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Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025816/pharmacokinetics-of-ceftiofur-crystalline-free-acid-in-clinically-healthy-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris
#1
Sarah E Hooper, Scott W Korte, Steeve Giguère, William H Fales, Jennifer L Davis, Lonny W Dixon
Economical, injectable antibiotics are beneficial when clinical manifestations of an animal model prevent the use of oral antibiotics. Ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) is an injectable, sustained-release form of ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin that is labeled for use in swine, cattle, and horses. Because CCFA is an economical, injectable antibiotic that could be of value for use in research dogs, the objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of CCFA in apparently healthy dogs and to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of ceftiofur for veterinary pathogens cultured during 2011 through 2014 from the respiratory system, integumentary system, and urinary system of dogs...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025815/measurement-of-tear-production-in-english-angora-and-dutch-rabbits
#2
Seyed Mehdi Rajaei, Siamak Mashhady Rafiee, Masoud Selk Ghaffari, Mohammad N Masouleh, Mahmoud Jamshidian
The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for tear production tests in different breeds of domestic rabbits. Healthy adult rabbits (n = 60; 120 eyes) of 2 different breeds (English angora and Dutch; n = 15 of each sex and breed) were used in this study. Tear production was measured by using the 1-min Schirmer tear test (STT), phenol red thread test (PRTT), and endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPTT). In addition, horizontal palpebral fissure length was evaluated as a measure of ocular adnexal dimensions...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025814/an-impedance-based-model-for-the-assessment-of-cardiopulmonary-function-in-rabbits
#3
Michael S Horsmon, Nicole M Vincelli, James T Taylor, Robert L Kristovich
Improving the quality of physiologic data collected from research animals is most easily accomplished by collecting as much information as possible from a single subject, thereby reducing animal use and error associated with satellite groups. We investigated the feasibility of using a large-animal implantable telemetry device in New Zealand white rabbits (n = 6). The first task was to develop an implantation technique that yielded calibrated tidal volume (Vt) measurements that were within 10% of those obtained simultaneously from a pneumotachograph, a low-noise electrocardiogram, and stable blood pressure...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025813/effects-of-axial-vibration-on-needle-insertion-into-the-tail-veins-of-rats-and-subsequent-serial-blood-corticosterone-levels
#4
Ryan S Clement, Erica L Unger, Olga M Ocón-Grove, Thomas L Cronin, Maureen L Mulvihill
Blood collection is commonplace in biomedical research. Obtaining sufficient sample while minimizing animal stress requires significant skill and practice. Repeated needle punctures can cause discomfort and lead to variable release of stress hormones, potentially confounding analysis. We designed a handheld device to reduce the force necessary for needle insertion by using low-frequency, axial (forward and backward) micromotions (that is, vibration) delivered to the needle during venipuncture. Tests with cadaver rat-tail segments (n = 18) confirmed that peak insertion forces were reduced by 73% on average with needle vibration...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025812/comparison-of-2-ethyl-cyanoacrylate-and-2-butyl-cyanoacrylate-for-use-on-the-calvaria-of-cd1-mice
#5
Joanne J Sohn, Theresa M Gruber, Joanne L Zahorsky-Reeves, Greg W Lawson
Short-chain cyanoacrylates (SCCA), such as ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (KrazyGlue, Aron Alpha, Columbus, OH) are commonly used as commercial fast-acting glues. Although once used in clinical medicine as skin adhesives, these products caused tissue toxicity and thus their use in live tissue was discontinued. SCCA were replaced by longer-chain versions (LCCA), such as butyl-cyanoacrylate (Vetbond, 3M, St Paul, Minnesota), which were found to be less toxic than the short-chain formulations. Some researchers prefer to use SCCA due to the belief that they create a stronger bond than do the longer-chain counterparts...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025811/tattooing-various-combinations-of-ears-tail-and-toes-to-identify-mice-reliably-and-permanently
#6
Miao Chen, Lijuan Kan, Benjamin T Ledford, Jia-Qiang He
Uniquely identifying research animals is a widespread and essential procedure. Potential disadvantages of commonly used identification methods such as toe clipping, ear punching, and ear tagging include tissue loss and adverse effects in physiologic homeostasis and animal behavior. In addition, the labels produced by using these methods can become unreadable, potentially leading to misidentification. In this study, we proposed a combined approach involving ear, tail, and toe tattooing that can be used to permanently identify mice regardless of their age...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025810/factors-in-the-selection-of-surface-disinfectants-for-use-in-a-laboratory-animal-setting
#7
Michael V Campagna, Emmanuelle Faure-Kumar, Janet A Treger, Jesse D Cushman, Tristan R Grogan, Noriyuki Kasahara, Gregory W Lawson
Because surface disinfectants are an important means of pathogen control within laboratory animal facilities, these products must have an appropriate spectrum of antimicrobial activity. However, many other factors must also be considered, including effects on human health, environmental safety, and animal behavior. Aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite often are considered to be the 'gold standard' for surface disinfection, but these products can be corrosive, caustic, and aversive in odor. This study was designed to identify disinfectants that are as effective as hypochlorite solutions but more acceptable for use in a laboratory animal setting...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025809/association-of-primate-veterinarians-2014-nonhuman-primate-housing-survey
