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Toxicology Letters

Rong Fan, Peng-Chao Hu, Ying Wang, Hong-Yi Lin, Ke Su, Xue-Song Feng, Lei Wei, Fang Yang
Cadmium exposure is closely associated with a variety of diseases including cancers and the accumulation of cadmium has been long recognized as a public health problem. It is therefore of high importance to find methods to reduce cadmium accumulation in the human body. Herein, we report that administration of betulinic acid (BA) protects mice from cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced toxicity by inhibiting cadmium-induced apoptosis in both kidney and liver. Mice were given oral doses of 3 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg of BA daily for ten consecutive days, and were injected with one dose of 1 mg/kg CdCl2 after one hour of BA administration every day...
September 16, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Nuha Alkhattabi, Ian Todd, Ola Negm, Patrick J Tighe, Lucy C Fairclough
Cigarette smoke has significant toxic effects on the immune system, and increases the risk of developing autoimmune diseases; one immunosuppressive effect of cigarette smoke is that it inhibits the T cell-stimulating, immunogenic properties of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs). As the functions of DCs are regulated by intra-cellular signaling pathways, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and nicotine on multiple signaling molecules and other regulatory proteins in human DCs to elucidate the molecular basis of the inhibition of DC maturation and function by CSE and nicotine...
September 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Caterina Ledda, Giuseppe La Torre, Diana Cinà, Gianluca Paravizzini, Ermanno Vitale, Piero Pavone, Ivo Iavicoli, Venerando Rapisarda
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a large group of man-made chemicals characterized by a completely fluorinated hydrophobic linear carbon chain attached to a hydrophilic head. The presence of PFCs has been related with various adverse effects on several organs and systems. 61 children (6 to 11 years of age) living in Sicily underwent medical examination and blood and urine routinary tests, as well as the serum concentration of 16 PFCs. These compounds (∑PFCs = 5.888 ng/mL, range 1.035-12.94 ng/mL) were widely detected in the samples of all children, showing that they had been extensively exposed to PFCs, especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxs) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA)...
September 11, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Xue Zhao, Rihua Wang, Jianping Xiong, Donglin Yan, Aiping Li, Shouyu Wang, Jin Xu, Jianwei Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 3, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Lu Wang, Dengqiu Xu, Liping Li, Xin Xing, Li Liu, Mohammed Ismail Abdelmotalab, Li Xiao, Xin Huang, Xinzhi Wang, Tao Wang, Zhenzhou Jiang, Luyong Zhang, Lixin Sun
Hepatic macrophages are central players in the pathogenesis of some liver diseases, but few studies have examined the effect of triptolide (TP) on these cells. In this study, we investigated the possible role of hepatic macrophage recruitment and activation in triptolide-induced hepatotoxicity based on a non-hepatotoxic dose of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The results showed that continuous administration of TP for two weeks and a single challenge of low-dose lipopolysaccharides increased the number of hepatic macrophages but inhibited their phagocytic function...
August 30, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Guanglei Wang, Xiaomei Zheng, Jinglong Tang, Yong Niu, Yufei Dai, Huawei Duan, Yuxin Zheng
Exposure to diesel exhaust particle (DEP) is closely related to inflammatory response in respiratory system. To understand the underlying molecular mechanism by which DEP induces pulmonary inflammatory response, we conducted DEP exposure experiments in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, each mouse was exposed to DEP suspension (100 μg of DEP) or vehicle only once in single intra-tracheal instillation (IT) section, or was exposed to DEP suspension (12.5 μg or 50 μg of DEP) or vehicle 12 times in repeated IT section...
August 29, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Leandro Ceotto Freitas-Lima, Eduardo Merlo, Marina Campos Zicker, Juliana Maria Navia-Pelaez, Miriane de Oliveira, Luciano Dos Santos Aggum Capettini, Célia Regina Nogueira, Adaliene Versiani Matos Ferreira, Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos, Jones Bernardes Graceli
White adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction and obesity are a consequence of a low-grade inflammation state. These WAT irregularities could result from abnormal metabolic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) control. Recently, tributyltin (TBT) has been found to play a critical role in these metabolic irregularities. However, TBT actions on the WAT-RAS functions are not currently well understood. In this study, we assessed whether TBT exposure resulted in metabolic syndrome (MetS) development and other metabolic complications as a result of abnormal modulation of WAT-RAS pathways...
