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Toxicology Letters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193462/both-canonical-and-noncanonical-wnt-signalling-may-be-required-for-detoxification-following-etp-class-mycotoxin-exposure
#1
Jinbi Zhang, Zengxiang Pan, Allan Sheppard
Fungal infections (mycotoxicoses) are a growing global threat for both health and food production, and the available tools for effective detection, monitoring and treatment remain limited. Mycotoxins of the so-called ETP class can cause disease in humans (notably immunocompromised clinical patients) and otherwise healthy ruminant production animals. Understanding the molecular responses caused by ETP toxicity responses will inform diagnostics and guide possible interventions. Here we provide empirical evidence that exposure of hepatic cells to the ETP mycotoxin Sporidesmin A may trigger both canonical and noncanonical Wnt signalling, mediated through miRNA regulation, and regulate the particular expression of CYP2C family members...
February 10, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192153/comparison-of-the-acute-inhibitory-effects-of-tetrodotoxin-ttx-in-rat-and-human-neuronal-networks-for-risk-assessment-purposes
#2
Emma E J Kasteel, Remco H S Westerink
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is an extremely toxic marine neurotoxin. TTX inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels, resulting in a potentially lethal inhibition of neurotransmission. Despite numerous intoxications in Asia and Europe, limited (human) toxicological data are available for TTX. Additionally, the degree of interspecies differences for TTX is not well established, hampering the use of available (animal) data for human risk assessment and establishing regulatory limits for TTX concentrations in (shell)fish. We therefore used micro-electrode array (MEA) recordings as an integrated measure of neurotransmission to demonstrate that TTX inhibits neuronal electrical activity in both primary rat cortical cultures and human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hIPSC)-derived iCell(®) neurons in co-culture with hIPSC-derived iCell(®) astrocytes, with IC50 values of 7 and 10nM, respectively...
February 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189649/air-particulate-matter-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-atherosclerosis-the-role-of-nrf2-and-ahr-mediated-pathways
#3
Akeem O Lawal
Air particulate matter (PM) is an important component of air pollution, which has been reported to play important role in the adverse health effects of the latter. Extensive experimental data and epidemiological studies have shown that the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and atherosclerosis caused by air pollution is mainly due to the PM component. Implicated in these adverse health effects of PM, is their ability to induce oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory events in the vascular system...
February 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189646/exposure-to-sub-10nm-particles-emitted-from-a-biodiesel-fueled-diesel-engine-in-vitro-toxicity-and-inflammatory-potential
#4
Malorni Livia, Guida Vincenzo, Mariano Sicignano, Genovese Giuliana, Petrarca Claudia, Pedata Paola
OBJECTIVES: The inflammatory effects of organic sub-10nm particles generated and emitted from a diesel engine fueled with a biodiesel and a commercial diesel oil are analyzed in this paper. Diesel combustion is the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in the environment, particularly in urbanized areas. In the last years, there is an increasing use of biomass-derived fuels because they are a renewable source of energy that may mitigate climate change through the reduction of net CO2 with respect to conventional fossil fuels...
February 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189648/development-of-an-in-vitro-method-to-estimate-the-sensitization-induction-level-of-contact-allergens
#5
Valentina Galbiati, Angela Papale, Marina Marinovich, Sue Gibbs, Erwin Roggen, Emanuela Corsini
No standardized in vitro methods to assess potency of skin sensitizers are available. Recently, we standardized a procedure which combines the epidermal equivalent potency assay with assessment of IL-18 to provide a single test for identification and classification of skin sensitizers. This current study aimed to extend tested chemicals, and to provide a simple in vitro method for estimation of the expected sensitization induction level interpolating in vitro EC50 and IL-18 SI2 values to predict LLNA EC3 and/or human NOEL from standards curves generated using reference contact allergens...
February 8, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189647/down-regulation-of-cytochrome-p450-1a1-by-monomethylarsonous-acid-in-human-hepg2-cells
#6
Osama H Elshenawy, Ghada Abdelhamid, Anatoly A Soshilov, Michael S Denison, Ayman O S El-Kadi
Inorganic arsenic is a human toxicant and carcinogen that has been extensively studied over decades; however, no definitive understanding for underlying mechanisms has been established. Arsenic is capable of modulating the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-regulated genes, nevertheless, whether its trivalent organic metabolites have similar effects or not need to be investigated. Therefore, in this study we examined the effects of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) as compared to its parent compound sodium arsenite (As(III)) on the expression of CYP1A1 in HepG2 cells...
February 8, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189645/comparison-of-questionnaire-data-and-analyzed-dioxin-concentrations-as-a-measure-of-exposure-in-soft-tissue-sarcoma-studies
#7
Jouko Tuomisto, Riikka Airaksinen, Juha Pekkanen, Erkki Tukiainen, Hannu Kiviranta, Jouni T Tuomisto
Soft-tissue sarcoma is one of the few specific tumors thought to be caused by polychlorinated dibenzo -p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and specifically TCDD. Evidence is, however, based on questionnaire-based case-control studies, and on very few cancer cases in cohort studies at high occupational exposures to chlorophenols or chlorophenoxy acid herbicides with dioxin impurities. Recall bias has been suspected to influence the reporting of exposure, but this possibility has never been adequately put to test...
