Read by QxMD icon Read

Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine

Stephanie L Schnorr, Harriet A Bachner
Over the past decade, research has shown that diet and gut health affects symptoms expressed in stress related disorders, depression, and anxiety through changes in the gut microbiota. Psycho-behavioral function and somatic health interaction have often been ignored in health care with resulting deficits in treatment quality and outcomes. While mental health care requires the professional training in counseling, psychotherapy and psychiatry, complimentary therapeutic strategies, such as attention to a nutritional and diverse diet and supplementation of probiotic foods, may be integrated alongside psychotherapy treatment models...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Kathleen L Arnolds, Catherine A Lozupone
The trillions of microbes that inhabit the human gut (the microbiota) together with the host comprise a complex ecosystem, and like any ecosystem, health relies on stability and balance. Some of the most important members of the human microbiota are those that help maintain this balance via modulation of the host immune system. Gut microbes, through both molecular factors (such as capsular components) and by-products of their metabolism (such as Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs)), can influence both innate and adaptive components of the immune system, in ways that can drive both effector, and regulatory responses...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Clarisse A Marotz, Amir Zarrinpar
The worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity and its associated diseases, is rising rapidly. The human gut microbiome is recognized as an independent environmental modulator of host metabolic health and disease. Research in animal models has demonstrated that the gut microbiome has the functional capacity to induce or relieve metabolic syndrome. One way to modify the human gut microbiome is by transplanting fecal matter, which contains an abundance of live microorganisms, from a healthy individual to a diseased one in the hopes of alleviating illness...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Elaine F Enright, Cormac G M Gahan, Susan A Joyce, Brendan T Griffin
The significance of the gut microbiota as a determinant of drug pharmacokinetics and accordingly therapeutic response is of increasing importance with the advent of modern medicines characterised by low solubility and/or permeability, or modified-release. These physicochemical properties and release kinetics prolong drug residence times within the gastrointestinal tract, wherein biotransformation by commensal microbes can occur. As the evidence base in support of this supplementary metabolic "organ" expands, novel opportunities to engineer the microbiota for clinical benefit have emerged...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Elisabeth M Bik
Recent developments in sequencing methods and bioinformatics analysis tools have greatly enabled the culture-independent analysis of complex microbial communities associated with environmental samples, plants, and animals. This has led to a spectacular increase in the number of studies on both membership and functionalities of these hitherto invisible worlds, in particular those of the human microbiome. The wide variety in available microbiome tools and platforms can be overwhelming, and making sound conclusions from scientific research can be challenging...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Jay S Ghurye, Victoria Cepeda-Espinoza, Mihai Pop
Advances in sequencing technologies have led to the increased use of high throughput sequencing in characterizing the microbial communities associated with our bodies and our environment. Critical to the analysis of the resulting data are sequence assembly algorithms able to reconstruct genes and organisms from complex mixtures. Metagenomic assembly involves new computational challenges due to the specific characteristics of the metagenomic data. In this survey, we focus on major algorithmic approaches for genome and metagenome assembly, and discuss the new challenges and opportunities afforded by this new field...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Michael T Parker
Recent advances in sequencing technologies have opened the door for the classification of the human virome. While taxonomic classification can be applied to the viruses identified in such studies, this gives no information as to the type of interaction the virus has with the host. As follow-up studies are performed to address these questions, the description of these virus-host interactions would be greatly enriched by applying a standard set of definitions that typify them. This paper describes a framework with which all members of the human virome can be classified based on principles of ecology...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Kenetta L Nunn, Larry J Forney
Four Lactobacillus species, namely L. crispatus , L. iners, L. gasseri, and L. jensenii, commonly dominate the vaginal communities of most reproductive-age women. It is unclear why these particular species, and not others, are so prevalent. Historically, estrogen-induced glycogen production by the vaginal epithelium has been proffered as being key to supporting the proliferation of vaginal lactobacilli. However, the 'fly in the ointment' (that has been largely ignored) is that the species of Lactobacillus commonly found in the human vagina cannot directly metabolize glycogen...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Louise J Lu, Ji Liu
The human ocular surface, consisting of the cornea and conjunctiva, is colonized by an expansive, diverse microbial community. Molecular-based methods, such as 16S rRNA sequencing, has allowed for more comprehensive and precise identification of the species composition of the ocular surface microbiota compared to traditional culture-based methods. Evidence suggests that the normal microbiota plays a protective immunological role in preventing the proliferation of pathogenic species and thus, alterations in the homeostatic microbiome may be linked to ophthalmic pathologies...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Alexander J Adami, Sonali J Bracken
Asthma is a highly heterogeneous disease characterized by inflammation of the airways, which invokes symptoms such as wheeze, dyspnea, and chest tightness. Asthma is the product of multiple interconnected immunological processes and represents a constellation of related, but distinct, disease phenotypes. The prevalence of asthma has more than doubled since the 1980s, and efforts to understand this increase have inspired consideration of the microbiome as a key player in the pathophysiology and regulation of this disease...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Xiaomei Cong, Wanli Xu, Rachael Romisher, Samantha Poveda, Shaina Forte, Angela Starkweather, Wendy A Henderson
