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Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726600/age-and-sex-associated-differences-in-phenotypic-and-functional-characteristics-of-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#1
Pramod Nehete, Elizabeth Magden, Bharti Nehete, Lawrence Williams, Christian Abee, K Sastry
Chimpanzees are the closest phylogenetic relatives to humans, sharing more than 98% genetic sequence identity. Thesegenetic similarities prompted the belief that chimpanzees can serve as an ideal model for human disease conditions andvaccine development. However, in light of the recent NIH decision to phase out biomedical research in chimpanzees and retire NIH-supported chimpanzees, data from the present study will continue to provide value for the care of aged and sick chimpanzees located in zoos, sanctuaries, and primate centers...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675139/an-efficient-simple-and-noninvasive-procedure-for-genotyping-aquatic-and-nonaquatic-laboratory-animals
#2
Morihiro Okada, Thomas C Miller, Julia Roediger, Yun-Bo Shi, Joseph M Schech
Various animal models are indispensible in biomedical research. Increasing awareness and regulations have prompted theadaptation of more humane approaches in the use of laboratory animals. With the development of easier and faster methodologies to generate genetically altered animals, convenient and humane methods to genotype these animals are important for research involving such animals. Here, we report skin swabbing as a simple and noninvasive method for extracting genomic DNA from mice and frogs for genotyping...
July 3, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664829/quantification-of-induced-hypothermia-from-aseptic-scrub-applications-during-rodent-surgery-preparation
#3
Anna M Skorupski, Jingyi Zhang, Danielle Ferguson, Frank Lawrence, F Claire Hankenson
Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) are prone to develop hypothermia during anesthesia for surgery, thus potentially impedinganesthetic recovery, wound healing, and future health. The core body temperatures of isoflurane-anesthetized mice areinfluenced by the choice of supplemental heat sources; however, the contribution of various surgical scrubs on the bodytemperatures of mice under gas anesthesia has not been assessed. We sought to quantify the effect of using alcohol (70%isopropyl alcohol [IPA]) compared with saline to rinse away surgical scrub on the progression of hypothermia in anesthetizedmice (n = 47)...
June 29, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660852/population-genetic-structure-of-the-cayo-santiago-colony-of-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#4
Sreetharan Kanthaswamy, Robert F Oldt, Jillian Ng, Angelina V Ruiz-Lambides, Elizabeth Maldonado, Melween I Martínez, Carlos A Sariol
The rhesus macaque population at Cayo Santiago increases annually and is in urgent need of control. In-depth assessmentsof the colony's population genetic and pedigree structures provide a starting point for improving the colony's long-termmanagement program. We evaluated the degree of genetic variation and coefficients of inbreeding and kinship of the CayoSantiago colony by using pedigree and short tandem repeat (STR) data from 4738 rhesus macaques, which represent 7 extantsocial groups and a group of migrant males...
June 28, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660851/a-redesign-approach-for-improving-animal-care-services-for-researchers
#5
Orighomisan Okpe, Jamison V Kovach
Because a research institution's animal care and use program oversees the provision of services specified in approved protocols designed by researchers, the effective provision of services within these programs is paramount to ensuring the humane care and treatment of research animals in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations and institutional policies. To improve the services provided to researchers through animal care and use programs, we investigated the relationship betweenthe researchers who conduct these types of studies and the veterinary operations that provide care and treatment for research animals...
June 28, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656886/genetic-characterization-of-a-captive-colony-of-pigtailed-macaques-macaca-nemestrina
#6
Xinjun Zhang, Sree Kanthaswamy, Jessica S Trask, Jillian Ng, Robert F Oldt, Joseph L Mankowski, Robert J Adams, David G Smith
Effective colony management is critical to guarantee the availability of captive NHP as subjects for biomedical research.Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) are an important model for the study of human and nonhuman primate diseasesand behavior. Johns Hopkins University hosts one of the largest captive colonies of pigtailed macaques in the United States.In this study, we used 56 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to characterize this population of pigtailed macaques, understandtheir population structure, and assess the effectiveness of their colony management...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653603/effects-of-breeding-configuration-on-maternal-and-weanling-behavior-in-laboratory-mice
#7
Gillian C Braden, Skye Rasmussen, Sebastien Monette, Ravi J Tolwani
Although numerous studies have evaluated the effect of housing density on the wellbeing of laboratory mice, little isknown about the effect of breeding configuration on mouse behavior. The 8th edition of the Guide for the Care and Use ofLaboratory Animals lists the recommended minimal floor area per animal for a female mouse and her litter as 51 in.2 Wesought to determine the effects of pair, trio, and harem breeding configurations on the maternal and weanling behavior ofC57BL/6J (B6) and 129S6/SvEvTac (129) mice on the basis of nest scores and performance in pup retrieval tests, open-fieldtest (OFT), elevated plus maze, and tail suspension test; we concurrently evaluated cage microenvironment, reproductiveindices, and anatomic and clinical pathology...
