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Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30526731/wellbeing-of-alcohol-preferring-rats-euthanized-with-carbon-dioxide-at-very-low-and-low-volume-displacement-rates
#1
Debra L Hickman
The 2013 AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia recommend the use of very-low or low flow rates of 100% carbon dioxide to euthanizesmall rodents. Although inhalation of high concentrations of carbon dioxide are generally recognized as painful inhumans, whether the use of these low-flow methods of euthanasia increase potential distress for rats is unclear. This studycompared physiologic and behavioral markers of animal wellbeing for rats euthanized by using 10% volume displacement per minute (VD/min), 30% VD/min, and 70% VD/min of 100% carbon dioxide...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30526727/3d-printed-wash-station-with-integrated-anesthesia-delivery-manifold-for-high-throughput-depilation-of-laboratory-mice
#2
Lucas D Liepert, Jordan Raphel, Victoria L Smith, Nicole Reilly, Sarah Khan, Christopher Dethlefs, Sarah Chapman, Satish Adusumilli, W Matthew Leevy
Depilation (that is, hair removal) is a necessary prerequisite for many small animal surgeries and optical imaging experiments.Over-the-counter depilatory creams are widely used, owing to their efficacy, safety, and low rates of skin irritationand infection. However, the use of these creams is generally messy and time-consuming and generates considerable waste.Furthermore, the process itself varies markedly among laboratories. Here we present a 3D-printed device that simplifies the depilation procedure by integrating 3 key elements: 1) a multiple-port, self-scavenging anesthesia manifold, 2) curved animal holders with flow-through slats, and 3) a removable waste collection tray...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497541/anesthesia-and-euthanasia-of-brine-shrimp-artemia-franciscana
#3
Amanda K Darbyshire, Kendra H Oliver, William D Dupont, W Dale Plummer, Carissa P Jones, Kelli L Boyd
Invertebrates are often overlooked as laboratory animals, yet they are commonly used in toxicology, developmental, cellularand molecular biology, and radiation studies with euthanasia as an endpoint. Little is known regarding appropriate euthanasia methods for invertebrate species, particularly for Artemia. Here, we evaluated the AVMA-recommended 2-step method of euthanasia in brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana). Artemia were exposed first to anesthetic solutions of 60% alcohol, 2.5 mg/L eugenol, or 4 g/L tricaine methanesulfonate (TMS) and then were transferred to euthanasia solutions of 70% alcohol, 95% alcohol, or 10% neutral buffered formalin...
November 29, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497539/effects-of-intrauterine-air-bubbles-on-embryonic-development-in-mice
#4
Hua Li, Rongyan Zhou, Yimeng Li, Ruonan Liu, Yanping Miao, Bin Zhang, Xinglong Wu, Shu Zhang, Fuchou Tang, Xiangyun Li
During murine embryo transfer, air bubbles frequently are loaded with embryos into the transfer catheter, but the role of air bubbles on embryonic development is unclear. This study shows that intrauterine air disrupted embryo spacing, induceddeciduoma, and impaired postimplantation development. RNA sequencing showed that the gene expression profile of air-induced deciduoma differed significantly from that of embryo-induced decidua but is similar to tetraploid-induced deciduoma. A subset of 33 common genes was upregulated in the embryo-induced decidua compared with air- or tetraploidinduced deciduoma...
November 29, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401066/validation-of-an-autoclave-procedure-for-sterilization-of-mouse-mus-musculus-carcasses
#5
Marina C Pils, Katrin Kränzler, Petra Beyer, Ulrike Heise, Bastian Pasche, Hermann Riedesel
The sterilization of potentially infectious animal carcasses is an important biologic safety issue in animal facilities operatingas infection or quarantine barriers. However, the literature lacks a validated protocol. Here we describe the validation of anautoclave program suitable for daily use in a small rodent biocontainment unit. We evaluated several procedures for processing mouse carcasses in a standard autoclave. Heat sensors and biologic indicators were implanted inside the peritoneal cavity of dead mice, which were loaded at various densities into IVC cages or metal boxes...
November 6, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396377/comparison-of-dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam-and-isoflurane-for-anesthesia-of-black-tailed-prairie-dogs-cynomys-ludovicianus
#6
Geoffrey R Browning, David Eshar, Hugues Beaufrere
Few studies evaluate anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Isoflurane inhalant anesthesia is usedin this species most commonly, but injectable protocols are poorly described. Here we compared the physiologic effects, including anesthetic depth, vital signs, and hematologic changes, of anesthetic protocols using isoflurane or a combination ofdexmedetomidine, ketamine, and midazolam in black-tailed prairie dogs. In a randomized, complete crossover study design, intact male black-tailed prairie dogs (n = 9; age, 6 mo) were anesthetized by using a combination of dexmedetomidine (0...
