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Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314533/sterilization-of-silastic-capsules-containing-17%C3%AE-estradiol-for-effective-hormone-delivery-in-mus-musculus
#1
Aliza R Majewski, Lynn M Chuong, Hannah M Neill, Amy L Roberts, D Joseph Jerry, Karen A Dunphy
Silastic capsules are frequently used to study the physiologic effects of estrogen exposure in animal models. The Officeof Laboratory Animal Welfare requires the sterilization of nonpharmaceutical-grade compounds before use. We compared 2commonly used terminal sterilization methods-ionizing radiation (IR) and ethylene oxide (EO)-for their utility in sterilizingsilastic capsules containing 0.05 or 0.1 mg 17β-estradiol (E2). E2-specific ELISA demonstrated that serum estrogen levelsdid not differ between mice implanted with 0...
October 12, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305200/using-hysterectomy-rederivation-to-produce-guinea-pigs-cavia-porcellus-free-of-guinea-pig-cytomegalovirus
#2
Kathleen R Pritchett Corning, Guy B Mulder, Kenneth S Henderson
Due to similarities in placentation, guinea pigs can be used as models of human cytomegalovirus infection, but they mustbe free of guinea pig cytomegalovirus. Many commercial guinea pig colonies are enzootically infected with guinea pigcytomegalovirus, which can be transmitted vertically as well as horizontally through saliva, vaginal secretions, and milk.These characteristics make its eradication in a commercial setting challenging. Because embryo transfer technology in guineapigs is in its infancy, it is not generally a viable option for obtaining animals free of guinea pig cytomegalovirus...
October 10, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305198/home-cage-compared-with-induction-chamber-for-euthanasia-of-laboratory-rats
#3
Debra L Hickman
This study compared behavioral and physiologic changes in Sprague-Dawley and Brown Norway rats that were euthanizedby using a 30% volume displacement rate of CO2 in either their home cage or an induction chamber; rats euthanized in thehome cage were hypothesized to demonstrate a higher level of animal wellbeing. No significant differences were detectedin the physiologic responses to home cage versus induction chamber euthanasia groups. A few strain-related behavioraldifferences occurred. The number of digs per second was higher in Brown Norway compared with Sprague-Dawley rats when in the home cage, where a digging substrate was present...
October 10, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305196/interpreting-neuroendocrine-hormones-corticosterone-and-blood-glucose-to-assess-the-wellbeing-of-anesthetized-rats-during-euthanasia
#4
Debra L Hickman
Current recommendations for assessing animal wellbeing during euthanasia suggest that measuring neuroendocrine hormones-such as ACTH, noradrenaline, and adrenaline-is preferable to measuring corticosterone and blood glucose because of the sensitivity of neuroendocrine hormones to the acute stress associated with rapid methods of euthanasia. However, theseneuroendocrine hormones can be stimulated in ways that confound interpretation of welfare assessment in euthanasia studies.Although this property does not negate the usefulness of neuroendocrine hormones as tools of assessment, it is importantto differentiate the stress associated with the induction of anesthesia before the loss of consciousness (an animal wellbeingconcern) with the physiologic responses that occur after the loss of consciousness (not an animal wellbeing concern)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208991/reference-intervals-for-plasma-biochemical-variables-by-point-of-care-testing-in-captive-black-tailed-prairie-dogs-cynomys-ludovicianus
#5
David Eshar, Sara M Gardhouse, Diana Schwartz, Hugues Beaufrere
Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are kept in zoological collections, maintained as companion pets, and aretested in field and laboratory settings. Biochemical analysis for routine health and research purposes can be performed byusing point-of-care (POC) testing; however, analyzer- and species-specific reference intervals need to be determined. In this prospective study, 50 captive-raised sexually intact prairie dogs (16 females, 34 males) underwent plasma biochemical analysisby using a veterinary POC biochemical analyzer...
September 12, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208990/effects-of-laboratory-animal-science-training-on-scientists-attitudes-and-practice-in-egypt
#6
Khadiga Gaafar, Sohair R Fahmy
The implementation of principles and guidelines that govern the various areas of research in an educational institution isone of the key factors in international recognition of its research integrity and value. The privilege of conducting research using animal subjects requires adherence to international regulations and standards governing the humane care and use of laboratory animals. The IACUC at our university deemed it critical to have an animal care and use training program to raise researchers' understanding and knowledge...
