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Urologic Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132830/characterizing-recurrent-and-lethal-small-renal-masses-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-using-recurrent-somatic-mutations
#1
Brandon J Manley, Ed Reznik, Mazyar Ghanaat, Mahyar Kashan, Maria F Becerra, Jozefina Casuscelli, Daniel Tennenbaum, Almedina Redzematovic, Maria I Carlo, Yusuke Sato, Maria Arcila, Martin H Voss, Darren R Feldman, Robert J Motzer, Paul Russo, Jonathan Coleman, James J Hsieh, Ari A Hakimi
INTRODUCTION: Small renal masses (SRMs) with evidence of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are understudied. Current algorithms for the management of SRMs include surgical resection, ablation, and active surveillance. We sought to identify genomic biomarkers that could potentially refine the management of ccRCC in SRMs, especially in patients being evaluated for active surveillance. METHODS: We identified patients who had SRMs (4cm or less) at time of surgery, had sequencing performed on their primary tumor and had a diagnosis of ccRCC...
November 10, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129354/surgical-management-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-bone-metastases-in-germ-cell-tumors-a-case-series
#2
Alessandro Nini, Marcus Konieczny, Christian Winter, Achim Lusch, Rüdiger Krauspe, Peter Albers
OBJECTIVE: To report perioperative and oncological outcomes of patients with nodal and bone involvement treated with postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) and simultaneous bone resection (BR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2008 and 2016, 14 consecutive unselected TC patients with nodal and bone involvement underwent PC-RPLND and BR. Surgery was performed together with orthopedic surgeons. Standard PC-RPLNDs were performed in 4 patients...
November 9, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129353/impact-of-lymph-node-dissection-at-the-time-of-radical-nephrectomy-with-tumor-thrombectomy-on-oncological-outcomes-results-from-the-international-renal-cell-carcinoma-venous-thrombus-consortium-ircc-vtc
#3
Derya Tilki, Thenappan Chandrasekar, Umberto Capitanio, Gaetano Ciancio, Siamak Daneshmand, Paolo Gontero, Javier Gonzalez, Axel Haferkamp, Markus Hohenfellner, William C Huang, Estefania Linares Espinós, Adam Lorentz, Juan I Martinez-Salamanca, Viraj A Master, James M McKiernan, Francesco Montorsi, Giacomo Novara, Sascha Pahernik, Juan Palou, Raj S Pruthi, Oscar Rodriguez-Faba, Paul Russo, Douglas S Scherr, Shahrokh F Shariat, Martin Spahn, Carlo Terrone, Cesar Vera-Donoso, Richard Zigeuner, John A Libertino, Christopher P Evans
OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of lymph node dissection (LND) at the time of nephrectomy and tumor thrombectomy on oncological outcomes in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and tumor thrombus. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of 1,978 patients with RCC and tumor thrombus who underwent radical nephrectomy and tumor thrombectomy from 1985 to 2014 at 24 centers were analyzed. None of the patients had distant metastases. Extent and pathologic results of LND were compared with respect to cancer-specific survival (CSS)...
November 9, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128421/trends-in-usage-of-cytoreductive-partial-nephrectomy-and-effect-on-overall-survival-in-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#4
Andrew T Lenis, Amirali H Salmasi, Nicholas M Donin, Izak Faiena, David C Johnson, Alexandra Drakaki, Kiran Gollapudi, Jeremy Blumberg, Arie S Belldegrun, Allan J Pantuck, Karim Chamie
PURPOSE: Cytoreductive radical nephrectomy (cRN) improves survival in select patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). It is unclear, however, whether cytoreductive partial nephrectomy (cPN) compromises oncologic efficacy. We evaluated trends in utilization of cPN and compared overall survival (OS) in patients who underwent cRN or cPN for mRCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We queried the National Cancer Database from 2006 to 2013 and identified patients who underwent cPN and cRN for mRCC...
