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Urologic Oncology

Zheng Wang, Ganggang Wang, Qinghua Xia, Zhenhua Shang, Xiao Yu, Muwen Wang, Xunbo Jin
OBJECTIVES: The widespread use of partial nephrectomy (PN) has led to the preservation of functional renal parenchyma. However, the benefits of PN on renal function and cardiovascular outcomes remain controversial. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to reconcile the conflicting results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to August 2015, and databases with all relevant comparative studies were included. The Mantel-Haenszel method with random-effects models was used to determine the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for each outcome...
October 21, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Parminder Singh, Peter Black
OBJECTIVE: Checkpoint inhibitors have rapidly become a standard treatment option for metastatic urothelial carcinoma. A wave of enthusiasm for these drugs has pushed them also into the setting of localized bladder cancer, including both non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive disease bladder cancer (MIBC). Here, we aimed to review the emerging role of checkpoint inhibition in localized bladder cancer. METHODS: We reviewed the current treatment landscape for both NMIBC and MIBC and established a significant unmet clinical need for novel therapies...
October 21, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Jong Chul Park, Noah M Hahn
Tremendous advances in our understanding of the tumor immunology and molecular biology of urothelial carcinoma (UC) have led to the recent approval of immunotherapy as a novel option for patients with UC with advanced disease. Despite the promising data of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors, only a small subset of patients with UC achieves durable remissions. Because an optimal antitumor response requires coordination of multiple immune, tumor, and microenvironment effector cells, novel approaches targeting distinct mechanisms of action likely in combination are needed...
October 20, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Meera R Chappidi, Heather J Chalfin, Daniel J Johnson, Max Kates, Nikolai A Sopko, Michael H Johnson, Jen-Jane Liu, Steven M Frank, Trinity J Bivalacqua
BACKGROUND: Patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) experience high rates of perioperative blood transfusions (PBTs) and morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood storage duration on the risk of adverse perioperative outcomes in this high-risk patient population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective review of RC patients from 2010 to 2014 who received PBTs, the average storage duration for all units transfused was used to classify patients as receiving older blood using 3 different definitions (≥21 days,≥28 days, and≥35 days)...
October 19, 2016: Urologic Oncology
David T Miyamoto, Richard J Lee
The recent expansion of therapeutic options for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer highlights the need for precision medicine approaches to enable the rational selection of appropriate therapies for individual patients. In this context, circulating biomarkers in the peripheral blood are attractive as readily accessible tools for predicting and monitoring therapeutic response. In the case of circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA, they may also serve as a noninvasive means of assessing molecular aberrations in tumors at multiple time points before and during therapy...
October 19, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Matthew I Milowsky, Matthew D Galsky, Michael J Morris, Daniel J Crona, Daniel J George, Robert Dreicer, Kin Tse, Jesika Petruck, Iain J Webb, Neil H Bander, David M Nanus, Howard I Scher
BACKGROUND: This phase 1/2 study evaluated the dose-limiting toxicity and maximum tolerated dose of MLN2704, a humanized monoclonal antibody MLN591 targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen, linked to the maytansinoid DM1 in patients with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 62 patients received MLN2704 at ascending doses on 4 schedules: weekly (60, 84, 118, and 165mg/m(2); 12 patients); every 2 weeks (120, 168, 236, and 330mg/m(2); 15 patients); every 3 weeks (330 and 426mg/m(2); 18 patients); and on days 1 and 15 of a 6-week schedule (6-week cycle, 330mg/m(2); 17 patients)...
October 17, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Philip H Abbosh, Jonathan E Rosenberg, Elizabeth R Plimack
There are very few biomarkers used to diagnose bladder cancer and no clinically approved biomarkers for prediction or prognostication of this disease. All currently available biomarkers are based on urine tests, and thus, they may not be applicable to patients with extravesical tumors. Biopsy of metastatic sites requires an invasive procedure, whereas serum-based markers, which can be easily obtained and serially measured, thus have obvious merit. These deficiencies may be overcome with advances in genome sequencing, identification of circulating tumor cells, and RNA-, protein-, and DNA-based biomarkers...
