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Toxicology Letters

Wolfgang Dekant, Anthony R Scialli, Kathy Plotzke, James E Klaunig
Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) is a cyclic siloxane primarily used as a monomer or intermediate in the production of silicone polymers resulting in potential exposure of workers, and potential low level inhalation or dermal exposure for consumers and the general public. Following a two-year inhalation toxicity study with D4 in rats, increases in uterine endometrial cystic hyperplasia and adenomas were observed at the highest concentration of D4 administered (700ppm). No other neoplasms were increased with D4 treatment...
January 18, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Yuting Cui, Kenneth W K Liu, Yingmin Liang, Mary S M Ip, Judith C W Mak
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is caused by the build-up of oxidative stress-induced damages due to cigarette smoking, but how monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B signaling is involved remains unclear. This study aims to establish the involvement of MAO-B signaling pathways in cigarette smoke medium (CSM)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in human airway epithelial cells (AECs). CSM treatment increased MAO-B activity, ROS levels and IL-8 release in AECs. Pretreatment with MAO-B selective inhibitor selegiline reversed the CSM-induced changes in MAO-B activity, ROS levels and IL-8 release in a dose-dependent manner...
January 17, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Luca G Regazzoni, Hasmik Grigoryan, Zhiying Ji, Xi Chen, Sarah I Daniels, Deyin Huang, Sylvia Sanchez, Naijun Tang, Fenna C M Sillé, Anthony T Iavarone, Evan R Williams, Luoping Zhang, Stephen M Rappaport
Formaldehyde is a human carcinogen that readily binds to nucleophiles, including proteins and DNA. To investigate whether exogenous formaldehyde produces adducts in extracellular fluids, we characterized modifications to human serum albumin (HSA) following incubation of whole blood, plasma, and saliva with formaldehyde at concentrations of 1, 10 and 100μM. The only HSA locus that showed the presence of formaldehyde modifications was Lys199. A N(6)-Lys adduct with added mass of 12Da, representing a putative intramolecular crosslink, was detected in biological fluids that had been incubated with formaldehyde but not in control fluids...
January 16, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Lu Zhang, Meng-Xi Xu, Qing-Sheng Yin, Cai-Ying Zhu, Xue-Lian Cheng, Yi-Ran Ren, Peng-Wei Zhuang, Yan-Jun Zhang
Cardiotoxicity is one of the most serious side effects of new drugs. Early detection of the drug induced cardiotoxicity based on the biomarkers provides an important preventative strategy for detecting potential cardiotoxicity of candidate drugs. In this study, we aim to identify the predictive genomics biomarkers for drug-induced cardiac toxicity based on the RTCA coupled with PCR Array technology in primary cells. Three prototypical cardiotoxic compounds (doxorubicin, isoproterenol, ouabain) with different mechanisms were firstly real-time monitored to diagnose the cytotoxicity by using the RTCA, while the functional alterations of cardiomyocytes were also monitored by analyzing the beating frequency of cardiomyocytes...
January 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Deidre S Cathe, Jasmine N Whitaker, Emily K Breitner, Kristen K Comfort
Nanoparticles (NPs) possess distinctive physicochemical properties that in addition to differentiating them from their bulk counterparts can induce negative cellular consequences. Standard in vitro systems have served as the primary model for NP safety evaluations, but suffer from a lack physiological relevance. One way to overcome this limitation and evaluate NP characteristics under more accurate conditions is through the use of artificial physiological fluids, which mimic the composition of in vivo environments...
January 13, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Douglas L Feinstein, Sergey Brodsky, Guy Weinberg, Richard van Breeman, Israel Rubinstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Toxicology Letters
T J Pianta, L Succar, T Davidson, N A Buckley, Z H Endre
BACKGROUND: Damage biomarkers may identify mechanisms and sites of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the utility of novel AKI biomarkers differs by context, and their utility for monitoring treatment of AKI is unknown. We hypothesized that selected AKI biomarkers would facilitate monitoring of mechanism-specific treatment. We examined this using a panel of biomarkers to monitor cisplatin-induced AKI treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) that has previously been demonstrated to ameliorate cisplatin induced AKI...
