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Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962922/effects-of-alpha-hydroxy-isocaproic-acid-upon-body-composition-in-a-type-i-diabetic-patient-with-muscle-atrophy-a-case-study
#1
Filipe J Teixeira, Catarina N Matias, Cristina P Monteiro, Richard Kones
Research involving dietary supplement interventions for sarcopenia and osteopenia in type 1 diabetes patients is scarce. Here we present a case study of a type 1 diabetic patient that was treated with supplemental alpha-hydroxy-isocaproic acid (α-HICA) for 120 days. Several measures of body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry, blood markers, and maximum voluntary contraction parameters were assessed at baseline and after 120 days. The patient's baseline weight was 73.2 kg, which increased to 75.2 kg by the 120-day assessment...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962921/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-diet-and-breast-cancer-risk
#2
REVIEW
Micah G Donovan, Ornella I Selmin, Donato F Romagnolo
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. However, the majority of breast malignancies are of sporadic etiology. Therefore, identifying risk-mitigating factors may significantly decrease the burden of breast cancer. Diet can have both a predisposing and protective role in breast tumorigenesis. However, establishing efficacy of dietary constituents for cancer prevention has been limited by suboptimal dietary assessment. There is a need to acquire new experimental evidence that can be used to discriminate beneficial from harmful dietary constituents...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962920/improving-blood-retinol-concentrations-with-complementary-foods-fortified-with-moringa-oleifera-leaf-powder-a-pilot-study
#3
Laurene Boateng, Irene Ashley, Agartha Ohemeng, Matilda Asante, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) remains a major public health issue and is reported to be the cause of about 6 percent of child deaths under the age of 5 years in Africa. Inadequate dietary intake of vitamin A-rich foods is a major cause of VAD. Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MLP) is rich in nutrients particularly vitamin A and its use in infant feeding has been explored. This pilot study was designed to test the efficacy of MLP in improving blood retinol concentrations among infants in a rural district in Ghana...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955225/a-new-holistic-approach-to-diabetes-research-measuring-metabolism-at-the-cellular-level-an-interview-with-richard-kibbey-md-phd
#4
Ian Gonzalez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955224/food-sustainability-in-the-context-of-human-behavior
#5
REVIEW
Ruben O Morawicki, Delmy J Díaz González
The long-term goal of food sustainability is to produce enough food to maintain the human population. The intrinsic factors to guarantee a sustainable food system are a fertile land, water, fertilizers, a stable climate, and energy. However, as the world population grows, the volume of food needed in the future will not depend just on these intrinsic factors, but on human choices. This paper analyzes some of the human actions that may affect the sustainable future of the food supply chain, including diet, obesity, food miles, food waste, and genetically modified organisms...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955223/sugar-sweetened-beverage-taxes-industry-response-and-tactics
#6
REVIEW
Matthew Du, Aviva Tugendhaft, Agnes Erzse, Karen J Hofman
The consumption of sugary beverages (SBs) has increasingly grown in many countries and is a significant contributor to the rise in obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). In response, public health officials in multiple countries have pushed for implementing a tax on SBs in order to reduce their consumption. Today, many individuals, especially those of lower socioeconomic status, live in environments in which unhealthy foods and drinks are more accessible than healthier ones. The beverage industry has greatly contributed to the formation of these "obesogenic" environments through their extensive advertising activities and effective marketing strategies...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955222/ancient-thali-diet-gut-microbiota-immunity-and-health
#7
REVIEW
Kaitlyn Shondelmyer, Rob Knight, Anusha Sanivarapu, Shuji Ogino, Jairam K P Vanamala
Diet provides macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), and phytochemicals (non-nutrient bioactive compounds). Emerging evidence suggests that above dietary components can directly impact the composition and metabolic activity of the mammalian gut microbiota and in turn, affect both physical and mental health. There is a growing recognition that rise in chronic disease burden in Western countries may due to progressive loss of beneficial bacteria and microbial diversity...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955221/history-and-perspectives-on-nutrition-and-hydration-at-the-end-of-life
#8
REVIEW
Evie G Marcolini, Andrew T Putnam, Ani Aydin
The question of whether to provide artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) to a patient with terminal illness or at end of life has been debated over many years. Due to the nature of the question and the setting in which it presents, prospective trials are not feasible, and the health care professional is left to work with the patient and family to make decisions. This perspectives piece addresses the issue in a format designed to inform the reader as to the pertinent considerations around ANH. We briefly review significant historic, religious, ethical, and legal contributions to this discussion and physiologic underpinnings...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955220/impact-of-prebiotics-on-poultry-production-and-food-safety
#9
REVIEW
Steven C Ricke
With the phasing out of routine use of antibiotics in animal agriculture, interest has grown for the need to develop feed supplements that augment commercial poultry performance and provide food safety benefits. From a food safety perspective, alternative feed supplements can be broadly categorized as either agents which reduce or eliminate already colonized foodborne pathogens or prevent colonization of incoming pathogens. Prebiotics are considered preventative agents since they select for gastrointestinal microbiota which not only benefits the host but can serve as a barrier to pathogen colonization...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955219/more-of-the-gut-in-the-lung-how-two-microbiomes-meet-in-ards
