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Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258322/patient-centered-and-patient-independent-technologies-in-acute-neurological-injury-and-the-art-of-making-useful-medical-contributions-an-interview-with-kevin-sheth-md
#1
Neal G Ravindra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258321/do-physicians-dream-of-electric-sheep-examining-the-conflict-between-compassion-and-technology
#2
REVIEW
Benjamin L Mazer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258320/generating-human-organs-via-interspecies-chimera-formation-advances-and-barriers
#3
REVIEW
Alejandro De Los Angeles, Nam Pho, D Eugene Redmond
The shortage of human organs for transplantation is a devastating medical problem. One way to expand organ supply is to derive functional organs from patient-specific stem cells. Due to their capacity to grow indefinitely in the laboratory and differentiate into any cell type of the human body, patient-specific pluripotent stem (PS) cells harbor the potential to provide an inexhaustible supply of donor cells for transplantation. However, current efforts to generate functional organs from PS cells have so far been unsuccessful...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258319/two-surgeries-do-not-always-make-a-right-spinal-cord-stimulation-for-failed-back-surgery-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Phan Q Duy, William S Anderson
Failed back surgery syndrome (FBBS) is characterized by chronic pain that persists following spine surgery. In this review, we discuss the use of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for FBBS treatment and how the clinical use of SCS may be influenced by private manufacturers. While SCS therapy can be promising for the appropriate patient, there remain knowledge gaps in understanding the full potential of SCS technology for delivering optimal therapeutic benefit. We caution that the use of SCS without a complete understanding of the technology may create exploitative situations that private manufacturers can capitalize on while subjecting patients to potentially unnecessary health and financial burdens...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258318/a-review-of-cerebral-shunts-current-technologies-and-future-endeavors
#5
REVIEW
Garrett J Soler, Mengdi Bao, Devina Jaiswal, Hitten P Zaveri, Michael L DiLuna, Ryan A Grant, Kazunori Hoshino
Objective . The use of cerebrospinal shunts is the standard of care for hydrocephalus. However, shunts are extremely vulnerable to failure and lack noninvasive methods to monitor their viability. We review current shunt technologies and attempts to improve their function. Methods . A PubMed search was performed to find literature on shunts and shunt function. Company brochures and websites were also used. Results . Fixed and variable pressure valves from four major companies are discussed. Also reviewed are siphon resistive devices, intracranial pressure sensors, and recent attempts on the development of cerebrospinal fluid sensors, including a micromechanical flow sensor we have recently developed...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258317/advances-in-perfusion-systems-for-solid-organ-preservation
#6
REVIEW
Sara Salehi, Kenny Tran, Warren L Grayson
In the past, a diagnosis of organ failure would essentially be a death sentence for patients. With improved techniques for organ procurement and surgical procedures, transplantations to treat organ failure have become standard medical practice. However, while the demand for organs has skyrocketed, the donor pool has not kept pace leading to long recipient waiting lists. Organ preservation provides a means to increase the number of available transplantable organs. However, there are significant drawbacks associated with cold storage, the current gold standard...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258316/-in-vivo-detection-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Antoine Leuzy, Kerstin Heurling, Nicholas J Ashton, Michael Schöll, Eduardo R Zimmer
Recent revisions to the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) incorporated conceptual advances in the field. Specifically, AD is now recognized to encompass a continuum, spanning from preclinical (accruing brain pathology in the absence of symptoms) through symptomatic predementia (prodromal AD, mild cognitive impairment) and dementia phases. The role of biological markers (biomarkers) of both the underlying molecular pathologies and related neurodegenerative changes has also been acknowledged. In this abridged review, we provide an overview of fluid (cerebrospinal fluid and blood) and molecular imaging-based biomarkers used within the field and discuss the potential role of computer driven artificial intelligence approaches for both the early and accurate identification of AD and as a tool for population enrichment in clinical trials testing candidate disease modifying therapies...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258315/mechanistic-understanding-of-single-cell-behavior-is-essential-for-transformative-advances-in-biomedicine
#8
REVIEW
Emmet A Francis, Volkmar Heinrich