November 8, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128420/neoadjuvant-treatment-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-the-past-the-present-and-the-future
#5
REVIEW
Tom J N Hermans, Charlotte S Voskuilen, Michiel S van der Heijden, Bernd J Schmitz-Dräger, Wassim Kassouf, Roland Seiler, Ashish M Kamat, Petros Grivas, Anne E Kiltie, Peter C Black, Bas W G van Rhijn
BACKGROUND: Approximately half of patients who undergo radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) will succumb to metastatic disease. We summarize the evidence for neoadjuvant radiation (NAR), chemo (NAC), and immunotherapy (checkpoint inhibition) prior to RC for MIBC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained by a search of PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane databases for English language articles published from 1925 up to 2017. RESULTS: NAC usage has increased over the last decade, while NAR is rarely administered...
November 8, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122446/review-of-the-comparative-effectiveness-of-radical-prostatectomy-radiation-therapy-or-expectant-management-of-localized-prostate-cancer-in-registry-data
#6
REVIEW
Emily C Serrell, Daniel Pitts, Matthew Hayn, Lisa Beaule, Moritz H Hansen, Jesse D Sammon
Evidence regarding the effectiveness of treatment for prostate cancer is primarily based on randomized controlled trials. Long-term outcomes are generally difficult to evaluate within experimental studies and may benefit from large pools of observational data. We conducted a systematic review of administrative and registry studies to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer on overall and prostate-cancer specific mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P, 2015), we conducted a systematic search of Ovid Medline and Embase (1946-February 2017) and identified studies that evaluated the relationship between types of treatment for localized prostate cancer and mortality...
November 6, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103968/anti-pd-l1-tgf%C3%AE-r2-m7824-fusion-protein-induces-immunogenic-modulation-of-human-urothelial-carcinoma-cell-lines-rendering-them-more-susceptible-to-immune-mediated-recognition-and-lysis
#7
Italia Grenga, Renee N Donahue, Morgan L Gargulak, Lauren M Lepone, Mario Roselli, Marijo Bilusic, Jeffrey Schlom
BACKGROUND: Avelumab has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the therapy of Merkel cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma. M7824 is a novel first-in-class bifunctional fusion protein comprising a monoclonal antibody against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1, avelumab), fused to the extracellular domain of human transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) receptor 2, which functions as a TGFβ "trap." Advanced urothelial tumors have been shown to express TGFβ, which possesses immunosuppressive properties that promote cancer progression and metastasis...
November 2, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103967/insight-into-novel-biomarkers-in-penile-cancer-redefining-the-present-and-future-treatment-paradigm
#8
REVIEW
Kamran Zargar-Shoshtari, Pranav Sharma, Philippe E Spiess
INTRODUCTION: Biomarkers are increasingly used in the diagnosis and management of various malignancies. Selected biomarkers may also play a role in management of certain cases of penile carcinoma. In this article, we provide an overview of the clinical role of such markers in the management of penile cancer. METHOD: This is a nonsystematic review of relevant literature assessing biomarkers in penile carcinoma. RESULTS: Evidence of infections with human papillomavirus and its surrogate markers may have important prognostic value in patients with localized or metastatic penile cancer...
November 2, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103966/an-update-of-research-evidence-on-nutrition-and-prostate-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Pao-Hwa Lin, William Aronson, Stephen J Freedland
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a leading cause of mortality in US and other countries. Preclinical and clinical studies have examined the role of nutrition and dietary intake on the incidence and progression of PCa with mixed results. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this chapter is to provide an update of recent published literature and highlight progress in the field. MAIN FINDINGS: Low carbohydrate intake, soy protein, ω3 fat, green teas, tomatoes and tomato products and the herbal mixture-zyflamend showed promise in reducing PCa risk or progression...
November 2, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103965/overall-survival-in-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-and-clinical-n1-disease-undergoing-cytoreductive-nephrectomy-and-lymph-node-dissection
#10
Izak Faiena, Amirali Salmasi, Andrew T Lenis, Nicholas M Donin, David C Johnson, Kinan Bachour, Alexandra Drakaki, Arie S Belldegrun, Allan J Pantuck, Karim Chamie
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) have limited treatment options. Cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN) in select patients has been associated with improved survival. We aim to assess the survival in patients with mRCC and cN1 disease who underwent CN with and without lymph node dissection (LND). METHODS: Data were abstracted from the National Cancer Database for patients diagnosed with mRCC and cN1 from 2003 to 2014. Using propensity matching, we compared overall survival (OS) in patients who underwent a LND...