November 5, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30360773/acrylamide-production-in-autoclaved-rodent-feed
#7
David M Kurtz, Rallene Glascoe, Gordon Caviness, Jacqueline Locklear, Tanya Whiteside, Toni Ward, Floyd Adsit, Fred Lih, Leesa J Deterding, Mona I Churchwell, Daniel R Doerge, Grace E Kissling
Sterilization of rodent feed by steam autoclaving is a common practice in many research institutions. Often we only considerthe beneficial effects of this process-the reduction of microbial contamination-and forget that the high temperatures andpressures can have negative effects on diet quality. The purpose of our study was to assess both the physical and chemicalchanges to a standard rodent feed autoclaved at multiple sterilization temperatures and the effects of the treated diets on mice. Pelleted NIH31 rodent feed was autoclaved at 4 sterilization temperatures (230, 250, 260, and 270 °F)...
October 25, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30360772/effects-of-music-enrichment-on-individually-housed-male-new-zealand-white-rabbits
#8
Jessica L Peveler, Debra L Hickman
The beneficial effect of music has been demonstrated in many species. Although commercially available music CDs intended for use with rabbits are available, these enrichments have not been critically evaluated to determine whether they reduce distress. In this study, we used an aging colony of male rabbits to evaluate how the provision of music enrichment affected the wellbeing of the colony. After 6 mo of music enrichment, the rabbits in the colony demonstrated a significant decrease in fecal cortisol, suggesting that their stress was reduced...
October 25, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30360771/body-condition-scoring-for-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#9
Tannia S Clark, Lauren M Pandolfo, Christopher M Marshall, Apratim K Mitra, Joseph M Schech
Body condition scoring (BCS) is a simple, rapid, noninvasive tool used to assess body condition in animals. In this study, wedeveloped and validated a diagram-based BCS for adult zebrafish (Danio rerio), a popular research model. After receiving 20min of hands-on training regarding the scoring system, 5 people each rated 95 adult zebrafish. The fish then were euthanizedand measured to establish body condition indices (BMI and the Fulton K factor). Both condition indices were highly correlatedwith fish width...
October 25, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348248/preventing-adverse-events-at-research-facilities
#10
V Wensley Koch
In this article, adverse events are defined as events that lead to significant injury or illness, unrelieved pain or distress, orthe death of an animal, excluding those caused by IACUC-approved research procedures. The ability to identify possible adverse events is an essential step in planning for risk prevention and mitigation. Using data from news sources and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) website, this article provides guidance to research facilities regarding various types of adverse events to consider in risk management plans because these events might occur or have occurred and, in some cases, have been documented as noncompliances at APHIS-regulated research facilities...
October 22, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314533/sterilization-of-silastic-capsules-containing-17%C3%AE-estradiol-for-effective-hormone-delivery-in-mus-musculus
#11
Aliza R Majewski, Lynn M Chuong, Hannah M Neill, Amy L Roberts, D Joseph Jerry, Karen A Dunphy
Silastic capsules are frequently used to study the physiologic effects of estrogen exposure in animal models. The Officeof Laboratory Animal Welfare requires the sterilization of nonpharmaceutical-grade compounds before use. We compared 2commonly used terminal sterilization methods-ionizing radiation (IR) and ethylene oxide (EO)-for their utility in sterilizingsilastic capsules containing 0.05 or 0.1 mg 17β-estradiol (E2). E2-specific ELISA demonstrated that serum estrogen levelsdid not differ between mice implanted with 0...
October 12, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305200/using-hysterectomy-rederivation-to-produce-guinea-pigs-cavia-porcellus-free-of-guinea-pig-cytomegalovirus
#12
Kathleen R Pritchett Corning, Guy B Mulder, Kenneth S Henderson
Due to similarities in placentation, guinea pigs can be used as models of human cytomegalovirus infection, but they mustbe free of guinea pig cytomegalovirus. Many commercial guinea pig colonies are enzootically infected with guinea pigcytomegalovirus, which can be transmitted vertically as well as horizontally through saliva, vaginal secretions, and milk.These characteristics make its eradication in a commercial setting challenging. Because embryo transfer technology in guineapigs is in its infancy, it is not generally a viable option for obtaining animals free of guinea pig cytomegalovirus...
October 10, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305198/home-cage-compared-with-induction-chamber-for-euthanasia-of-laboratory-rats
#13
Debra L Hickman
This study compared behavioral and physiologic changes in Sprague-Dawley and Brown Norway rats that were euthanizedby using a 30% volume displacement rate of CO2 in either their home cage or an induction chamber; rats euthanized in thehome cage were hypothesized to demonstrate a higher level of animal wellbeing. No significant differences were detectedin the physiologic responses to home cage versus induction chamber euthanasia groups. A few strain-related behavioraldifferences occurred. The number of digs per second was higher in Brown Norway compared with Sprague-Dawley rats when in the home cage, where a digging substrate was present...