Most current efforts to advance medical technology proceed along one of two tracks. The first is dedicated to the improvement of clinical tasks through the incremental refinement of medical instruments. The second comprises engineering endeavors to support basic science studies that often only remotely relate to human medicine. Here we survey emerging research approaches that aim to populate the sprawling frontier between these tracks. We focus on interdisciplinary single-live-cell techniques that have overcome limitations of traditional biological methods to successfully address vital questions about medically relevant cellular behavior...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258314/combining-three-dimensional-quantitative-phase-imaging-and-fluorescence-microscopy-for-the-study-of-cell-pathophysiology
#9
REVIEW
Young Seo Kim, SangYun Lee, JaeHwang Jung, Seungwoo Shin, He-Gwon Choi, Guang-Ho Cha, Weisun Park, Sumin Lee, YongKeun Park
Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has emerged as one of the powerful imaging tools for the study of live cells in a non-invasive manner. In particular, multimodal approaches combining QPI and fluorescence microscopic techniques have been recently developed for superior spatiotemporal resolution as well as high molecular specificity. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advances in three-dimensional QPI combined with fluorescence techniques for the correlative study of cell pathophysiology. Through this review, biologists and clinicians can be provided with insights on this rapidly growing field of research and may find broader applications to investigate unrevealed nature in cell physiology and related diseases...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258313/investigation-of-endothelial-surface-glycocalyx-components-and-ultrastructure-by-single-molecule-localization-microscopy-stochastic-optical-reconstruction-microscopy-storm
#10
REVIEW
Yifan Xia, Bingmei M Fu
On the luminal surface of our blood vessels, there is a thin layer called endothelial surface glycocalyx (ESG) which consists of proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and glycoproteins. The GAGs in the ESG are heparan sulfate (HS), hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS), and sialic acid (SA). In order to play important roles in regulating vascular functions, such as being a mechanosensor and transducer for the endothelial cells (ECs) to sense the blood flow, a molecular sieve to maintain normal microvessel permeability and a barrier between the circulating cells and endothelial cells forming the vessel wall, the ESG should have an organized structure at the molecular level...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258312/the-role-of-%C3%AE-sheet-in-amyloid-oligomer-aggregation-and-toxicity
#11
REVIEW
Timothy M Bi, Valerie Daggett
A major barrier to developing effective treatments and diagnostics for amyloid diseases is the inability of traditional protein structure characterization methods to elucidate the structure of the toxic oligomers that form during amyloidogenesis. Some years ago, our lab "discovered" a novel protein secondary structure in molecular dynamics simulations of multiple unrelated amyloid proteins, which we call α-sheet. We hypothesize that α-sheet plays an important role in amyloid aggregation and oligomer toxicity...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258311/hemolytic-anemia-and-gastric-carcinoid-in-a-russian-seafarer-highlighting-the-role-of-diagnostic-technologies-in-modern-clinical-practice
#12
Tafadzwa L Chaunzwa, Jesse O'Shea, Nathan A Boggs, Jeremy I Schwartz, Joanna Gibson, Katherine A Gielissen
Vitamin B-12 deficiency, most commonly due to pernicious anemia, can cause intramedullary hemolysis. The pathogenesis is thought to be due to increased membrane rigidity and reduced red blood cell elasticity, which predisposes the patient to hemolysis and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. In this article, we discuss a Russian engineer who worked aboard a petroleum tanker that presented from his ship with profound B-12 deficiency, microangiopathic anemia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels, low haptoglobin, and reticulocyte count in the setting of normal renal and neurologic function...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258310/gallbladder-agenesis-a-case-report
#13
Michelle C Salazar, Kirstyn E Brownson, Geoffrey S Nadzam, Andrew Duffy, Kurt E Roberts
Gallbladder agenesis (GA) is an extremely rare congenital entity. The incidence is around 1 per 6500 live births. The majority of patients, estimated between 50 to 70 percent, remain asymptomatic while those who are symptomatic report symptoms mimicking biliary colic. Initial workup for suspected gallbladder pathology such as right upper quadrant ultrasound (US) can be misleading or inconclusive. Furthermore, advanced diagnostic studies such as hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan and endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) may report non-visualization of the gallbladder and erroneously lead providers to a diagnosis of cystic duct obstruction rather than GA...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258309/effects-of-conception-using-assisted-reproductive-technologies-on-infant-health-and-development-an-evolutionary-perspective-and-analysis-using-uk-millennium-cohort-data