November 2, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097087/laser-ablation-as-monotherapy-for-penile-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-multi-center-cohort-analysis
#11
Dominic H Tang, Sylvia Yan, Sarah R Ottenhof, Désirée Draeger, Adam S Baumgarten, Juan Chipollini, Chris Protzel, Yao Zhu, Ding-Wei Ye, Oliver W Hakenberg, Simon Horenblas, Nicholas A Watkin, Philippe E Spiess
INTRODUCTION: Although the trend towards penile sparing therapy is increasing for penile squamous cell carcinoma, outcomes for laser ablation therapy have not been widely reported. We assessed the clinical outcomes of penile cancer patients treated with only laser ablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on 161 patients across 5 multi-center tertiary referral centers from 1985 to 2015. All patients underwent penile sparing surgery with only laser ablation for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis...
October 30, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097086/extended-outpatient-chemoprophylaxis-reduces-venous-thromboembolism-after-radical-cystectomy
#12
John Schomburg, Suprita Krishna, Ayman Soubra, Katherine Cotter, Yunhua Fan, Graham Brown, Badrinath Konety
PURPOSE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism, is a common cause of morbidity and mortality after radical cystectomy. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility of extended outpatient chemoprophylaxis against VTE after radical cystectomy-with a focus on any reduction in the incidence of VTE, including DVT and pulmonary embolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Beginning in April 2013, we prospectively instituted a policy of extending inpatient VTE prophylaxis with subcutaneous heparin/enoxaparin for 30 days postoperatively...
October 30, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097085/purified-protein-derivative-skin-test-reactions-are-associated-with-clinical-outcomes-of-patients-with-nonmuscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-treated-with-induction-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-therapy
#13
Naoya Niwa, Eiji Kikuchi, Kazuhiro Matsumoto, Takeo Kosaka, Ryuichi Mizuno, Mototsugu Oya
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test reactions before bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy and the clinical outcomes of BCG-naïve nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer patients treated with adjuvant BCG therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 288 nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer patients subjected to the PPD skin test before BCG therapy were included. PPD skin test reactions were categorized into 3 groups: positive, slightly positive, and negative...
October 30, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110942/adjuvant-therapy-for-locally-advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#14
Yangyang Bai, Songchao Li, Zhankui Jia, Yinghui Ding, Chaohui Gu, Jinjian Yang
OBJECTIVES: Many adjuvant therapies have been widely used in an attempt to reduce the local recurrence or distant metastasis of locally advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after surgical resection. However, the benefits of adjuvant therapy remain controversial. Thus, we performed this study to analyze the role and safety of adjuvant therapy in renal cancer setting. METHODS AND METHODS: We comprehensively searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for published randomized controlled trials comparing adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy, vaccine therapy, immune therapy, and targeted therapy) versus no active treatment after surgery among patients with locoregional RCC...
October 27, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102254/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-oncological-long-term-outcomes-after-trimodality-therapy-and-radical-cystectomy-with-or-without-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-for-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Omar Fahmy, Mohd Ghani Khairul-Asri, Tina Schubert, Markus Renninger, Rohan Malek, Hubert Kübler, Arnulf Stenzl, Georgios Gakis
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to comprehensively analyze the oncological long-term outcomes of trimodal therapy (TMT) and radical cystectomy (RC) for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BC) with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic search was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines for studies reporting on outcomes after TMT and RC. A total of 57 studies including 30,293 patients were included. The 10-year overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates for TMT and RC were assessed...