#10
REVIEW
Samiran Mukherjee, Dusan Hanidziar
In critically ill patients, lung and gut microbiomes undergo profound changes. Lung microbiome might become enriched with gut-associated microbes as recently demonstrated in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It has been proposed that in these conditions, bacteria from the gut might enter the lungs via translocation, a process facilitated by increased gut and alveolo-capillary permeability. In patients requiring mechanical ventilation after severe trauma, lung microbiome enrichment with gut-associated microbes was found to correlate with the development of ARDS...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955218/algal-bloom-expansion-increases-cyanotoxin-risk-in-food
#11
REVIEW
Niam M Abeysiriwardena, Samuel J L Gascoigne, Angela Anandappa
As advances in global transportation infrastructure make it possible for out of season foods to be available year-round, the need for assessing the risks associated with the food production and expanded distribution are even more important. Risks for foodborne illness are associated with contamination by bacteria, viruses, mold, parasites, natural and synthetic toxins, chemical residues, and conditions that lead to contamination. An increase in the popularity of natural alternatives to pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies and the desire for consuming "super foods" is leading to a change in the dietary patterns of consumers...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955217/importance-of-nutrients-and-nutrient-metabolism-on-human-health
#12
REVIEW
Yiheng Chen, Marek Michalak, Luis B Agellon
Nutrition transition, which includes a change from consumption of traditional to modern diets that feature high-energy density and low nutrient diversity, is associated with acquired metabolic syndromes. The human diet is comprised of diverse components which include both nutrients, supplying the raw materials that drive multiple metabolic processes in every cell of the body, and non-nutrients. These components and their metabolites can also regulate gene expression and cellular function via a variety of mechanisms...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599661/on-the-opioid-crisis-and-the-future-of-pain-treatment-an-interview-with-bertha-k-madras-phd
#13
Lisa M Ogawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599660/a-career-in-addiction-medicine-an-interview-with-patrick-g-o-connor-md-mph-facp
#14
Corey Horien
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599659/beyond-sensation-exploring-the-molecular-and-genetic-basis-for-pain-an-interview-with-stephen-waxman-md-phd
#15
Erin K DeNardo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599658/sensory-disruption-in-modern-living-and-the-emergence-of-sensory-inequities
#16
REVIEW
Kara C Hoover
Modern lifestyles are disrupting the human senses-primarily sight, sound, and smell. Noise-induced hearing loss has been noted for centuries and increasing over time following the industrial era. From the mid-20th century, the numbers of individuals with myopia (the leading visual impairment) have been increasing globally. Historical evidence for olfactory dysfunction is not known but its etiological links to pollution suggest it increased following industrialization. Clinical interventions for sight and sound loss include preventative and corrective measures but none exist for olfactory dysfunction...
March 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599657/phototransduction-in-retinal-ganglion-cells
#17
REVIEW
Peter B Detwiler
The mammalian retina contains a small number of retinal ganglion cells that express melanopsin, a retinal based visual pigment, and generate a depolarizing response to light in the absence of rod and cone driven synaptic input; hence they are referred to as intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). They have been shown to be comprised of a number of sub-types and to provide luminance information that participates primarily in a variety of non-imaging forming visual functions. Here I review what is currently known about the cascade of events that couple the photoisomerization of melanopsin to the opening of a non-selective cation channel...
March 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599656/degenerative-cervical-myelopathy-a-clinical-review
#18
REVIEW
Justin Gibson, Aria Nouri, Bryan Krueger, Nikita Lakomkin, Rani Nasser, David Gimbel, Joseph Cheng
Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy (DCM) is the most common form of spinal cord impairment in adults and results in disability and reduced quality of life. DCM can present with a wide set of clinical and imaging findings, including: 1) pain and reduced range of motion of the neck, and motor and sensory deficits on clinical exam, and 2) cord compression due to static and dynamic injury mechanisms resulting from degenerative changes of the bone, ligaments, and intervertebral discs on MRI. The incidence and prevalence of DCM has been estimated at a minimum of 4...
March 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599655/dark-matters-challenges-of-nocturnal-communication-between-plants-and-animals-in-delivery-of-pollination-services
#19
REVIEW
Renee M Borges
The night is a special niche characterized by dim light, lower temperatures, and higher humidity compared to the day. Several animals have made the transition from the day into the night and have acquired unique adaptations to cope with the challenges of performing nocturnal activities. Several plant species have opted to bloom at night, possibly as a response to aridity to prevent excessive water loss through evapotranspiration since flowering is often a water-demanding process, or to protect pollen from heat stress...
March 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599654/serotonergic-modulation-of-olfaction-in-rodents-and-insects
#20
REVIEW
Quentin Gaudry
Recent advances in genetic tools and optical imaging technology have allowed rodent and Drosophila researchers to explore the relationship between serotonergic modulation and olfactory processing at a mechanistic level previously unfeasible. Here, I review the basic organization of olfactory and serotonergic systems in both rodents and Drosophila and draw comparisons where similarities exist. I discuss circuit level models that explain many of serotonin's effects on olfactory responses in the olfactory system's inputs and outputs...
March 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
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