#8
B Taylor Bennett
The Board of Directors of the Association of Primate Veterinarians supported conducting a survey to determine how NHP were housed in USDA-registered research facilities. The data generated were to be used to refute allegations in a petition filed with the USDA by the New England Antivivisectionist Society, which alleged that the proportion of NHP housed singly had not improved since the implementation of the standards contained in §3.81 of the Animal Welfare Regulations. The survey gathered housing information on approximately 90% of the NHP housed in research facilities in FY2014...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025808/effects-of-nominal-differences-in-cage-height-and-floor-space-on-the-wellbeing-of-rabbits
#9
Kay L Stewart, Mark A Suckow
The 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends a cage height of 16 in. for rabbits, compared with 14 in. in the previous edition. In contrast, the Animal Welfare Act Regulations prescribes a cage height of 14 in. for rabbits. A review of the literature failed to identify published data that support an advantage to rabbits having 16 in. of cage height compared with 14 or 15 in. The study described here evaluated the effect of a 3-in. difference in cage height on the health, growth, behavior, and overall wellbeing of rabbits...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025807/temperature-preference-in-iaf-hairless-and-hartley-guinea-pigs-cavia-porcellus
#10
Gale A Kleven, Prianca Joshi
The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025806/the-uterus-duplex-bicollis-vagina-simplex-of-female-chinchillas
#11
Carla L Jarrett, Timothy R Jarrett, Stephen B Harvey, Leanne Alworth
The available literature describing the morphology of the female chinchilla's uterine cervix varies and includes phrases such as 'the cervical canal,' 'a single cervix,' and 'the cervix;' alternatively, some publications describe 2 cervices. In this report, we provide an anatomically correct and definitive description of the uterine cervical morphology of the laboratory chinchilla. We further propose revised, anatomically precise nomenclature to characterize the female chinchilla reproductive tract as a whole...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025805/normal-electrocardiogram-of-bama-miniature-pigs-sus-scrofa-domestica
#12
Shi-Bin Zhang, Ke-Nan Guo, Fei Xie, Yu Liu, Hai-Tao Shang, Hong Wei
This study determined the normal ECG patterns and values for Bama miniature pigs. Standard limb-lead ECG were recorded from 120 clinically healthy, unanesthetized piglets (age, 2 to 4 mo). The values for the ECG parameters (mean ± 1 SD) were: heart rate, 125.56 ± 18.80 bpm; P amplitude, 0.11 ± 0.03 mV; QRS amplitude, 0.63 ± 0.31 mV; P duration, 43.99 ± 5.98 ms; QRS complex, 55.27 ± 7.02 ms; RR interval, 487.55 ± 77.32 ms; PR interval, 90.72 ± 11.94 ms; QT interval, 244.72 ± 25.27 ms; and mean electrical axis, 22...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025804/the-population-genetic-composition-of-conventional-and-spf-colonies-of-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-at-the-caribbean-primate-research-center
#13
Sreetharan Kanthaswamy, Jillian Ng, Raisa Hernández-Pacheco, Angelina Ruiz-Lambides, Elizabeth Maldonado, Melween I Martínez, Carlos A Sariol
The SPF breeding program at the Caribbean Primate Research Center supplies Indian-origin rhesus macaques of known genetic and virologic background for biomedical research. In this study, population genetic analyses using 14 short tandem-repeat sequences showed that the SPF colony has remained genetically homogenous over time, with sufficient amounts of heterozygosity and minimal stratification from its founders. Intergenerational studies indicated that an average of 7 alleles have been retained, inbreeding levels have remained low, and the degree of Indian ancestry is one of the highest among several national primate research centers...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025803/plasma-metabolomics-of-common-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus-to-evaluate-diet-and-feeding-husbandry
#14
Sophia A Banton, Quinlyn A Soltow, Ken H Liu, Karan Uppal, Daniel E L Promislow, Michael L Power, Suzette D Tardif, Lynn M Wachtman, Dean P Jones
Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are an important NHP model for the study of human aging and age-related diseases. However, the full potential of marmosets as a research model has not been realized due to a lack of evidence-based, standardized procedures for their captive management, especially regarding diet and feeding husbandry. In the present study, we conducted a high-resolution metabolomics analysis of plasma from marmosets from a 3-mo dietary crossover study to determine whether significant metabolic differences occur with a semisynthetic chemically defined (purified) diet as needed for controlled nutrition research...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27025802/postnatal-development-of-the-craniofacial-skeleton-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#15
A Murat Maga
C57BL/6J is one of the most commonly used inbred mouse strains in biomedical research, including studies of craniofacial development and teratogenic studies of craniofacial malformation. The current study quantitatively assessed the development of the skull in male C57BL/6J mice by using high-resolution 3D imaging of 55 landmarks from 48 male mice over 10 developmental time points from postnatal day 0 to 90. The growth of the skull plateaued at approximately postnatal day 60, and the shape of the skull did not change markedly thereafter...