October 25, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079132/satb1-and-bladder-cancer-is-there-a-functional-link
#16
Dharamainder Choudhary, Jessica M Clement, Shilpa Choudhary, Olga Voznesensky, Carol C Pilbeam, Benjamin L Woolbright, John A Taylor
PURPOSE: SATB1, a global genome organizer, has been shown to play a role in the development and progression of some solid tumors, but its role in bladder cancer is undetermined. Moreover, there is conflicting data about the role of SATB1 in other tumors. This study was initiated to assess a potential role for SATB1 with the hypothesis that SATB1 acts as a tumor promoter in bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated SATB1 expression in bladder cancer cell lines (HTB-5, HTB-9) and compared them to a benign urothelial cell line (UROtsa)...
October 24, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079131/update-of-systemic-immunotherapy-for-advanced-urothelial-carcinoma
#17
REVIEW
Benjamin A Gartrell, Tianfang He, Janaki Sharma, Guru Sonpavde
PURPOSE: Until recently, therapeutic options for metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) were limited to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy has proven benefit in the perioperative settings for muscle-invasive disease and for metastatic disease. A large proportion of patients is cisplatin-ineligible and limited to less effective chemotherapeutic options. However, treatment options have recently expanded with the development of systemic immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs)...
October 24, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066014/up-regulation-of-mir-181a-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-is-associated-with-lower-klf6-expression-enhanced-cell-proliferation-accelerated-cell-cycle-transition-and-diminished-apoptosis
#18
Zhenwei Lei, Xin Ma, Hongzhao Li, Yu Zhang, Yu Gao, Yang Fan, Xintao Li, Luyao Chen, Yongpeng Xie, Jianwen Chen, Shengpan Wu, Lu Tang, Xu Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Dysregulated expression of miR-181a accompanies tumorigenesis in many human cancers. However, in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the role of miR-181a remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate biological functions of miR-181a and its expression levels in ccRCC tissues and cancer cell lines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Expression levels of miR-181a in samples of ccRCC tumors and adjacent nontumor tissues from 42 patients as well as in 786-O, 769-P, A498, and CAKI-1 ccRCC cell lines were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
October 20, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066013/role-of-surgical-approach-on-lymph-node-dissection-yield-and-survival-in-patients-with-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#19
Andrew T Lenis, Nicholas M Donin, Izak Faiena, Amirali Salmasi, David C Johnson, Alexandra Drakaki, Kiran Gollapudi, Jeremy Blumberg, Arie Belldegrun, Allan Pantuck, Karim Chamie
OBJECTIVES: With increasing utilization of robot-assisted surgery in urologic oncology, robotic nephroureterectomy (RNU) is becoming the surgical modality of choice for patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). The role of surgical approach on lymph node dissection (LND) and lymph node (LN) yield is unclear, and potential therapeutic effects are unknown. Here we analyze the effects of surgical approach on LN yield, performance of LND, and overall survival (OS). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients with UTUC who underwent nephroureterectomy from 2010 to 2013 were identified in the National Cancer Database...
October 20, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055518/the-prognostic-effect-of-salvage-surgery-and-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-recurrent-primary-urethral-carcinoma
#20
Georgios Gakis, Tina Schubert, Todd M Morgan, Siamak Daneshmand, Kirk A Keegan, Johannes Mischinger, Rebecca H Clayman, Antonin Brisuda, Bedeir Ali-El-Dein, Sigolene Galland, Justin Gregg, Melih Balci, Kola Olugbade, Michael Rink, Hans-Martin Fritsche, Maximilian Burger, Marko Babjuk, Arnulf Stenzl, George N Thalmann, Hubert Kübler, Jason A Efstathiou
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of salvage therapy (ST) on overall survival (OS) in recurrent primary urethral cancer (PUC). PATIENTS: A series of 139 patients (96 men, 43 women; median age = 66, interquartile range: 57-77) were diagnosed with PUC at 10 referral centers between 1993 and 2012. The modality of ST of recurrence (salvage surgery vs. radiotherapy) was recorded. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank was used to estimate the impact of ST on OS (median follow-up = 21, interquartile range: 5-48)...
October 18, 2017: Urologic Oncology
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