September 12, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208989/evaluation-of-infrared-thermography-for-temperature-measurement-in-adult-male-nmri-nude-mice
#7
Kerstin Fiebig, Thomas Jourdan, Martin H Kock, Roswitha Merle, Christa Thöne-Reineke
Temperature monitoring during critical care provides important data required to guide treatment delivery. Body temperatureis an easily quantified clinical parameter that can yield much information concerning the health of an animal. In researchsettings, temperature has been adopted as a means to judge humane endpoints. Therefore, reliable, noninvasive, and inexpensivemethods for temperature monitoring are becoming a necessity in research laboratories. This study aimed to determinethe accuracy and agreement of using an infrared camera as an alternative method of temperature measurement in mice andto compare the accuracy of this noninvasive method with established subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, and rectal techniques...
September 12, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185286/effects-of-extruded-compared-with-pelleted-diets-on-laboratory-mice-housed-in-individually-ventilated-cages-and-the-cage-environment
#8
Daveeta Rm Levy, Rene Flores, Gloria E Garcia, Suzanne L Craig, V Behrana Jensen
The physical form of the diet fed to laboratory animals should be evaluated to reduce experimental variations and confoundingfactors. This 14-d study evaluated the effects of diet form (pelleted or extruded) on intracage ammonia concentrations,feed disappearance, body weight, cage weight, and the degree of cage soilage and whether these effects were influenced bystrain or stock or sex. Mice (C57BL/6, ICR, and nude; age, 4 wk) were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups representingpelleted and extruded diets from each of 2 vendors (pelleted diet groups, P1 and P2; extruded diet groups, E1 and E2)...
September 5, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236173/abstracts-of-scientific-presentations-2018-aalas-national-meeting-baltimore-maryland
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185284/ivermectin-compounded-feed-compared-with-topical-moxidectin-imidacloprid-for-eradication-of-demodex-musculi-in-laboratory-mice
#10
Melissa A Nashat, Rodolfo J Ricart Arbona, Michelle L Lepherd, Sara F Santagostino, Robert S Livingston, Elyn R Riedel, Neil S Lipman
Demodex musculi is a prostigmatid follicular mite that has rarely been reported in laboratory mice. Although prevalence of this species has not been assessed formally, we have found that many imported mouse strains from noncommercial sources harbor Demodex mites. To assess whether an acaricide can be used to eradicate this mite, infested immunocompromised mice were provided ivermectin-compounded (12 ppm) feed without restriction for 8 wk (n = 10), were treated topically with moxidectin and imidacloprid (MI; 3 and 13 mg/kg, respectively) weekly for 8 wk (n = 10), or remained untreated (n = 10)...
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165921/sex-and-strain-related-differences-in-the-stress-response-of-mice-to-co%C3%A2-euthanasia
#11
Michelle A Creamer-Hente, Fironica K Lao, Zala P Dragos, Linda L Waterman
The 2013 edition of the AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals recommends a 10% to 30% volume displacement rate (VDR) per minute for CO2 euthanasia of rodents. Here we sought to evaluate behavior and plasma catecholamine levels in multiple strains of male and female mice, euthanized individually or in a group, with CO2 VDR of 10% to 100%. Behavioral observations included ataxia, labored breathing, time to recumbency, time to surgical plane of anesthesia, and the number of jumps or paws at the face during the euthanasia process...
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165920/dna-based-determination-of-ancestry-in-cynomolgus-macaques-macaca-fascicularis
#12
George Q Day, Jillian Ng, Robert F Oldt, Paul W Houghton, David Glenn Smith, Sree Kanthaswamy
Interest in the genetic composition of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) has increased due to the rising demand for NHP models in human biomedical research. Significant genetic differences among regional populations of cynomolgus macaques can confound interpretations of research results because they do not solely reflect differences in experimental treatment effects. Therefore, the common origin of cynomolgus macaques used as research subjects should be verified by using region-specific genetic markers to minimize the influence of underlying genetic variation among animals selected as research subjects on phenotypes under study...
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30157991/administering-fixed-oral-doses-of-curcumin-to-rats-through-voluntary-consumption
#13
Ashleigh J Hocking, David Elliot, Jin Hua, Sonja Klebe
Curcumin, a polyphenol derived from turmeric, has a wide variety of therapeutic benefits including antiinflammatory, antioxidative, and chemopreventative effects. Oral gavage is widely performed to administer curcumin in laboratory rodents in several experimental models. Although effective, this method can increase stress in the animal, potentially influencing experimental results. Moreover, oral gavage can result in mortality due to accidental instillation of fluid into the lungs, serious mechanical damage, and gavage-related reflux...
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107866/contaminated-shipping-materials-identified-as-the-source-of-rotaviral-infection-of-exported-mice
#14
Krista E Lindstrom, Kenneth S Henderson, Melinda S Mayorga, Veronica A Kuiper, James D Wilkerson
Over a 4-wk period in 2017, we received notification from 7 different institutions that mice exported from our SPF barrier facilities had tested positive for mouse rotavirus (MRV). The exports originated from several different buildings across multiple campuses. Our institution excludes MRV in all of our barrier facilities and has historically been free of this virus. Extensive testing of our rooms from which the exported mice originated did not detect the presence of rotavirus. The single commonality among the 7 shipments was the use of shipping boxes acquired from one vendor...