August 29, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Ashish Dwivedi, Manish Kumar Pal, Amit Kumar Tripathi, Neera Yadav, Syed Faiz Mujtaba, M C Pant, Shio Kumar Singh, Durga Prasad Mishra, Ratan Singh Ray, B H Manjunatha Prabhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Andreas Kranawetvogl, Markus Siegert, Florian Eyer, Horst Thiermann, Harald John
A method is described allowing forensic analysis of plasma samples to prove human poisoning with the organophosphorus pesticides omethoate (OM) and dimethoate (DIM). Upon incubation of human serum albumin (HSA) with both pesticides tyrosine residues were phosphorylated. In addition, a novel disulfide-adduct between the identical thiol-containing leaving group of OM and DIM (2-mercapto-N-methylacetamide, MNMA) and the only free cysteine residue in HSA (Cys34 ) was formed. Following pronase-catalyzed proteolysis either O,O-dimethyl phosphotyrosine (Tyr-dmp) or O,O-dimethyl thiophosphotyrosine (Tyr-dmsp) as well as the cysteine-proline dipeptide disulfide-adduct (MNMA-CysPro) were produced...
August 27, 2018: Toxicology Letters
D Klein, W Kessler, C Pütz, B Semder, W Kirchinger, A Langsch, W Gries, R Otter, A K E Gallien, X Wurzenberger, J G Filser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Mariella Carrieri, Giovanna Spatari, Giovanna Tranfo, Daniela Sapienza, Maria Luisa Scapellato, Giovanni Battista Bartolucci, Maurizio Manno
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of various factors that modulate the metabolism of benzene, including smoking habits, metabolic genotype of GST and co-exposure to toluene, on the levels of three biomarkers, i.e. urinary benzene (UB), S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA), in 146 refinery workers exposed to low levels of air benzene (AB) in the range <1.5-529.2 μg/m3 (mean value 32.6 μg/m3 ). The study confirmed the validity of SPMA as a good biomarker of benzene exposure even at low levels of exposure...
August 4, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Heike Denghel, Thomas Göen
Organophosphate pesticides (OPP) and carbamates are still counted among the most prominent agents used for crops protection. Up to date the determination of dialkylphosphates and their thio derivatives in urine is established for the OPP biomonitoring. However, this approach does not provide information on the exposure to specific OPP agents. A lot of OPP as well as some carbamates also provide specific urinary biomarkers indeed. Analytical methods for the determination of phenolic metabolites of OPP and carbamates have already been established by different working groups...
July 30, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Matteo Creta, Horatiu Moldovan, Katrien Poels, Septimiu Voidazan, Lode Godderis, Radu-Corneliu Duca, Jeroen Vanoirbeek
The assessment of dermal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is becoming increasingly important in industrial settings. The study aimed to evaluate the overall exposure (inhalation and dermal) of workers to VOCs, and to assess the suitability of activated charcoal cloth (ACC) patches for the evaluation of the contribution of dermal exposure (vs. inhalation exposure) to the whole body burden, as reflected by human biomonitoring. Inhalation exposure to toluene, acetone and styrene (passive 3 M organic vapour monitors, OVMs) and dermal exposure (ACC patches on the index finger, thumb and neck) were measured simultaneously in 37 subjects performing different tasks in a factory of thermoplastic panels...