January 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Marina Makrecka-Kuka, Kristine Volska, Unigunde Antone, Reinis Vilskersts, Solveiga Grinberga, Dace Bandere, Edgars Liepinsh, Maija Dambrova
Increased plasma concentration of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a proatherogenic metabolite, has been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes; however, it remains unclear whether TMAO is a biomarker or whether it induces direct detrimental cardiovascular effects. Because altered cardiac energy metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction play crucial roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases, we hypothesized that increased TMAO concentration may alter mitochondrial energy metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of TMAO on cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolism...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Hanna Piotrowska-Kempisty, Agnieszka Klupczyńska, Dorota Trzybulska, Katarzyna Kulcenty, Anna Maria Sulej-Suchomska, Małgorzata Kucińska, Renata Mikstacka, Marcin Wierzchowski, Marek Murias, Wanda Baer-Dubowska, Zenon Kokot, Jadwiga Jodynis-Liebert
The role of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes in the biotransformation and biological activity of the methylated resveratrol analogue, 3,4,5,4'-tetramethoxystilbene (DMU-212) is still elusive. Our recently published data have shown that one of the metabolites of DMU-212, 3'-hydroxy-3,4,5,4'-tetramethoxystilbene (DMU-214) exerts more potent cytotoxic effects in A-2780 ovarian cancer cell line, as compared to the parent compound. Hence, this study aims to elucidate whether the biological activity of DMU-212 is related to its biotransformation to DMU-214...
December 31, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Peng Duan, Chunhui Hu, Chao Quan, Tingting Yu, Wenting Huang, Wei Chen, Sha Tang, Yuqin Shi, Francis L Martin, Kedi Yang
The estrogenic chemical 4-nonylphenol (NP) is known to impair testicular devolopment and spermatogenesis in rodents. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of NP on autophagy induction and AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway in Sertoli cells (SCs), which are the "nursemaid cells" for meiosis of spermatocytes. In this study we exposed 7-week-old male rats to NP by intra-peritoneal injection at 0, 20, 50 or 100mg/kg body weight/2days for 20 consecutive days. Our results showed that exposure to NP dose-dependently induces the formation of autophagosomes in SCs, increases the expression of Beclin-1, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and the mRNA expression of Atg3, Atg5, Atg7 and Atg12 in testis, and these effects are concomitant with the activation of AMPK, and the suppression of TSC2-mTOR-p70S6K/4EBP1 signaling cascade in testis...
December 29, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Wenting Tang, Lili Du, Wen Sun, Zhiqiang Yu, Fang He, Jingsi Chen, Xiaomei Li, Xiuying Li, Lin Yu, Dunjin Chen
Fine particles from air pollution, also called particulate matter, less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are a threat to child health. Epidemiological investigations have related maternal exposure to PM2.5 to postnatal respiratory symptoms, such as frequent wheezing, chronic cough, and lung function decrements. However, only few experimental animal studies have been performed to study the effects of PM2.5.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to PM2.5 on postnatal pulmonary dysfunction in a rat model and to examine the mechanism of PM2...
December 29, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Petra Varró, Melinda Kovács, Ildikó Világi
Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides showing significant selective toxicity on insects over mammals, but effects on mammalian nervous system are not negligible. These substances act on the voltage-gated sodium channel, prolonging the duration of the open state. The present study focused on the effect of the pyrethroid esfenvalerate on the excitability of neuronal networks in vitro. From isolated rat brain slices, neocortical and hippocampal evoked field potentials were recorded; four concentrations (5-40μM) of esfenvalerate were tested using in vitro administration of the commercial product Sumi-Alpha 5 EC(®)...
December 19, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Katharina Vejdovszky, Matej Sack, Katharina Jarolim, Georg Aichinger, Mark M Somoza, Doris Marko
Alternariol (AOH) and altertoxin II (ATX II) are mycotoxins formed by Alternaria spp. Since they are expected to co-occur in Alternaria-infested food and feed, we addressed the question of combinatory effects. In addition, potentially involved regulatory microRNAs were surveyed in an exploratory approach. Cytotoxicity measurements in constant ratio combinations of 1:10 or 1:1 (ATX II: AOH) mainly revealed additive effects in HepG2, HT29 and HCEC-1CT cells. Yet, in specific high doses antagonism was found. Microarray analysis of miRNA expression profiles in HepG2 cells indicated different patterns of miRNA regulation by AOH and ATX II, including several miRNA species for which no distinct functions are currently known...