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092857/pcr-testing-of-filter-material-from-ivc-lids-for-microbial-monitoring-of-mouse-colonies
#15
Ariana R Dubelko, Metanuj Zuwannin, Samantha C McIntee, Robert S Livingston, Patricia L Foley
Testing sentinel animals exposed to soiled bedding from colony animals is the most common method used for health monitoring in rodent facilities. Although environmental sampling is being explored-and, in many cases, has been implemented-as an alternative, exhaust plenum sampling is not effective for all ventilated rack designs. This study evaluated PCR testing of filter paper from sentinel cages on ventilated racks. We hypothesized that testing filter paper from cages containing soiled bedding would be as effective as testing sentinel mice and that periodic shaking of cages would generate sufficient particulate movement to substitute for the presence of live animals...
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092855/evaluation-of-analgesic-efficacy-of-meloxicam-and-2-formulations-of-buprenorphine-after-laparotomy-in-female-sprague-dawley-rats
#16
Elizabeth A Nunamaker, Julia L Goldman, Cynthia R Adams, Jeffrey D Fortman
Managing postoperative pain in rodents is an important part of any animal care and use program, and identifying an optimal analgesic plan for a surgical procedure is critical to providing for animal welfare. Opioids and NSAID are commonly used in rodents, but few studies have evaluated their efficacy in surgical models. The current study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of clinically relevant doses of buprenorphine (2 formulations) or meloxicam used in combination with ketamine and xylazine anesthesia in a Sprague-Dawley rat ovariohysterectomy surgical model...
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075826/improving-the-patency-of-jugular-vein-catheters-in-sprague-dawley-rats-by-using-an-antiseptic-nitrocellulose-coating
#17
Thomas De Luca, Keely L Szilágyi, Katherine A Hargreaves, Kimberly S Collins, Eric A Benson
Preclinical studies in animals often require frequent blood sampling over prolonged periods. A preferred method in rats is the implantation of a polyurethane catheter into the jugular vein, with heparinized glycerol as a lock solution. However, analysis of various biologic compounds (for example, microRNA) precludes the use of heparin. We used sodium citrate as an alternative to heparin but observed more frequent loss of catheter patency. We hypothesized that this effect was due to evaporation of lock solution at the exteriorized portion of the catheter, subsequent blood infiltration into the catheter, and ultimately clot formation within the catheter...
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060780/vibration-induced-behavioral-responses-and-response-threshold-in-female-c57bl-6-mice
#18
Angela M Garner, John N Norton, Will L Kinard, Grace E Kissling, Randall P Reynolds
Despite documented adverse effects, limits for rodent exposure to vibration in the laboratory animal facility have not been established. This study used female C57BL/6 mice to determine the frequencies of vibration at which mice were most sensitive to behavioral changes, the highest magnitude of vibration that would not cause behavioral changes, the behavioral changes that occur in response to vibration, and the extent to which mice habituate to vibration. Mice were exposed to frequencies of vibration between 20 and 190 Hz at accelerations of 0...
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021671/hepatic-vitamin-a-concentrations-in-vervets-chlorocebus-aethiops-supplemented-with-carotenoids-derived-from-oil-palm
#19
Stephanie J Mondloch, Sherry A Tanumihardjo, Christopher R Davis, Paul J van Jaarsveld
Commonly used in biomedical research, vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops) are omnivorous but primarily meet their vitamin A requirements from provitamin A carotenoids. Hypervitaminosis A has occurred in vervets that consume feed high in preformed vitamin A. We investigated the vitamin A status of vervets supplemented daily with various antioxidants derived from palm oil. Male vervets (n = 40) were placed for 23 wk on a high-fat diet (34.9% energy) containing 645 μ g retinol activity equivalents (RAE), with 515 μ g RAE from preformed vitamin A...
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012240/effects-of-3-rodent-beddings-on-biochemical-measures-in-rats-and-mice
#20
Ayman S Mohamed, Sohair R Fahmy, Amel M Soliman, Khadiga M Gaafar
Components of bedding might interact with experimental treatments and affect the outcome of various experiments. Here we studied the biochemical effects of 3 rodent bedding materials that are commonly used in Egypt. Male and female rats and mice were assigned randomly into 4 single-sex and single-species groups (10 animals per group). Three types of bedding-rice straw, wheat straw, and pine wood shavings-were evaluated. After 4 wk, animals were euthanized, and biochemical parameters were measured. In male and female rats given wood shavings, serum ALT activity and malondialdehyde concentration increased whereas catalase activity decreased compared with levels in the wheat straw group...
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
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