July 29, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Maria Cristina Aprea, Pietro Apostoli, Maurizio Bettinelli, Piero Lovreglio, Sara Negri, Luigi Perbellini, Andrea Perico, Maria Cristina Ricossa, Fabiola Salamon, Maria Luisa Scapellato, Ivo Iavicoli
The purpose of this study of the Italian Society of Reference Values (SIVR) was to provide the reference values for metals in the urine of the Italian general population. Thirteen sampling centres situated in the north, centre and south of Italy took part in this project. Each sampling centre selected 20 adult subjects. The sample was made up of 120 male and 140 female non-smokers or smokers who had abandoned the habit at least 5 years previously, aged between 18 and 60 years. Urine samples were obtained from the same subjects in June and again in November of the same year...
July 9, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Katrin Klotz, Melanie Zobel, Anja Schäferhenrich, Ralph Hebisch, Hans Drexler, Thomas Göen
Naphthalene occurs together with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at industrial workplaces and is ubiquitous in the environment. For biological monitoring of naphthalene exposures, up to now mainly 1- and 2-naphthol in urine have been used. Recently, we proposed 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene (1,2-DHN) and the 1- and 2-naphthylmercapturic acid (1- and 2-NMA) as new urinary biomarkers to characterise a naphthalene exposure. In this study, in a collective of nine occupationally exposed workers handling with creosote the naphthalene metabolites 1,2-DHN, 1- and 2-NMA as well as 1- and 2-naphthol were analysed in order to evaluate the suitability of the different parameters for their application in biomonitoring studies...
July 7, 2018: Toxicology Letters
A Pino, B Bocca, G Forte, C Majorani, F Petrucci, O Senofonte, A Alimonti
Although high or repeated exposure to different forms of Hg can have serious health consequences, the most important toxicity risk for humans is as methylmercury (MeHg) which exposure is mainly through consumption of fish. Generally, more than the 80% of Hg in hair is as MeHg, which is taken up by hair follicles as MeHg-cysteine complexes. In this context, hair samples were collected from 200 children (7 years) living in a site in the North East (A) and from 299 children (6-11 years) living in a urban area of South Italy (B) to determine the levels of MeHg...
June 25, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Yushan Cui, Zushan Zhang, Bin Zhang, Liang Zhao, Changchun Hou, Qiang Zeng, Junyan Nie, Jingwen Yu, Yang Zhao, Tongning Gao, Aiguo Wang, Hongliang Liu
In recent years, the detrimental effects of high iodine on intelligence are gaining tons of attention, but the relationship between high iodine and neurotoxicity is controversial. This study aimed to explore whether high iodine intake may impair intelligence and the roles of apoptosis and autophagy in high iodine-induced neurotoxicity. The results showed that high iodine exposure reduced brain coefficient and intelligence of rats, and caused histopathological abnormalities in hippocampus. Moreover, high iodine increased hippocampal apoptosis, as confirmed by elevation of apoptotic proteins and TUNEL-positive incidence...
November 2018: Toxicology Letters
Berthold Drexler, Thomas Seeger, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Bernd Antkowiak, Christian Grasshoff
Intoxication with organophosphorus compounds can result in life-threatening organ dysfunction and refractory seizures. Sedation or hypnosis is essential to facilitate mechanical ventilation and control seizure activity. The range of indications for midazolam includes both hypnosis and seizure control. Since benzodiazepines cause sedation and hypnosis by dampening neuronal activity of the cerebral cortex, we investigated the drug's effect on action potential firing of cortical neurons in brain slices. Extensive cholinergic overstimulation was induced by increasing acetylcholine levels and simultaneously treating the slices with soman to block acetylcholinesterase activity...
November 2018: Toxicology Letters
Yang Song, Lei Yang
The hypothesis of fetal origins unraveled that environmental exposures in early life could alter epigenetic modifications in the male germ-line, increasing the susceptibility to adult-onset diseases for generations. In our previous study, p,p'-dichlorodiphenoxydichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), a representative endocrine disruptor, was found to induce transgenerational impaired male fertility with sperm Igf2 hypomethylation. However, whether other imprinted genes involved remains uncovered. In the present study, we administered p,p'-DDE (100 mg/kg body weight) to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats from gestational day (GD) 8 to GD15...
November 2018: Toxicology Letters
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