October 14, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Michael S Leapman, Peter R Carroll
INTRODUCTION: Selective treatment approaches for prostate cancer (PCa) are warranted given the highly varied nature of the disease and the consequences associated with definitive therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a stepwise overview of strategies to not treat PCa, ranging from improved early detection practices that seek to improve the yield at initial diagnosis, as well as refinements to risk prediction and the performance of active surveillance. RESULTS: Adherence to screening guidelines is non-uniform...
October 13, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Akhil Muthigi, Abhinav Sidana, Arvin K George, Michael Kongnyuy, Mahir Maruf, Subin Valayil, Bradford J Wood, Peter A Pinto
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance (MR) -targeted biopsy have a growing role in the screening and evaluation of prostate cancer. We aim to evaluate the current knowledge, attitude, and practice patterns of urologists regarding this new technique. METHODS: An anonymous online questionnaire was designed to collect information on urologists' beliefs and use of prostate multiparametric MRI and MR-targeted biopsy...
October 12, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Hung-Jui Tan, Siwei Xiong, Aaron A Laviana, Ryan J Chuang, Eric Treat, Patrick C Walsh, Jim C Hu
INTRODUCTION: Postprostatectomy incontinence significantly impairs quality of life. Although bladder neck intussusception has been reported to accelerate urinary recovery after open radical retropubic prostatectomy, its adaption to robotic surgery has not been assessed. Accordingly, we describe our technique and compare outcomes between men treated with and without bladder neck intussusception during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a comparative trial of 48 men undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy alternating between bladder neck intussusception (n = 24) and nonintussusception (n = 24)...
October 12, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Marie Laurent, Laurent Brureau, Mounira El Demery, Aude Fléchon, Aurélie Le Thuaut, Muriel Carvahlo-Verlinde, Sylvie Bastuji-Garin, Elena Paillaud, Florence Canoui-Poitrine, Stéphane Culine
PURPOSE: Median age for the diagnosis of metastatic bladder cancer (MBC) is 73 years. The feasibility of chemotherapy in older patients is controversial. Our objectives were to assess associations linking age to first line chemotherapy regimen selection, early chemotherapy discontinuation, and 1-year mortality in everyday practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1999 and 2011, 197 consecutive patients aged≥70 years with MBC referred to 4 hospitals were included in the AGEVIM multicenter cohort...
October 6, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Daniel P Nguyen, A Ari Hakimi, Emily A Vertosick, Paul Russo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Takashige Abe, Junji Ishizaki, Hiroshi Kikuchi, Keita Minami, Ryuji Matsumoto, Toru Harabayashi, Ataru Sazawa, Tango Mochizuki, Satoshi Chiba, Tomoshige Akino, Masashi Murakumo, Naoto Miyajima, Kunihiko Tsuchiya, Satoru Maruyama, Sachiyo Murai, Nobuo Shinohara
AIM: To clarify prognostic factors of metatstatic urothelial carcinoma treated by systemic chemotherapy in real-world clinical practice in the Japanese population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 228 patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma undergoing systemic chemotherapy between 2000 and 2013 were included in the present multi-institutional study. The gemcitabine plus cisplatin regimen was administered as first-line chemotherapy to 131 patients, whereas methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin or its modified regimen was given to 71 patients...
September 29, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Nuray Erin, Tümay İpekçi, Bahar Akkaya, İrem Hicran Özbudak, Mehmet Baykara
BACKGROUND: ADAM9, 10, and 17 are a class of disintegrins and metallproteinases with α-secretase activity. There are conflicting results regarding the role(s) of ADAM9, 10, and 17 in carcinogenesis, and only a few studies have examined their levels and cellular localization in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Studies examining changes in α-secretase activity in RCC compared to enzymatic activity of the uninvolved kidney are lacking. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 56 patients undergoing radical nephrectomy after the diagnosis of RCC...