February 8, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188892/the-dental-monomer-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-hema-counteracts-lipopolysaccharide-induced-il-1%C3%AE-release-possible-role-of-glutathione
#8
Anette Kocbach Bolling, Anita Solhaug, Else Morisbak, Jørn Andreas Holme, Jan Tore Samuelsen
Methacrylate monomers, like 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), are common components of resin based dental materials. Leakage of unpolymerized monomers after placement and curing leads to human exposure. HEMA is known to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced cytokine release. In this study we explore a possible role of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in this effect. In the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line, HEMA (<2mM) did not induce cell death, but reduced cellular GSH levels, increased cellular ROS and decreased the IL-1β release from LPS-stimulated cells...
February 7, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188891/3-2-deoxy-%C3%AE-d-erythro-pentafuranosyl-pyrimido-1-2-%C3%AE-purin-10-3h-one-deoxyguanosine-adducts-of-workers-exposed-to-asbestos-fibers
#9
Stefano Bonassi, Filippo Cellai, Armelle Munnia, Donatella Ugolini, Alfonso Cristaudo, Monica Neri, Mirta Milić, Alessandra Bonotti, Roger W Giese, Marco E M Peluso
Asbestos is the commercial name for a group of silicate minerals naturally occurring in the environment and widely used in the industry. Asbestos exposure has been associated with pulmonary fibrosis, mesothelioma, and malignancies, which may appear after a period of latency of 20-40 years. Mechanisms involved in the carcinogenic effects of asbestos are still not fully elucidated, although the oxidative stress theory suggests that phagocytic cells produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species, due to their inability to digest asbestos fiber...
February 7, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185985/activating-transcription-factor-3-represses-cigarette-smoke-induced-il6-and-il8-expression-via-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#10
Yan-Ping Wu, Chao Cao, Yin-Fang Wu, Miao Li, Tian-Wen Lai, Chen Zhu, Yong Wang, Song-Min Ying, Zhi-Hua Chen, Hua-Hao Shen, Wen Li
Airway and lung inflammation is a fundamental hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) has been reported to negatively regulate many pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, little is known about the impact of ATF3 on the inflammatory response of COPD. Since cigarette smoke (CS) is considered to be the most important risk factor in the etiology of COPD, we attempted to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of ATF3 in CS-induced inflammation...
February 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185984/hydrogen-sulfide-in-paraventricular-nucleus-attenuates-blood-pressure-by-regulating-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-high-salt-induced-hypertension
#11
Yan-Feng Liang, Dong-Dong Zhang, Xiao-Jing Yu, Hong-Li Gao, Kai-Li Liu, Jie Qi, Hong-Bao Li, Qiu-Yue Yi, Wen-Sheng Chen, Wei Cui, Guo-Qing Zhu, Yu-Ming Kang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gaseous signaling molecule in neuro-modulation, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-hypertensive effects. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a major integrative nucleus in regulating BP and SNA. The aim of this study is to explore whether endogenous or exogenous H2S changed by hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA) or GYY4137 infused in the PVN affects RSNA and MAP by regulating oxidative stress or the balance between pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and anti-inflammatory cytokines in high salt-induced hypertensive rats...
February 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185983/prenatal-melamine-exposure-impairs-spatial-cognition-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-by-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-inhibition-of-glutamatergic-transmission-in-adolescent-offspring
#12
Lei An, Wei Sun
Our previous studies showed that prenatal melamine exposure (PME) could impair spatial cognition and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). More importantly, the synaptic dysfunction induced by PME was associated with the probability of presynaptic glutamate release. Considering the crucial role of the other form of synaptic plasticity, long-term depression (LTD), in some types of learning and memory process, the aim of present study was to investigate if the hippocampal LTD and cognitive flexibility were affected...
February 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185982/genetic-variants-pm2-5-exposure-level-and-global-dna-methylation-level-a-multi-center-population-based-study-in-chinese
#13
Jia Liu, Kaipeng Xie, Weihong Chen, Meng Zhu, Wei Shen, Jing Yuan, Yang Cheng, Liguo Geng, Yuzhuo Wang, Zhihua Li, Jiahui Zhang, Guangfu Jin, Juncheng Dai, Hongxia Ma, Jiangbo Du, Meilin Wang, Zhengdong Zhang, Zhibin Hu, Tangchun Wu, Hongbing Shen
Global DNA methylation levels can be determined by environmental and genetic factors. There are emerging evidences that methylation status can be modified as exposed to environmental factors such as PM2.5, but the genetic determinants are still largely unknown. To explore whether genetic variants contribute to global DNA methylation levels with consideration of environmental exposures, we systematically evaluated the association between genetic variants and global DNA methylation levels in 301 subjects from three cities in southern, central and northern China with different PM2...