The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Rheinallt M Jones
The results generated from the NIH funded Human Microbiome Project (HMP) are necessarily tied to the overall mission of the agency, which is to foster scientific discoveries as a basis for protecting and improving health. The investment in the HMP phase 1 accomplished many of its goals including the preliminary characterization of the human microbiome and the identification of links between microbiome diversity and disease states. Going forward, the next step in these studies must involve the identification of the functional molecular elements that mediate the positive influence of a eubiotic microbiome on health and disease...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Benjamin C Smith, Christine P Zolnik, Mykhaylo Usyk, Zigui Chen, Katherine Kaiser, Anne Nucci-Sack, Ken Peake, Angela Diaz, Shankar Viswanathan, Howard D Strickler, Nicolas F Schlecht, Robert D Burk
Human body sites represent ecological niches for microorganisms, each providing variations in microbial exposure, nutrient availability, microbial competition, and host immunological responses. In this study, we investigated the oral, anal, and cervical microbiomes from the same 20 sexually active adolescent females, using culture-independent, next-generation sequencing. DNA from each sample was amplified for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and sequenced on an Illumina platform using paired-end reads. Across the three anatomical niches, we found significant differences in bacterial community composition and diversity...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Marna Rayl Greenberg, Elizabeth C Moore, Michael C Nguyen, Brian Stello, Arnold Goldberg, Robert D Barraco, Bernadette G Porter, Anita Kurt, Stephen W Dusza, Bryan G Kane
The CDC reports that among older adults, falls are the leading cause of injury-related death and rates of fall-related fractures among older women are twice those of men. We set out to 1) determine patient perceptions (analyzed by gender) about their perceived fall risk compared to their actual risk for functional decline and death and 2) to report their comfort level in discussing their fall history or a home safety plan with their provider. Elders who presented to the Emergency Department (ED†) were surveyed...
June 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Yasmin Zakiniaeiz, Kelly P Cosgrove, Marc N Potenza, Carolyn M Mazure
Preclinical research is fundamental for the advancement of biomedical sciences and enhancing healthcare. Considering sex differences in all studies throughout the entire biomedical research pipeline is necessary to adequately inform clinical research and improve health outcomes. However, there is a paucity of information to date on sex differences in preclinical work. As of 2009, most (about 80 percent) rodent studies across 10 fields of biology were still conducted with only male animals. In 2016, the National Institutes of Health implemented a policy aimed to address this concern by requiring the consideration of sex as a biological variable in preclinical research grant applications...
June 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Jonathan M Metzl, Sara I McClelland, Erin Bergner
This paper discusses the role of gender role conformity in psychiatric determinants of well-being after of the depathologization of homosexuality from the DSM. In order to examine the heterosexualizing of sanity in U.S. psychiatric and popular cultures, we analyze archived psychiatrist-dictated patient charts from outpatient psychiatric clinics from a Midwestern medical center (n = 45). We highlight ways physicians deployed heteronormative gender expectations to describe and treat women's and men's depressive illness and implicitly construed troubled female-male relationships and sexual encounters as indices of psychopathology...
June 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Erik Eckhert
The medicalization of queer bodies in the clinic and the lab is inexorably linked to the history of LBGTQ politics. Increasingly, activists and scholars are recognizing that while the natural origins of queer sexualities carry a certain political weight, invoking the naturalness of being "born this way" fails to articulate a more substantive challenge to the effects of unexamined cis- and heteronormativity on our social institutions. With this in mind, it is crucial to understand the way these biases operate in scientific research and healthcare so their impact on what we know and how we care can be addressed...
June 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Basmah Safdar, Gail D'Onofrio
Emergency departments (ED) in the United States see over eight million cases of chest pain annually. While a cardinal symptom of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), multiple emergent and non-emergent causes can attribute to chest pain. This case-based perspective describes the different sex-specific causes of angina seen in ED patients. Once coronary artery disease (CAD) is ruled out with standard protocols, microvascular dysfunction is perhaps the most prevalent but under-diagnosed cause of non-CAD related angina in ED patients...
June 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Anam Qudrat, Netra Unni
Parkinson's disease is a late-onset neurodegenerative disease, characterized by both motor and non-motor symptoms. Motor symptoms include postural instability, rigidity, and tremor, while non-motor symptoms include anxiety, dementia, and depression. In this integrative review, we discuss PD disease pathophysiology in detail and introduce how neurotrophic growth factor delivery via a retroviral-based system can be used as efficacious tools for targeted gene therapy.
June 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Alexandra Marshall
Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in the U.S. among youth ages 10 to 24. Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth face heightened risk for suicide and report greater odds of attempting suicide than their heteronormative peers. Contributing factors of experience, which are distinctly different from the experiences of heteronormative youth, place SGM youth at heightened risk for suicide. While interventions aimed at addressing suicide risk factors for all youth are being implemented and many have proven effective in the general population, no evidence-based intervention currently exists to reduce suicide risk within this special population...
June 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"