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Toxicology Letters

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720485/ceftaroline-modulates-the-innate-immune-and-host-defense-responses-of-immunocompetent-cells-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke
#1
A Bruno, C Cipollina, S Di Vincenzo, L Siena, P Dino, F Di Gaudio, M Gjomarkaj, E Pace
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke, the principal risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), negatively influences the effectiveness of the immune system's response to a pathogen. The antibiotic ceftaroline exerts immune-modulatory effects in bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke. AIMS AND METHODS: The present study aims to assess the effects of ceftaroline on TLR2 and TLR4 expression, LPS binding and TNF-α and human beta defensin (HBD2) release in an undifferentiated and PMA-differentiated human monocyte cell line (THP-1) exposed or not to cigarette smoke extracts (CSE)...
July 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716577/apoptosis-related-genes-induced-in-response-to-ketamine-during-early-life-stages-of-zebrafish
#2
Luís M Félix, Cindy Serafim, Ana M Valentim, Luís M Antunes, Manuela Matos, Ana M Coimbra
Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages)...
July 14, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709983/sn-and-ge-triorganometallics-exert-different-cytotoxicity-and-modulation-of-migration-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cell-line-mda-mb-231
#3
Luba Hunakova, Julius Brtko
Among a variety of metal containing organic compounds, tin derivatives are enjoying an increasing interest and appear to be very promising as potential drug candidates. We studied eight organometallic derivatives, nuclear retinoid X receptor (RXR) ligands and two germanium containing derivates that do not serve as RXR ligands. Tributylgermanium chloride (TBGe) and triphenylgermanium chloride (TPGe) did not inhibit growth of human triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. On the other hand, the tributyltin derivatives were highly, the triphenyltin derivatives less cytotoxic, both groups with IC50 values of nanomolar range...
July 11, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709982/impact-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-on-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-air-blood-barrier
#4
Rossella Bengalli, Maurizio Gualtieri, Laura Capasso, Chiara Urani, Marina Camatini
The inhalation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) may induce systemic diseases, damages to the alveolar epithelium and inflammatory response to endothelial cells. In this work the use of an in vitro air-blood barrier (ABB) model provided a tool to elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying the potential effects of inhaled nanoparticles (NPs). The ABB model used is composed of a Transwell co-culture of a lung epithelial cell line (NCI-H441) and an immortalized pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1...
July 11, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709981/relative-toxicity-for-indoor-semi-volatile-organic-compounds-based-on-neuronal-death
#5
Kevin Fournier, Emmanuel Baumont, Philippe Glorennec, Nathalie Bonvallot
BACKGROUND: Semi Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs) are contaminants commonly found in dwellings as a result of their use as plasticizers, flame retardants, or pesticides in building materials and consumer products. Many SVOCs are suspected of being neurotoxic, based on mammal experimentation (impairment of locomotor activity, spatial learning/memory or behavioral changes), raising the question of cumulative risk assessment. The aim of this work is to estimate the relative toxicity of such SVOCs, based on neuronal death...
July 11, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705705/did-the-romans-die-of-antimony-poisoning-the-case-of-a-pompeii-water-pipe-79-ce
#6
LETTER
P Charlier, F Bou Abdallah, R Bruneau, S Jacqueline, A Augias, R Bianucci, A Perciaccante, D Lippi, O Appenzeller, K L Rasmussen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700905/chronic-iron-overload-induces-functional-and-structural-vascular-changes-in-small-resistance-arteries-via-nadph-oxidase-dependent-o2-production
#7
Rogério Faustino Ribeiro, Vinicius Bermond Marques, Dieli Oliveira Nunes, Ivanita Stefanon, Leonardo Dos Santos
Iron overload leads to excessive free radical formation and induces cardiovascular dysfunction. Thus, our aim was to investigate the structural and endothelial modulation of vascular tone induced by chronic iron overload in mesenteric arteries. Rats were divided into two groups: the control (vehicle) group and the group treated with iron dextran for 28days (100mg/kg, 5days a week). Chronic iron overload altered the following morpho-physiological parameters of third-order mesenteric resistance arteries: decreased lumen and external diameters; increased wall/lumen ratio and wall thickness; decreased distensibility and increased stiffness; and increased pulse wave velocity...