June 26, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623658/echocardiographic-parameters-of-clinically-normal-geriatric-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#8
Yu Ueda, Catherine T Gunther-Harrington, Christina L Cruzen, Jeffrey A Roberts, Joshua A Stern
The goal of this study was to generate reference intervals for echocardiographic variables in a population of clinically normalgeriatric rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). To do this, we studied 51 animals (age, 18-29 y; weight, 5.24-17.04 kg). Thenormal values for cardiac indices, including geometry and systolic and diastolic function, were determined by 2D, M-mode,spectral Doppler, and tissue Doppler echocardiography under ketamine hydrochloride sedation. Statistical correlations betweenthe echocardiographic parameters and age, body weight, sex, and heart rate were investigated...
June 16, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621258/evaluation-of-pain-assessment-techniques-and-analgesia-efficacy-in-a-female-guinea-pig-cavia-porcellus-model-of-surgical-pain
#9
Vanessa L Oliver, Stephanie Athavale, Katherine E Simon, Lon V Kendall, Jean A Nemzek, Jennifer L Lofgren
Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are a frequently used species in research, often involving potentially painful procedures.Therefore, evidence-based recommendations regarding analgesia are critically needed to optimize their wellbeing. Ourlaboratory examined the efficacy of carprofen and extended-release (ER) buprenorphine, alone and as a multimodal combination,for relieving postsurgical pain in guinea pigs. Animals were assessed by using evoked (mechanical hypersensitivity),nonevoked (video ethogram, cageside ethogram, time-to-consumption test), and clinical (weight loss) measurements for 96 h during baseline, anesthesia-analgesia, and hysterectomy conditions...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621257/oral-transmucosal-detomidine-gel-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus
#10
Morika D Williams, C Tyler Long, Jessica R Durrant, Gabriel P McKeon, Heather R Shive, Emily H Griffith, Kristen M Messenger, Richard E Fish
Handling and restraining rabbits for routine procedures may be impossible without prior sedation, result in unnecessarystress or injury to the rabbit or handler, and increase experimental variability. Parenteral administration of sedatives can cause stress also, as well as localized pain and tissue damage, especially in fractious animals. Detomidine hydrochloride, an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, is commercially available in an oral transmucosal (OTM) gel formulation that is FDA-approved for sedation and restraint in horses...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621255/behavioral-characteristics-of-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio-after-ms222-anesthesia-for-fin-excision
#11
Mélissa Cm De Lombaert, Elizabeth L Rick, Lisa A Krugner-Higby, Marc A Wolman
The health of laboratory animals is an ethical responsibility of researchers and a critical determinant of experimentaloutcome. Therefore, all husbandry procedures should be evaluated for their effects on mortality, behavior, and physiologyto maximize animal welfare and minimize experimental variability. For adult zebrafish, the excision of a small portion ofthe caudal fin (that is, 'fin clipping') under MS222 anesthesia is a common procedure to obtain tissue for genotyping. Thepotential effect of this procedure on behavioral and physiologic assays of feeding, anxiety, and stress has not previously beenassessed...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606223/murine-astrovirus-infection-and-transmission-in-neonatal-cd1-mice
#12
Susan Compton, Carmen J Booth, James D Macy
Murine astrovirus (MuAstV) is a recently identified, widespread infection among laboratory mice. Our goal was to determine the duration of MuAstV infection, susceptibility of pups, and efficacy of soiled-bedding sentinels and environmental monitoring. Eight CD1 dams and their litters of 3-d-old pups and 8 CD1 dams and their litters of 13-d-old mice were inoculatedorally with MuAstV. Neither dams nor offspring demonstrated any clinical signs, and MuAstV had little to no effect on weight gain in pups. MuAstV RNA was detected in feces from 15 of the 16 dams through postnatal day (PND) 21, and 9 dams were still shedding MuAstV at PND 42...
June 12, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593835/pharmacokinetics-of-a-novel-transdermal-fentanyl-solution-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#13
Gregory W Salyards, Marie-Josee Lemoy, Heather K Knych, Ashley E Hill, Kari L Christe
Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the most commonly used NHP biomedical model and experience both research andclinical procedures requiring analgesia. Opioids are a mainstay of analgesic therapy. A novel, transdermal fentanyl solution(TFS) has been developed as a long-acting, single-administration topical opioid and was reported to provide at least 4 d ofeffective plasma concentrations in beagles (Canis familiaris). To evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of TFS in healthy adultrhesus macaques, we used a 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study of a single topical administration of 1...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589874/effects-of-time-and-storage-conditions-on-the-chemical-and-microbiologic-stability-of-diluted-buprenorphine-for-injection
#14
Johnathan M DenHerder, Ralph L Reed, Jennifer L Sargent, Gerd Bobe, Jan F Stevens, Helen E Diggs
Buprenorphine is a partial μ-opioid agonist used for analgesia. Due to the small size of laboratory rodents, buprenorphineHCl is typically diluted 10- or 20-fold with a sterile diluent, such as saline, for accurate dosing. Protocols for preparing andstoring diluted buprenorphine vary by institution, and little published information is available regarding stability andbeyond-use dating of specific buprenorphine preparations. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical andmicrobiologic stability of diluted buprenorphine stored for a maximum of 180 d...