#14
David Waynforth
Millions of infants around the world have been born as a result of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and in the past three decades ART has become increasingly effective and technologically sophisticated. At the same time, advances have been made in understanding the evolutionary biology of mate choice and post-copulatory processes. These advances have relevance for ART as ART methods to a greater or lesser extent circumvent potentially important natural processes determining which fertilized embryo is successfully implanted...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258308/vibroacoustographic-system-for-tumor-identification
#15
Peter A Pellionisz, Nikan K Namiri, Gregory Suematsu, Yong Hu, Ameet Braganza, Khuzaima Rangwalla, Daniel J Denson, Karam Badran, Nathan C Francis, Ashkan Maccabi, George Saddik, Zachary Taylor, Maie A St John, Warren S Grundfest
Oral and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The primary management of OSCC relies on complete surgical resection of the tumor. Margin-free resection, however, is difficult given the devastating effects of aggressive surgery. Currently, surgeons determine where cuts are made by palpating edges of the tumor. Accuracy varies based on the surgeon's experience, the location and type of tumor, and the risk of damage to adjacent structures limiting resection margins...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258307/improving-the-accuracy-quality-and-signal-to-noise-ratio-of-mri-parametric-mapping-using-rician-bias-correction-and-parametric-contrast-matched-principal-component-analysis-pcm-pca
#16
Christa M Sonderer, Nan-Kuei Chen
MRI parametric mapping, including T2 mapping, can quantitatively characterize tissue properties and is an important MRI procedure in biomedical research and studies of diseases [1-3]. However, the accuracy, quality, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of MRI parametric mapping may be negatively impacted by Rician noise in multi-contrast MRI data [4]. As such, it is important to develop a post-processing method to minimize the negative impact of Rician noise. In this study, we report a new parametric-contrast-matched principal component analysis (PCM-PCA) denoising method that involves 1) identifying voxels with similar T2 decay characteristics and 2) using the principal component analysis (PCA) to denoise multi-contrast MRI data along the echo time (TE) dimension...
September 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962922/effects-of-alpha-hydroxy-isocaproic-acid-upon-body-composition-in-a-type-i-diabetic-patient-with-muscle-atrophy-a-case-study
#17
Filipe J Teixeira, Catarina N Matias, Cristina P Monteiro, Richard Kones
Research involving dietary supplement interventions for sarcopenia and osteopenia in type 1 diabetes patients is scarce. Here we present a case study of a type 1 diabetic patient that was treated with supplemental alpha-hydroxy-isocaproic acid (α-HICA) for 120 days. Several measures of body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry, blood markers, and maximum voluntary contraction parameters were assessed at baseline and after 120 days. The patient's baseline weight was 73.2 kg, which increased to 75.2 kg by the 120-day assessment...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962921/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-diet-and-breast-cancer-risk
#18
REVIEW
Micah G Donovan, Ornella I Selmin, Donato F Romagnolo
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. However, the majority of breast malignancies are of sporadic etiology. Therefore, identifying risk-mitigating factors may significantly decrease the burden of breast cancer. Diet can have both a predisposing and protective role in breast tumorigenesis. However, establishing efficacy of dietary constituents for cancer prevention has been limited by suboptimal dietary assessment. There is a need to acquire new experimental evidence that can be used to discriminate beneficial from harmful dietary constituents...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29962920/improving-blood-retinol-concentrations-with-complementary-foods-fortified-with-moringa-oleifera-leaf-powder-a-pilot-study
#19
Laurene Boateng, Irene Ashley, Agartha Ohemeng, Matilda Asante, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) remains a major public health issue and is reported to be the cause of about 6 percent of child deaths under the age of 5 years in Africa. Inadequate dietary intake of vitamin A-rich foods is a major cause of VAD. Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MLP) is rich in nutrients particularly vitamin A and its use in infant feeding has been explored. This pilot study was designed to test the efficacy of MLP in improving blood retinol concentrations among infants in a rural district in Ghana...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955225/a-new-holistic-approach-to-diabetes-research-measuring-metabolism-at-the-cellular-level-an-interview-with-richard-kibbey-md-phd
#20
Ian Gonzalez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
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