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Urologic Oncology

Jonathan Gelfond, Osamah Al-Bayati, Aashish Kabra, Kevan Iffrig, Dharam Kaushik, Michael A Liss
INTRODUCTION: Identify modifiable factors contributing to renal cell carcinoma in the PCLO to target disease prevention and reduce health care costs. METHODS: The prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian database were queried for the primary outcome of kidney cancer. Demographics were investigated, specifically focusing on modifiable risk factors. Statistical analysis includes the Student t-test for continuous variables, chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests for dichotomous and categorical variables for bivariate analysis...
May 17, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Benjamin L Woolbright, Matthew Ayres, John A Taylor
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Bladder cancer is a common solid tumor. Outcomes are poor in advanced disease, with few novel clinical therapeutics introduced over the previous several decades. Otto Warburg's original hypothesis that cancer cells use aerobic glycolysis to produce ATP instead of traditional oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria was a landmark discovery in its time. Recent studies indicate metabolic changes in cancer are far more complex than originally anticipated though...
May 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Keshan Wang, HaiLong Ruan, ZhengShuai Song, Qi Cao, Lin Bao, Di Liu, TianBo Xu, HaiBing Xiao, Cheng Wang, Gong Cheng, JunWei Tong, XianGui Meng, HongMei Yang, Ke Chen, XiaoPing Zhang
BACKGROUND: PLIN3, one of the members of the perilipin family, has been reported to be involved in the formation and accumulation of lipid droplets. However, the expression levels and diagnostic and prognostic value of PLIN3 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain unclear. METHODS: Bioinformatic analysis was used to assess the levels of PLIN3 and the correlation between PLIN3 levels and clinicopathological parameters in renal cancer. The expression levels of PLIN3 were determined in human RCC tissues and cell lines by western blot, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry assays...
May 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Jun Teishima, Shinya Ohara, Shunsuke Shinmei, Shogo Inoue, Tetsutaro Hayashi, Hideki Mochizuki, Koji Mita, Masanobu Shigeta, Akio Matsubara
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Pretreated C-reactive protein (CRP) has been suggested as one of the most important prognostic factors for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of the change in CRP level before and after cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) in patients with mRCC treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CRP in 60 patients undergoing molecular targeted therapy for mRCC was measured before and after CN...
May 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Sohrab Arora, Jacob Keeley, Daniel Pucheril, Mani Menon, Craig G Rogers
OBJECTIVE: To find a cutoff of hospital volume for elective partial nephrectomy (PN) for kidney cancer that can minimize the inpatient morbidity of this procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analyzing the National Inpatient sample, from 2008 to 2011, we selected 8,753 records of adult patients undergoing elective PN for nonmetastatic kidney cancer, representing an estimated 43,178 partial nephrectomies performed in the United States during this period. Of these, 2,187 (estimated 10,848) PNs were performed via the robotic approach...
May 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Zine-Eddine Khene, Benoit Peyronnet, Neil J Kocher, Haley Robyak, Corentin Robert, Benjamin Pradere, Emmanuel Oger, Solène-Florence Kammerer-Jacquet, Grégory Verhoest, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Romain Mathieu, Jay D Raman, Karim Bensalah
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of tumor and nontumor related parameters on perioperative outcomes of robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent RPN for a localized renal tumor at 2 institutions between June 2010 and November 2016 were reviewed. RENAL and Mayo adhesive probability (MAP) scores were calculated and information on comorbid conditions including ASA score, performance status, Charlson's comorbidity index (CCI), and history of cardiovascular disease was collected...
May 11, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Svetlana Avulova, Clayton Allen, Alicia Morgans, Kelvin A Moses
BACKGROUND: Risk of recurrent disease for men with clinical stage 1 high-risk nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer (CS1 NSGCT) with lymphovascular invasion (LVI) after orchiectomy is 50% and current treatment options (surveillance [S], retroperitoneal lymph node dissection [RPLND], or 1 cycle of BEP [BEP ×1]) are associated with a 99% disease specific survival, therefore practice patterns vary. We performed a decision analysis using updated data of long-term complications for men with CS1 NSGCT with LVI to quantify and assess relative treatment values...