December 19, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Min-Seok Kim, Seok Won Jeong, Seong-Jin Choi, Jin-Young Han, Sung-Hwan Kim, Seokjoo Yoon, Jung-Hwa Oh, Kyuhong Lee
The antimicrobial biocide polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG) phosphate is the main ingredient in the commercially available humidifier disinfectant. PHMG phosphate-based humidifier disinfectants can cause pulmonary fibrosis and induce inflammatory and fibrotic responses both in vivo and in vitro. However, toxicological mechanisms including genomic alterations induced by inhalation exposure to PHMG phosphate have not been elucidated. Therefore, this study evaluated the toxicological effects of the PHMG phosphate-containing humidifier disinfectant...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Ning Zhang, Yan Hu, Chunchun Ding, Wenjing Zeng, Wen Shan, Hui Fan, Yan Zhao, Xue Shi, Lili Gao, Ting Xu, Ruiwen Wang, Dongyan Gao, Jihong Yao
Salvianolic acid B (SalB), a water-soluble polyphenol extracted from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been reported to possess many pharmacological activities. This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of SalB in chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and explored the related signaling mechanisms. In vivo, SalB treatment significantly attenuated ethanol-induced liver injury by blocking the elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and markedly decreased hepatic lipid accumulation by reducing serum and liver triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Ping Han Ser, Sanae Omi, Hana Shimizu-Furusawa, Akira Yasutake, Mineshi Sakamoto, Noriyuki Hachiya, Shoko Konishi, Masaaki Nakamura, Chiho Watanabe
Putative protective effects of selenium (Se) against methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity have been examined but no conclusion has been reached. We recently reported the lack of serious neurological symptoms in a Japanese fish-eating population with high intakes of MeHg and suggested a potential protective role for Se. Here, relationships between levels of Hg and Se in the blood and plasma samples, with a quantitative evaluation of Se-containing proteins, obtained from this population were examined. While levels of the whole-blood Hg (WB-Hg) and plasma Se (P-Se) showed a positive correlation, stratified analysis revealed that they correlated only in samples with higher (greater than the median) levels of MeHg...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Sumitra Arora, Sahil Balotra, Gunjan Pandey, Anu Kumar
Anticholinesterase insecticides such as organophosphorous (OP) and carbamates pesticides (CB); and synthetic pyrethroids (SP) pesticides commonly co-occur in the environment. This raises the possibility of antagonistic, additive, or synergistic neurotoxicity in exposed organisms. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition has been demonstrated to be useful as a biomarker for exposure to OP and CBs in many environments. This study investigated the response of housefly (Musca domestica) head AChE (HF-AChE) exposed to five OPs; chlorpyrifos (CPF), malathion (MLT), triazophos (TRZ), monocrotophos (MCP) and profenofos (PRF) and two CBs; carbaryl (CRB) and carbofuran (CBF) as individual compounds and as binary mixtures of OPs and CBs under in vitro conditions...
December 14, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Elio A Soria, Roberto D Pérez, Ignasi Queralt, Carlos A Pérez, Guillermina A Bongiovanni
Arsenic (As) is a worldwide environmental contaminant, which compromises immunity and causes various associated disorders. To further investigate its immunotoxicity, male Wistar rats were exposed to 100ppm of sodium arsenite (inorganic AsIII) in drinking water for 2 months. Given that metals are significant immune regulators, their content and distribution were analysed in spleen tissues, to then evaluate subsequent changes of redox enzyme responses in spleen parenchyma cells (splenocytes). X-ray fluorescence spectrometry demonstrated As accumulation in both white and red pulps (p<0...
January 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Hongwei Ding, Wei Zheng, Hua Han, Xiyin Hu, Binli Hu, Feng Wang, Liyu Su, Hong Li, Yan Li
Linuron is a widely used herbicide in agriculture; its endocrine disruptive toxicity has recently received public attention. This study was designed to examine the developmental toxicity of linuron on the reproductive system of male offspring following maternal exposure. Mother rats received oral gavages of linuron, once daily, at the dose of 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200mg/kg, from gestational day (GD)13 to GD18; gonadal organs from GD20 fetuses were examined. Data indicated that exposed male offspring had a significantly shortened anogenital distance...
January 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Xinhui Wang, LaNita Nichols, Elizabeth A Grunz-Borgmann, Zhe Sun, Gerald A Meininger, Timothy L Domeier, Christopher P Baines, Alan R Parrish
Previous studies have shown that the aging kidney has a marked loss of α(E)-catenin in proximal tubular epithelium. α-Catenin, a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, interacts with a variety of actin-binding proteins. Cisplatin-induced loss of fascin2, an actin bundling protein, was observed in cells with a stable knockdown of α(E)-catenin (C2 cells), as well as in aging (24 mon), but not young (4 mon), kidney. Fascin2 co-localized with α-catenin and the actin cytoskeleton in NRK-52E cells. Knockdown of fascin2 increased the susceptibility of tubular epithelial cells to cisplatin-induced injury...
January 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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