July 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700904/inhibition-of-high-glucose-induced-inflammation-and-fibrosis-by-a-novel-curcumin-derivative-prevents-renal-and-heart-injury-in-diabetic-mice
#8
Hongjin Chen, Xi Yang, Kongqin Lu, Chun Lu, Yunjie Zhao, Suqing Zheng, Jieli Li, Zhangjian Huang, Yi Huang, Yali Zhang, Guang Liang
Hyperglycemia-induced inflammation and fibrosis have important roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and cardiomyopathy. With inflammatory cytokines and signaling pathways as important mediators, targeting inflammation may be an effective approach to new avenue for treating diabetic complications. J17, a molecule with structural similarities to curcumin, exhibited good anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting LPS-induced inflammatory response in macrophages. However, its ability to alleviate hyperglycemia-induced injury via its anti-inflammatory actions remained unclear...
July 9, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698097/enzymatic-reactive-oxygen-species-assay-to-evaluate-phototoxic-risk-of-metabolites
#9
Masashi Kato, Hiroto Ohtake, Hideyuki Sato, Yoshiki Seto, Satomi Onoue
The present study aimed to verify the feasibility of an enzymatic reactive oxygen species (eROS) assay to evaluate the phototoxic risk of compounds after their metabolization. The eROS assay was designed based on the combined use of an in vitro drug metabolism system and a ROS assay. The incubation time of compounds with human hepatic S9 fractions was optimized with the use of fenofibrate (FF), a typical phototoxicant with metabolite-related phototoxicity, and the reproducibility and robustness of the eROS assay were examined using FF...
July 8, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698096/differential-pulmonary-effects-of-wintertime-california-and-china-particulate-matter-in-healthy-young-mice
#10
Xiaolin Sun, Haiying Wei, Dominique E Young, Keith J Bein, Suzette M Smiley-Jewell, Qi Zhang, Ciara Catherine B Fulgar, Alejandro R Castañeda, Alexa K Pham, Wei Li, Kent E Pinkerton
Airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse cardiorespiratory effects. To better understand source-orientated PM toxicity, a comparative study of the biological effects of fine PM (diameter≤2.5μm, PM2.5) collected during the winter season from Shanxi Province, China, and the Central Valley, California, United States, was conducted. The overarching hypothesis for this study was to test whether the chemical composition of PM on an equal mass basis from two urban areas, one in China and one in California, can lead to significantly different effects of acute toxicity and inflammation in the lungs of healthy young mice...
July 8, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689763/remodeling-of-brain-lipidome-in-methamphetamine-sensitized-mice
#11
Linhong Jiang, Hui Gu, Yiyun Lin, Wei Xu, Ruiming Zhu, Jueying Kong, Li Luo, Hailei Long, Bing Liu, Bo Chen, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
Lipids are predominant components of the brain and key regulators for neural structure and function. The effect of methamphetamine (METH) on behavior, cognition as well as memory has been intensively investigated; however, the impact of METH on brain lipid profiles is largely unknown. Here, we used a global lipidomic approach to investigate brain lipidome of METH-sensitized mice. We found that repeated METH significantly modified the lipidome in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum. Interestingly, nucleus accumbens showed no obvious alteration in lipidomic profiling...
July 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689762/a-toxicological-review-of-the-ethylene-glycol-series-commonalities-and-differences-in-toxicity-and-modes-of-action
#12
Jeff Fowles, Marcy Banton, Joanna Klapacz, Hua Shen
This review summarizes the hazards, exposure and risk that are associated with ethylene glycols (EGs) in their intended applications. Ethylene glycol (EG; CAS RN 107-21-1) and its related oligomers include mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta-EG. All of the EGs are quickly and extensively absorbed following ingestion and inhalation, but not by the dermal route. Metabolism involves oxidation to the mono- and dicarboxylic acids. Elimination is primarily through the urine as the parent compound or the monoacid, and, in the case of EG, also as exhaled carbon dioxide...
July 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688901/microrna-155-regulates-arsenite-induced-malignant-transformation-by-targeting-nrf2-mediated-oxidative-damage-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#13
Chengzhi Chen, Xuejun Jiang, Shiyan Gu, Zunzhen Zhang
Arsenite is a well-documented human lung carcinogen but the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unclear. In this study, human bronchial epithelial (16-HBE) cells were continuously exposed to 2.5μM arsenite for about 13 weeks to induce the phenotypes of malignant transformation. Our results showed that Nrf2 expression was gradually decreased whereas no significant change was observed on NF-κB activation with increased time of arsenite exposure. To test the roles of Nrf2-meidtaed oxidative damage in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation, we compared the levels of cGMP, PKG and oxidative damage-related indicators between arsenic-transformed cells and control cells...