September 28, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Josef Mang, Konstanze Merkle, Martina Heller, Julia Schüler, Yanis Tolstov, Jielin Li, Markus Hohenfellner, Stefan Duensing
BACKGROUND: Taxanes are routinely used to treat men with advanced prostate cancer, yet their molecular mode of action is poorly characterized. Taxanes stabilize microtubules and may hence interfere with a plethora of cellular processes, most notably mitosis. However, prostate cancer is typically a slowly growing tumor suggesting that additional processes play a role in the response to taxanes. METHODS: Here, we analyzed the potential effect of taxanes on microtubuli-dependent intracellular transport and signaling processes, specifically, nuclear translocation of the androgen receptor and modulation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling cascade...
September 28, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Wei Phin Tan, Andrew Mazzone, Stephanie Shors, Nency Antoine, Shahid Ekbal, Narendra Khare, Charles McKiel, Dennis Pessis, Leslie Deane
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) score was developed to evaluate lesions in the peripheral and transition zone on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate. We aim to determine if the PI-RADS scoring system can be used to evaluate central zone lesions on mpMRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 73 patients who underwent mpMRI/ultrasound (US) fusion-guided biopsy of 143 suspicious lesions between February 2014 and October 2015 was performed...
September 27, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Viacheslav Iremashvili, Murugesan Manoharan, Bruce R Kava, Dipen J Parekh, Sanoj Punnen
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of different radical prostatectomy-based prognostic tools in predicting the biopsy progression in our active surveillance cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 326 patients with biopsy Gleason grade≤6,≤2 positive biopsy cores,≤20% tumor present in any core, prostate-specific antigen<15ng/dl, and clinical stages T1-T2a all of whom had at least single surveillance biopsy. Probabilities of pathologically relatively aggressive disease were estimated using Partin and Dinh risk tables and Kattan, Truong, and Kulkarni nomograms for each individual patient...
September 27, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Aditya Shetty, Subramanyam Dasari, Souresh Banerjee, Taher Gheewala, Guoxing Zheng, Aoshuang Chen, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Maarten C Bosland, Gnanasekar Munirathinam
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a heparin-binding growth factor, which has previously been shown to be expressed in a variety of cancers. HDGF overexpression has also previously been correlated with a poor prognosis in several cancers. The significance of HDGF in prostate cancer, however, has not been investigated. Here, we show that HDGF is overexpressed in both androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells and androgen-insensitive DU145, 22RV1, and PC-3 cells. Forced overexpression enhanced cell viability of RWPE-1 cells, whereas HDGF knockdown reduced cell proliferation in human prostate cancer cells...
September 27, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Pierre Bigot, Jean-Christophe Bernhard, Vincent Flamand, Inderbir Gill, Grégory Verhoest, Jean Baptiste Beauval, François Xavier Nouhaud, Evren Suer, Guillaume Ploussard, Jean François Hetet, Jérôme Rigaud, Eduard Baco, Stéphane Larré, Philippe Sebe, Nicolas Koutlidis, Aurélien Descazeaud, Masatoshi Eto, Arnaud Doerfler, Morgan Roupret, Nam Son Vuong, Boris Reix, Toru Matsugasumi, Adnan El Bakri, Laurence Albiges, Michel Soulié, Jean-Jacques Patard, Arnaud Méjean, Karim Bensalah
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the oncologic outcomes of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) for localized chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (cRCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a multicenter international study involving the French Network for Research on Kidney Cancer (UroCCR) and 5 international teams. Data from 808 patients treated with NSS between 2004 and 2014 for non-clear cell RCCs were analyzed. RESULTS: We included 234 patients with cRCC...
September 27, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Hannah Wenger, Adam B Weiner, Aria Razmaria, Gladell P Paner, Scott E Eggener
INTRODUCTION: Several institutional studies have suggested that pathological Gleason score≤6 prostate cancer has little or no capacity for metastasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (SEER, 2004-2011, n = 19,594) and the National Cancer Database (NCDB, 2004-2013, n = 57,540), we identified patients with pathological Gleason score≤6 prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy and lymph node dissection...
September 27, 2016: Urologic Oncology
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