facility. These pests traditionally are described as harmless to our animals, but their presence can be cause for concern in some cases...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931309/the-social-nature-of-european-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#20
Louis DiVincenti, Angelika N Rehrig
Increasing concerns regarding the wellbeing of laboratory animals have caused biomedical research stakeholders to reconsider traditional housing of laboratory species and to provide social companionship for social species. European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are commonly individually housed in research facilities despite the occurrence of social groups in the wild. Here we review the current literature to provide a comprehensive description of the social behaviors and preferences of rabbits in the wild and in captivity...
November 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
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