July 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688900/mir-34a-sirtuin-1-foxo3a-is-involved-in-genistein-protecting-against-ox-ldl-induced-oxidative-damage-in-huvecs
#14
Huaping Zhang, Zhenxiang Zhao, Xuefen Pang, Jian Yang, Haixia Yu, Yinhong Zhang, Hui Zhou, Jiahui Zhao
The antioxidant activity of genistein is associated with preventing atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated with genistein at different concentrations (10nM, 100nM and 1000nM) for 6h and then exposed to ox-LDL (50mg/L) for another 24h. Results showed that genistein restrained reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and ameliorated the inhibitory effect on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity elicited by ox-LDL stimulation...
July 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687253/connexin-hemichannel-inhibition-reduces-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#15
Michaël Maes, Sara Crespo Yanguas, Joost Willebrords, James L Weemhoff, Tereza Cristina da Silva, Elke Decrock, Margitta Lebofsky, Isabel Veloso Alves Pereira, Luc Leybaert, Anwar Farhood, Hartmut Jaeschke, Bruno Cogliati, Mathieu Vinken
Historically, connexin hemichannels have been considered as structural precursors of gap junctions. However, accumulating evidence points to independent roles for connexin hemichannels in cellular signaling by connecting the intracellular compartment with the extracellular environment. Unlike gap junctions, connexin hemichannels seem to be mainly activated in pathological processes. The present study was set up to test the potential involvement of hemichannels composed of connexin32 and connexin43 in acute hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen...
July 4, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676441/chronic-toxicity-and-oncogenicity-of-octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane-d4-in-the-fischer-344-rat
#16
Paul A Jean, Kathleen P Plotzke
Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) is a cyclic volatile methylsiloxane primarily used in the synthesis of silicon-based materials used in in a variety of consumer products. This paper details the chronic toxicity and oncogenicity evaluation of D4 in the Fischer 344 rat. Animals were exposed to 0, 10, 30, 150, or 700ppm D4 vapor for 6h/day, 5 days/week for up to 104 weeks in whole-body inhalation chambers. Effects of two year chronic exposure included increased liver, kidney, testes, and uterine weight with correlating microscopic findings of hepatocellular hypertrophy (males only), chronic nephropathy (both sexes), interstitial cell hyperplasia, and cystic endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenoma, respectively...
July 1, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668294/aclarubicin-an-anthracycline-anti-cancer-drug-fluorescently-contrasts-mitochondria-and-reduces-the-oxygen-consumption-rate-in-living-human-cells
#17
Haruka Iihoshi, Takaya Ishihara, Shogo Kuroda, Naotada Ishihara, Hisato Saitoh
Aclarubicin (Acla), an effective anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent for hematologic cancers and solid tumors, is documented to perturb chromatin function via histone eviction and DNA topoisomerase inhibition in the nucleus, but much less attention has been paid to cytotoxic function in the cytoplasm. Here, we showed that Acla emitted fluorescence and that human cervical cancer HeLa cells exposed to Acla exhibited bright fluorescence signals in the cytoplasm when fluorescence microscopy was performed using the red filter (excitation 530-550nm/emission 575nm)...
June 28, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666825/triptonide-acts-as-a-novel-potent-anti-lymphoma-agent-with-low-toxicity-mainly-through-inhibition-of-proto-oncogene-lyn-transcription-and-suppression-of-lyn-signal-pathway
#18
Ping Yang, Fulu Dong, Quansheng Zhou
Lyn is a proto-oncogene overexpressed and constitutively activated in lymphoma, and plays an important role in lymphoma initiation and malignant progression. Hence, the oncogenic Lyn has recently been targeted for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery; however, the effective Lyn-targeted drug for lymphoma treatment with low toxicity is absent in the clinical setting. The goal of this study is to explore powerful and low toxic Lyn-targeted anti-lymphoma agent. Here we show that triptonide, a small molecule purified from the herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, potently inhibits the proliferation of human B-lymphoma Raji and T-lymphoma Jurkat cells with IC50 of 5...
June 27, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655517/safety-assessment-of-green-tea-based-beverages-and-dried-green-tea-extracts-as-nutritional-supplements
#19
Wolfgang Dekant, Kenkichi Fujii, Eiichiro Shibata, Osamu Morita, Akira Shimotoyodome
The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses...
June 24, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645863/toxicology-of-octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane-d4
#20
Allison Franzen, Tracy Greene, Cynthia Van Landingham, Robinan Gentry
Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) is a volatile cyclic siloxane used primarily as a monomer or intermediate in the production of some silicon-based polymers widely used in industrial and consumer applications and may be present as a residual impurity in a variety of consumer products. A robust toxicological data set exists for D4. Treatment-related results from a chronic inhalation study conducted in rats are limited to mild effects on the respiratory tract, increases in liver weight, increases in the incidence of uterine endometrial epithelial hyperplasia, and a dose-related trend in the incidence of endometrial adenomas...
June 20, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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