May 10, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Abhinav Sidana, Matthew J Watson, Arvin K George, Ardeshir R Rastinehad, Srinivas Vourganti, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Akhil Muthigi, Mahir Maruf, Jennifer B Gordetsky, Jeffrey W Nix, Maria J Merino, Baris Turkbey, Peter L Choyke, Bradford J Wood, Peter A Pinto
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with persistently elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prior negative 12-core TRUS prostate biopsy (or biopsies) (systematic biopsy-SBx) are a diagnostic challenge. Repeat SBx or saturation biopsy in this cohort has been shown to have an even lower yield. The aim of our study is to compare the prostate cancer yield of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fusion biopsy (FBx) to SBx in a multi-institutional cohort comprised of patients with prior negative biopsies...
May 9, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Nirmish Singla, Laura-Maria Krabbe, Ahmet M Aydin, Vandana Panwar, Solomon L Woldu, Yuval Freifeld, Christopher G Wood, Jose A Karam, Alon Z Weizer, Jay D Raman, Mesut Remzi, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Andrea Haitel, Marco Roscigno, Christian Bolenz, Karim Bensalah, Arthur I Sagalowsky, Shahrokh F Shariat, Yair Lotan, Aditya Bagrodia, Payal Kapur, Vitaly Margulis
PURPOSE: Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 is a methyltransferase encoded by the EZH2 gene, whose role in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is poorly understood. We sought to evaluate the prognostic value of EZH2 expression in UTUC. METHODS: We reviewed a multi-institutional cohort of patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy for high-grade UTUC from 1990 to 2008. Immunohistochemistry for EZH2 was performed on tissue microarrays. Percentage of staining was evaluated, and the discriminative value of EZH2 was tested, with EZH2 positivity defined as>20% staining present...
May 7, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Niranjan J Sathianathen, Yunhua Fan, Stephanie L Jarosek, Nathan L Lawrentschuk, Badrinath R Konety
BACKGROUND: Preclinical models have demonstrated that androgen receptor modulation can influence bladder carcinogenesis with an inverse association observed between serum androgen levels and bladder cancer (BC) incidence. It is still unclear whether 5α-reductase inhibitors, by preventing the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, have a similar effect. This study aims to evaluate whether dihydrotestosterone-mediated androgen activity has an impact on BC incidence in a cohort of men included in a clinical trial of finasteride vs...
May 3, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Kazuhiro Matsumoto, Naoya Niwa, Seiya Hattori, Toshikazu Takeda, Shinya Morita, Takeo Kosaka, Ryuichi Mizuno, Toshiaki Shinojima, Eiji Kikuchi, Hiroshi Asanuma, Mototsugu Oya
PURPOSE: Monitoring the serum level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is indispensable for surveillance after radical therapy, and the aim of this study was to establish the optimal follow-up schedule. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological data of 1,010 consecutive patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. After excluding patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy and those without a nadir PSA level<0.2ng/ml, the remaining 779 patients were enrolled...
May 2, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Eberechukwu Onukwugha, Husam Albarmawi, Kai Sun, C Daniel Mullins, Abdalla Aly, Arif Hussain
INTRODUCTION: Men diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) are at increased risk for skeletal complications which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although both the urologist and the medical oncologist play important roles in the management of patients with advanced PCa, there is limited information regarding their role in the context of skeletal complications. The current study investigated these relationships among newly diagnosed metastatic patients with PCa...
April 30, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Run-Qi Guo, Geng-Yan Xiong, Kai-Wei Yang, Lei Zhang, Shi-Ming He, Yan-Qing Gong, Qun He, Xue-Ying Li, Zi-Cheng Wang, Zhen-Qing Bao, Xue-Song Li, Kai Zhang, Li-Qun Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Hematuria is the most common symptom of urothelial carcinomas (UC) but is often idiopathic. Cystoscopy is expensive which involves considerable patient discomfort, and conventional urine cytology for noninvasive UC detection and disease monitoring suffers from poor sensitivity. We aim to evaluate the performance of genes selected from a previous study in detecting UC, especially among patients with gross hematuria, as well as upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and bladder carcinoma separately, in voided urine samples...