June 6, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560952/effects-of-time-and-storage-conditions-on-the-chemical-and-microbiologic-stability-of-diluted-buprenorphine-for-injection
#15
Ralph L Reed, Johnathan M DenHerder, Jennifer L Sargent, Gerd Bobe, J Fred Stevens, Helen E Diggs
Buprenorphine is a partial μ-opioid agonist used for analgesia. Due to the small size of laboratory rodents, buprenorphineHCl is typically diluted 10- or 20-fold with a sterile diluent, such as saline, for accurate dosing. Protocols for preparing andstoring diluted buprenorphine vary by institution, and little published information is available regarding stability and beyond-use dating of specific buprenorphine preparations. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical and microbiologic stability of diluted buprenorphine stored for a maximum of 180 d...
May 30, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728613/echocardiographic-parameters-of-clinically-normal-geriatric-rhesus-macaques-macacamulatta
#16
Yu Ueda, Catherine T Gunther-Harrington, Christina L Cruzen, Jeffrey A Roberts, Joshua A Stern
The goal of this study was to generate reference intervals for echocardiographic variables in a population of clinically normal geriatric rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). To do this, we studied 51 animals (age, 18-29 y; weight, 5.24-17.04 kg). The normal values for cardiac indices, including geometry and systolic and diastolic function, were determined by 2D, M-mode, spectral Doppler, and tissue Doppler echocardiography under ketamine hydrochloride sedation. Statistical correlations between the echocardiographic parameters and age, body weight, sex, and heart rate were investigated...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724497/a-redesign-approach-for-improving-animal-care-services-for-researchers
#17
Orighomisan Okpe, Jamison V Kovach
Because a research institution's animal care and use program oversees the provision of services specified in approved protocols designed by researchers, the effective provision of services within these programs is paramount to ensuring the humane care and treatment of research animals in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations and institutional policies. To improve the services provided to researchers through animal care and use programs, we investigated the relationship between the researchers who conduct these types of studies and the veterinary operations that provide care and treatment for research animals...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724496/effects-of-time-and-storage-conditions-on-the-chemical-and-microbiologic-stability-of-diluted-buprenorphine-for-injection
#18
Johnathan M DenHerder, Ralph L Reed, Jennifer L Sargent, Gerd Bobe, Jan F Stevens, Helen E Diggs
Buprenorphine is a partial μ-opioid agonist used for analgesia. Due to the small size of laboratory rodents, buprenorphine HCl is typically diluted 10- or 20-fold with a sterile diluent, such as saline, for accurate dosing. Protocols for preparing and storing diluted buprenorphine vary by institution, and little published information is available regarding stability and beyond-use dating of specific buprenorphine preparations. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical and microbiologic stability of diluted buprenorphine stored for a maximum of 180 d...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724495/minimum-alveolar-concentration-and-cardiopulmonary-effects-of-isoflurane-in-ring-tailed-lemurs-lemur-catta
#19
Sathya K Chinnadurai, Julie A Balko, Cathy V Williams
The goal of this study was to determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and cardiopulmonary effects of isoflurane in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). The MAC of isoflurane was determined by using a tail-clamp stimulus in adult ring-tailed lemurs (6 male, 4 female). Once MAC was determined, another group of 10 adult ring-tailed lemurs (5 male, 5 female) were anesthetized and instrumented similarly as the previous group and maintained at 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 times MAC for 15 min each with no external stimulation...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724494/pharmacokinetics-of-a-novel-transdermal-fentanyl-solution-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#20
Gregory W Salyards, Marie-Josee Lemoy, Heather K Knych, Ashley E Hill, Kari L Christe
Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the most commonly used NHP biomedical model and experience both research and clinical procedures requiring analgesia. Opioids are a mainstay of analgesic therapy. A novel, transdermal fentanyl solution (TFS) has been developed as a long-acting, single-administration topical opioid and was reported to provide at least 4 d of effective plasma concentrations in beagles (Canis familiaris). To evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of TFS in healthy adult rhesus macaques, we used a 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study of a single topical administration of 1...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
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