March 2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657717/cross-training-laboratory-animal-care-personnel-in-physically-separate-animal-facilities-at-a-land-grant-institution
#16
Tonja M Henze, Sarah O Allison, Jennifer M Criley, Sara J Myers, Lyndon J Goodly
The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign maintains physically separated animal care facilities under centralized management by the Division of Animal Resources. As part of a land-grant institution, the animal care and use program operates several animal units in key locations for specific disciplines within the campus, all of which have the core mission to teach, conduct research, and engage in public service. Populations of research animals vary with the levels of research funding, the number of research investigators on staff, research direction, and animal availability...
2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657716/the-effect-of-anesthesia-on-blood-pressure-measured-noninvasively-by-using-the-tail-cuff-method-in-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#17
Tobin V Ansel, Ann K Nour, Alexandra Benavente-Perez
In this study, we evaluated the validity of measuring blood pressure (BP) noninvasively in marmosets by using the tail-cuff method. The number of measurements needed for a valid reading was calculated by plotting the average SD of 5 consecutive readings in 10 naïve marmosets; the SD for both systolic and diastolic BP readings plateaued after 4 readings. To evaluate how anesthesia (alphaxalone, 15 mg/kg IM) affected BP in marmosets, we measured 4 animals every minute for 60 min after injection. The average length of anesthesia was 47...
2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657715/comparison-of-microchip-transponder-and-noncontact-infrared-thermometry-with-rectal-thermometry-in-domestic-swine-sus-scrofa-domestica
#18
Amanda L Jara, Jarod M Hanson, Jon D Gabbard, Scott K Johnson, Emery T Register, Biao He, S Mark Tompkins
During disease outbreaks, core temperature is a useful health metric in swine, due to the presence of pyrexia especially during the acute phase of infection. Despite technologic advances in other facets of swine production and health management, rectal thermometry continues to be the 'gold standard' for measuring core body temperature. However, for various reasons, collecting rectal temperatures can be difficult and unsafe depending on the housing modality. In addition, the delay between insertion of the rectal thermometer and obtaining a reading can affect measurement accuracy, especially when the pig requires physical restraint...
2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657714/evaluation-of-fecal-microbiota-transfer-as-treatment-for-postweaning-diarrhea-in-research-colony-puppies
#19
Erin N Burton, Erin O'Connor, Aaron C Ericsson, Craig L Franklin
Frequently just prior to or at weaning (approximate age, 6 to 8 wk), puppies in research settings often develop diarrheal disease, which may be due, in part, to an immature and unstable intestinal microbiota that is permissive to opportunistic pathogens. The overall objective of this study was to assess whether fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) increased the transmission of a stable maternal microbiota to pups and decreased the incidence of postweaning diarrhea. Puppies were designated by litter as treated (FMT) or sham-treated...
2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657713/evaluation-of-euthanasia-techniques-for-an-invertebrate-species-land-snails-succinea-putris
#20
Cody R Gilbertson, Jeffrey D Wyatt
The euthanasia of invertebrates used in scientific investigations poses unanswered questions regarding the rapid induction of unconsciousness with minimal distress and pain. Relative to vertebrates, invertebrates' sensory experience of pain, nociception, and physiologic response to aversive stimuli are poorly characterized. The scientific communities in the European Union, Canada, United States, Australia, and New Zealand join in consensus regarding the need to address alleviation of pain and distress in cephalopods (octopus, squid, and so forth), which have the best-characterized nervous system among invertebrates...
2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
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