February 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179194/rsdl-decontamination-of-human-skin-contaminated-with-the-nerve-agent-vx
#14
L Thors, S Lindberg, S Johansson, B Koch, M Koch, L Hägglund, A Bucht
Dermal exposure to low volatile organophosphorus compounds (OPC) may lead to penetration through the skin and uptake in the blood circulation. Skin decontamination of toxic OPCs, such as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents, might therefore be crucial for mitigating the systemic toxicity following dermal exposure. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) has been shown to reduce toxic effects in animals dermally exposed to the nerve agent VX. In the present study, an in vitro flow-through diffusion cell was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of RSDL for decontamination of VX exposed to human epidermis...
February 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161397/mir-22-contributes-to-endosulfan-induced-endothelial-dysfunction-by-targeting-srf-in-huvecs
#15
Dan Xu, Yubing Guo, Tong Liu, Shuai Li, Yeqing Sun
microRNAs (miRNAs) function in the posttranscriptional gene regulation, providing new insights into the epigenetic mechanism of toxicity induced by environmental pollutants. miR-22 was discovered to regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis in response to environmental toxicants. We have reported that endosulfan can cause endothelial toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In the present study, we investigated the involvement of miR-22 in endosulfan-induced endothelial dysfunction. The expression level of miR-22 was increased in a dose-dependent manner by endosulfan exposure...
February 2, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131803/myd88-gene-knockout-attenuates-paraquat-induced-acute-lung-injury
#16
Haitao Shen, Na Wu, Yu Wang, Feng Guo, Lianghong Chen, Zhigang Zhang, Dong Jia, Min Zhao
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the role of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in paraquat-induced acute lung injury (ALI). METHODS: C57BL mice were divided into the control group, paraquat group, MyD88 knockout (KO) group, and MyD88 KO plus paraquat group. At 48h after paraquat poisoning, serum and lung tissues were collected. ELISA was employed to detect tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukine-1β (IL-1β) contents in serum. Lung tissues were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining, followed by histological scoring...
January 25, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119020/in-vitro-metabolism-of-benzo-a-pyrene-7-8-dihydrodiol-and-dibenzo-def-p-chrysene-11-12-diol-in-rodent-and-human-hepatic-microsomes
#17
Jordan N Smith, Denis Mehinagic, Subhasree Nag, Susan R Crowell, Richard A Corley
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that are ubiquitously found in the environment, produced through combustion of organic matter or petrochemicals, and many of which are procarcinogens. The prototypic PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the highly carcinogenic dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) are metabolically activated by isoforms of the P450 enzyme superfamily producing benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (B[a]P diol), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol (DBC diol). Each of these diols can be further metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes to highly reactive diol-epoxide metabolites that readily react with DNA or by phase II conjugation facilitating excretion...
January 21, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115274/toxicity-of-the-amphetamine-metabolites-4-hydroxyamphetamine-and-4-hydroxynorephedrine-in-human-dopaminergic-differentiated-sh-sy5y-cells
#18
R Feio-Azevedo, V M Costa, L M Ferreira, P S Branco, F C Pereira, M L Bastos, F Carvalho, J P Capela
Amphetamine (AMPH) is a psychostimulant used worldwide by millions of patients in the clinical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy or even obesity, and is also a drug of abuse. 4-Hydroxynorephedrine (4-OHNE) and 4-hydroxyamphetamine (4-OHAMPH) are two major metabolites known to persist in the brain longer than AMPH. The contribution of AMPH metabolites for its neurotoxicity is undetermined. We evaluated the toxicity of AMPH and its metabolites 4-OHNE and 4-OHAMPH, obtained by chemical synthesis, in human dopaminergic differentiated SH-SY5Y neurons...
January 20, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115273/ablation-of-akt2-prevents-paraquat-induced-myocardial-mitochondrial-injury-and-contractile-dysfunction-role-of-nrf2
#19
Shuyi Wang, Xiaoling Zhu, Lize Xiong, Jun Ren
Paraquat is a quaternary nitrogen herbicide triggering oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and multi-organ injuries including hearts. To date, effective measure to combat paraquat toxicity is still lacking. Recent evidence has revealed a role for Akt in cardiac homeostasis. To this end, this study was designed to examine the role of Akt2 in acute paraquat exposure-induced cardiac contractile and mitochondrial injury using a unique murine model of Akt2 knockout. Cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were evaluated...
January 20, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111160/bisphenol-a-and-its-derivatives-tetrabromobisphenol-a-and-tetrachlorobisphenol-a-induce-apelin-expression-and-secretion-in-ovarian-cancer-cells-through-a-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-dependent-mechanism
#20
Marta Hoffmann, Elżbieta Fiedor, Anna Ptak
Epidemiological studies have reported that humans have detectable levels of not only bisphenol A (BPA), but also its halogenated derivatives tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), in the serum. Our previous study showed that BPA promotes ovarian cancer progression by directly inducing cell proliferation and migration or by indirectly increasing leptin receptor expression, which creates more binding sites for leptin. In this study, we examined the expression of apelin and its receptor in non-cancer and cancer cell lines derived from the human ovary, and further explored whether the expression of apelin and its receptor is modulated by BPA and its derivatives...
January 19, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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