April 26, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Alessandro Sciarra, Alessandro Gentilucci, Stefano Salciccia, Magnus Von Heland, Giam Piero Ricciuti, Vittorio Marzio, Federico Pierella, Daniela Musio, Vincenzo Tombolini, Viviana Frantellizzi, Massimo Pasquini, Annalisa Maraone, Alessio Guandalini, Martina Maggi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to comparatively evaluate the psychological and functional effect of different primary treatments in patients with prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a single-center prospective non randomized study in a real-life setting using functional and psychological questionnaires in prostate cancer cases submitted to radical prostatectomy, external radiotherapy, or active surveillance. Totally, 220 cases were evaluated at baseline and during the follow-up at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month interval after therapy...
April 26, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Marilyn L Kwan, Brandon Garren, Matthew E Nielsen, Li Tang
Bladder cancer is one of the top 5 most common cancers diagnosed in the U.S. It is also one of the most expensive cancers to treat through the life course given its high rate of recurrence. While cigarette smoking and occupational exposures have been firmly established as risk factors, it is less certain whether modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity play roles in bladder cancer etiology and prognosis. This literature review based on a PubMed search summarizes the research to date on key dietary factors, types of physical activity, and smoking in relation to bladder cancer incidence, and discusses the potential public health implications for formalized smoking cessation programs among recently diagnosed patients...
April 24, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Andrea Mari, Shoji Kimura, Beat Foerster, Mohammad Abufaraj, David D'Andrea, Kilian M Gust, Shahrokh F Shariat
PURPOSE: Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is an important step in bladder cancer cell dissemination. We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to assess the prognostic value of LVI in radical cystectomy (RC) specimens. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the last 10 years was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane libraries in July 2017. The analyses were performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement...
April 20, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Sarah Caulfield, Gerard Menezes, Laure Marignol, Claire Poole
BACKGROUND: The use of nomograms for predicting clinical endpoints has been well documented. Nomograms provide an individualized prognosis and help clinicians determine the effectiveness of treatment for a given patient. Early identification of potential treatment failure or toxicity allows alternative approaches to be considered, reducing unnecessary treatment, morbidity, and cost. This review aims to evaluate clinical potential of nomogram use for the management of prostate cancer radiotherapy patients...
April 18, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Esmee I M L Liem, Michael McCormack, Eddie S Y Chan, Yoshiyuki Matsui, Petrisor Geavlete, Young D Choi, Theo M de Reijke, Yasser Farahat, Brant A Inman, Jean J M C H de la Rosette, Seiji Naito
PURPOSE: Traditionally, transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURB) is performed using monopolar technique. Bipolar resection has been postulated to reduce complications. In this study we compare safety and efficacy between monopolar TURB (mTURB) and bipolar TURB (bTURB) for patients with primary non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from an international multicenter randomized clinical trial that compared the use of white light cystoscopy with narrow band imaging-assisted TURB using the Olympus system between 2010 and 2014...
April 13, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Mário Fontes-Sousa, Helena Magalhães, Fernando Calais da Silva, Maria Joaquina Maurício
BACKGROUND: Stauffer's syndrome corresponds to a set of clinical and analytical changes of paraneoplastic nature firstly recognized more than 50 years ago, in association to renal cell carcinoma. A definitive review including universal diagnostic criteria and updated knowledge since the original description is lacking. BASIC PROCEDURES: The authors conducted a comprehensive bibliographical review and propose updated diagnostic criteria to standardize diagnosis for clinical practice purposes and avoid misclassification...
April 12, 2018: Urologic Oncology
Brian R Winters, Funda Vakar-Lopez, Lisha Brown, Bruce Montgomery, Roland Seiler, Peter C Black, Joost L Boormans, Marc Dall Era, Elai Davincioni, James Douglas, Ewan A Gibb, Bas W G van Rhijn, Michiel S van der Heijden, Andrew C Hsieh, Jonathan L Wright, Hung-Ming Lam
BACKGROUND: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been implicated in driving tumor biology in multiple malignancies, including urothelial carcinoma (UC). We investigate how mTOR and phosphorylated mTOR (pmTOR) protein expression correlate with chemoresponsiveness in the tumor and its microenvironment at final pathologic staging after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: A single-institution retrospective analysis was performed on 62 patients with cT2-4Nany UC undergoing NAC followed by radical cystectomy...
April 12, 2018: Urologic Oncology
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