October 10, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305196/interpreting-neuroendocrine-hormones-corticosterone-and-blood-glucose-to-assess-the-wellbeing-of-anesthetized-rats-during-euthanasia
#14
Debra L Hickman
Current recommendations for assessing animal wellbeing during euthanasia suggest that measuring neuroendocrine hormones-such as ACTH, noradrenaline, and adrenaline-is preferable to measuring corticosterone and blood glucose because of the sensitivity of neuroendocrine hormones to the acute stress associated with rapid methods of euthanasia. However, theseneuroendocrine hormones can be stimulated in ways that confound interpretation of welfare assessment in euthanasia studies.Although this property does not negate the usefulness of neuroendocrine hormones as tools of assessment, it is importantto differentiate the stress associated with the induction of anesthesia before the loss of consciousness (an animal wellbeingconcern) with the physiologic responses that occur after the loss of consciousness (not an animal wellbeing concern)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208991/reference-intervals-for-plasma-biochemical-variables-by-point-of-care-testing-in-captive-black-tailed-prairie-dogs-cynomys-ludovicianus
#15
David Eshar, Sara M Gardhouse, Diana Schwartz, Hugues Beaufrere
Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are kept in zoological collections, maintained as companion pets, and aretested in field and laboratory settings. Biochemical analysis for routine health and research purposes can be performed byusing point-of-care (POC) testing; however, analyzer- and species-specific reference intervals need to be determined. In this prospective study, 50 captive-raised sexually intact prairie dogs (16 females, 34 males) underwent plasma biochemical analysisby using a veterinary POC biochemical analyzer...
September 12, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208990/effects-of-laboratory-animal-science-training-on-scientists-attitudes-and-practice-in-egypt
#16
Khadiga Gaafar, Sohair R Fahmy
The implementation of principles and guidelines that govern the various areas of research in an educational institution isone of the key factors in international recognition of its research integrity and value. The privilege of conducting research using animal subjects requires adherence to international regulations and standards governing the humane care and use of laboratory animals. The IACUC at our university deemed it critical to have an animal care and use training program to raise researchers' understanding and knowledge...
September 12, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30208989/evaluation-of-infrared-thermography-for-temperature-measurement-in-adult-male-nmri-nude-mice
#17
Kerstin Fiebig, Thomas Jourdan, Martin H Kock, Roswitha Merle, Christa Thöne-Reineke
Temperature monitoring during critical care provides important data required to guide treatment delivery. Body temperatureis an easily quantified clinical parameter that can yield much information concerning the health of an animal. In researchsettings, temperature has been adopted as a means to judge humane endpoints. Therefore, reliable, noninvasive, and inexpensivemethods for temperature monitoring are becoming a necessity in research laboratories. This study aimed to determinethe accuracy and agreement of using an infrared camera as an alternative method of temperature measurement in mice andto compare the accuracy of this noninvasive method with established subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, and rectal techniques...
September 12, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185286/effects-of-extruded-compared-with-pelleted-diets-on-laboratory-mice-housed-in-individually-ventilated-cages-and-the-cage-environment
#18
Daveeta Rm Levy, Rene Flores, Gloria E Garcia, Suzanne L Craig, V Behrana Jensen
The physical form of the diet fed to laboratory animals should be evaluated to reduce experimental variations and confoundingfactors. This 14-d study evaluated the effects of diet form (pelleted or extruded) on intracage ammonia concentrations,feed disappearance, body weight, cage weight, and the degree of cage soilage and whether these effects were influenced bystrain or stock or sex. Mice (C57BL/6, ICR, and nude; age, 4 wk) were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups representingpelleted and extruded diets from each of 2 vendors (pelleted diet groups, P1 and P2; extruded diet groups, E1 and E2)...
September 5, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236173/abstracts-of-scientific-presentations-2018-aalas-national-meeting-baltimore-maryland
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185284/ivermectin-compounded-feed-compared-with-topical-moxidectin-imidacloprid-for-eradication-of-demodex-musculi-in-laboratory-mice
#20
Melissa A Nashat, Rodolfo J Ricart Arbona, Michelle L Lepherd, Sara F Santagostino, Robert S Livingston, Elyn R Riedel, Neil S Lipman
Demodex musculi is a prostigmatid follicular mite that has rarely been reported in laboratory mice. Although prevalence of this species has not been assessed formally, we have found that many imported mouse strains from noncommercial sources harbor Demodex mites. To assess whether an acaricide can be used to eradicate this mite, infested immunocompromised mice were provided ivermectin-compounded (12 ppm) feed without restriction for 8 wk (n = 10), were treated topically with moxidectin and imidacloprid (MI; 3 and 13 mg/kg, respectively) weekly for 8 wk (n = 10), or remained untreated (n = 10)...
September 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
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