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Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656021/from-skin-infections-to-ebola-practice-policy-and-beyond-an-interview-with-gregory-raczniak-md-phd%C3%A2
#1
Fatima N Mirza, Humza N Mirza, Corey Horien, Nancy Huynh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656020/group-a-streptococcal-bacteremia-following-streptococcal-pharyngitis-in-an-older-patient-with-diabetes-a-case-report%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#2
Mehida Alexandre, Ruth Wang'ondu, Leo M Cooney
Group A streptococcus (GAS) is responsible for a wide range of both invasive and noninvasive infections. Severe invasive group A streptococcal infection is associated with morbidity and mortality and has been linked to chronic medical conditions with skin and soft tissues involvement, and intravenous drug use (IVDU). Invasive diseases are, however, rare and have been recognized to affect the extremes of age (younger than 10 years of age and older than 74). We report a case of Group A streptococcus bacteremia following pharyngitis in a 76-year-old diabetic male with no history of IVDU...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656019/characterization-of-elite-suppressors-cell-associated-hiv-1-mrna-at-baseline-and-with-t-cell-activation%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#3
Christopher W Pohlmyer, C Korin Bullen, Alyssa R Martin, Gregory M Laird, Stanley U Chioma, Victoria E K Walker-Sperling, Joel N Blankson
Objective: Elite Controllers or Suppressors (ES) are patients who control HIV replication without antiretroviral therapy. In this study, we compared baseline and inducible HIV-1 mRNA levels in CD4+ T cells from ES and chronic progressors (CPs) receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Methods: We quantified basal levels of cell associated HIV-1 mRNA in CD4+ T cells isolated from CPs and ES. Additionally, we measured the fold upregulation of intracellular HIV-mRNA after stimulation of CD4+ T cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin, and quantified the amount of HIV-mRNA levels released into culture supernatant...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656018/zika-virus-and-sexual-transmission-a-new-route-of-transmission-for-mosquito-borne-flaviviruses%C3%A2
#4
REVIEW
Andrew K Hastings, Erol Fikrig
Beginning in 2015, concern over a new global epidemic has spread in the media, governmental agencies, legislative bodies and the public at large. This newly emerging threat has been reported to cause symptoms ranging from mild fever, rash, and body aches, to severe birth defects and acute onset paralysis. The causative agent of this disease, Zika virus, is closely related to two other important human pathogens, dengue and West Nile Virus (WNV), but has some distinguishing features that has raised alarms from the scientific community...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656017/small-rnas-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-characterizing-functional-regulators-in-a-sea-of-srnas%C3%A2
#5
REVIEW
Meghan C Lybecker, D Scott Samuels
Borrelia (Borreliella) burgdorferi and closely related genospecies are the causative agents of Lyme disease, the most common tick-borne disease north of the equator. The bacterium, a member of the spirochete phylum, is acquired by a tick vector that feeds on an infected vertebrate host and is transmitted to another vertebrate during subsequent feeding by the next tick stage. The precise navigation of this enzootic cycle entails the regulation of genes required for these two host-specific phases as well as the transitions between them...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656016/the-transcription-factor-eb-links-cellular-stress-to-the-immune-response%C3%A2-%C3%A2
#6
REVIEW
Neel R Nabar, John H Kehrl
The transcription factor EB (TFEB) is the master transcriptional regulator of autophagy and lysosome biogenesis. Recent advances have led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of lysosomes from a housekeeping cellular waste bin to a dynamically regulated pathway that is efficiently turned up or down based on cellular needs. TFEB coordinates the cellular response to nutrient deprivation and other forms of cell stress through the lysosome system, and regulates a myriad of cellular processes associated with this system including endocytosis, phagocytosis, autophagy, and lysosomal exocytosis...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656015/bip-master-regulator-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-and-crucial-factor-in-flavivirus-biology%C3%A2
#7
REVIEW
Tyler G Lewy, Jeffrey M Grabowski, Marshall E Bloom
Flaviviruses have an intimate relationship with their host cells, utilizing host proteins during replication. Much of viral genome replication and virion assembly occurs on and within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). As a cellular protein folding hub, the ER provides an ideal environment for flaviviruses to replicate. Flaviviruses can interact with several ER processes, including the unfolded protein response (UPR), a cellular stress mechanism responsible for managing unfolded protein accumulation and ER stress...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656014/the-role-of-typhoid-toxin-in-salmonella-typhi-virulence%C3%A2
#8
REVIEW
Alexander Chong, Sohyoung Lee, Yi-An Yang, Jeongmin Song
Unlike many of the nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars such as S. Typhimurium that cause restricted gastroenteritis, Salmonella Typhi is unique in that it causes life-threatening typhoid fever in humans. Despite the vast difference in disease outcomes that S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium cause in humans, there are few genomic regions that are unique to S. Typhi. Of these regions, the most notable is the small locus encoding typhoid toxin, an AB toxin that has several distinct characteristics that contribute to S. Typhi's pathogenicity...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656013/vancomycin-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus%C3%A2
#9
REVIEW
Will A McGuinness, Natalia Malachowa, Frank R DeLeo
The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus during the modern antibiotic era has been delineated by distinct strain emergence events, many of which include acquisition of antibiotic resistance. The relative high burden of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in healthcare and community settings is a major concern worldwide. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic that inhibits cell wall biosynthesis, remains a drug of choice for treatment of severe MRSA infections. S. aureus strains exhibiting increased resistance to vancomycin, known as vancomycin intermediate-resistant S...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656012/pathobiology-and-immunobiology-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis-insights-from-animal-models%C3%A2
#10
REVIEW
Sudha Neelam, Jerry Y Niederkorn
Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but sight-threatening disease caused by pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba. Despite its ubiquitous nature, the incidence of AK is relatively low compared to other forms of infectious keratitis. Although contact lens wear is a major risk factor, exposure to contaminated water and ocular trauma are also associated with AK. Once a patient develops AK the prognosis is very poor unless an aggressive treatment regimen is initiated early. Some of the intriguing features of AK are the lack of immunological memory, resistance of the dormant cyst form to treatment, differences between the pathogenic strains and soil isolates of Acanthamoeba and the unique role of the innate immune system in controlling this disease...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656011/mechanisms-of-virologic-control-and-clinical-characteristics-of-hiv-elite-viremic-controllers
#11
REVIEW
Elena Gonzalo-Gil, Uchenna Ikediobi, Richard E Sutton
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease is pandemic, with approximately 36 million infected individuals world-wide. For the vast majority of these individuals, untreated HIV eventually causes CD4+ T cell depletion and profound immunodeficiency, resulting in morbidity and mortality. But for a remarkable few (0.2 to 0.5 percent), termed elite controllers (ECs), viral loads (VLs) remain suppressed to undetectable levels (< 50 copies/ml) and peripheral CD4+ T cell counts remain high (200 to 1000/μl), all in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656010/chromatin-regulation-and-the-histone-code-in-hiv-latency%C3%A2
#12
REVIEW
Anne-Marie W Turner, David M Margolis
The formation of a latent reservoir of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection hidden from immune clearance remains a significant obstacle to approaches to eradicate HIV infection. Towards an understanding of the mechanisms of HIV persistence, there is a growing body of work implicating epigenetic regulation of chromatin in establishment and maintenance of this latent reservoir. Here we discuss recent advances in the field of chromatin regulation, specifically in our understanding of the histone code, and how these discoveries relate to our current knowledge of the chromatin mechanisms linked to HIV transcriptional repression and the reversal of latency...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656009/role-of-microbial-agents-in-pulmonary-fibrosis%C3%A2
#13
REVIEW
Ozioma S Chioma, Wonder P Drake
Pulmonary fibrosis is a form of lung disease that develops due to aberrant wound-healing following repeated alveoli injury in genetically susceptible individuals, resulting in chronic inflammation, excess deposition of the extracellular matrix components, mainly collagen, and scarring of lung tissue. In addition to irradiation, environmental agents such occupational inhalants, and chemotherapeutic agents, microbial agents also play a role in the etiology of the disease. While viruses have received the most attention, emerging evidence suggest that bacteria and fungi also play a part in the etiology of pulmonary fibrosis...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656008/segregation-lag-in-polyploid-cells-of-the-pathogen-genus-borrelia-implications-for-antigenic-variation%C3%A2
#14
Christopher D Crowder, Richard L Denny, Alan G Barbour
Relapsing fever agents like Borrelia hermsii undergo multiphasic antigenic variation that is attributable to spontaneous DNA non-reciprocal transpositions at a particular locus in the genome. This genetic switch results in a new protein being expressed on the cell surface, allowing cells with that phenotype to escape prevailing immunity. But the switch occurs in only one of several genomes in these spirochetes, and a newly-switched gene is effectively "recessive" until homozygosity is achieved. The longer that descendants of the switched cell expressed both old and new proteins, the longer this lineage risks neutralization by antibody to the old protein...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656007/association-of-plasmodium-falciparum-with-human-endothelial-cells-in-vitro
#15
Christopher Utter, Adelfa E Serrano, John W Glod, Michael J Leibowitz
Endothelial abnormalities play a critical role in the pathogenesis of malaria caused by the human pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum. In serious infections and especially in cerebral malaria, red blood cells infected with the parasite are sequestered in small venules in various organs, resulting in endothelial activation and vascular occlusion, which are believed to be largely responsible for the morbidity and mortality caused by this infection, especially in children. We demonstrate that after incubation with infected red blood cells (iRBCs), cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) contain parasite protein, genomic DNA, and RNA, as well as intracellular vacuoles with apparent parasite-derived material, but not engulfed or adherent iRBCs...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656006/clinical-characteristics-of-influenza-associated-pneumonia-of-adults-clinical-features-and-factors-contributing-to-severity-and-mortality
#16
Takashi Ishiguro, Naho Kagiyama, Ryuji Uozumi, Kyuto Odashima, Yotaro Takaku, Kazuyoshi Kurashima, Satoshi Morita, Noboru Takayanagi
Background: Pneumonia is a major complication of influenza that contributes to mortality. Clinical characteristics and factors of influenza virus contributing to the severity and mortality of pneumonia have not been fully elucidated. Objective: The objective was to clarify clinical characteristics and factors contributing to the severity and mortality of influenza-associated pneumonia (flu-p). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with flu-p. Results: From December 1999 to March 2016, 210 patients with a median age of 69 (range, 17 to 92) years with flu-p based on positive rapid antigen tests, increased antibody titers of paired sera, or positive results of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were admitted to our institution...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356903/biomarkers-translational-medicine-and-drug-development-an-interview-with-chirag-r-parikh-md-phd
#17
Corey Horien
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356902/is-open-science-the-future-of-drug-development
#18
REVIEW
Daniel L Shaw
Traditional drug development models are widely perceived as opaque and inefficient, with the cost of research and development continuing to rise even as production of new drugs stays constant. Searching for strategies to improve the drug discovery process, the biomedical research field has begun to embrace open strategies. The resulting changes are starting to reshape the industry. Open science-an umbrella term for diverse strategies that seek external input and public engagement-has become an essential tool with researchers, who are increasingly turning to collaboration, crowdsourcing, data sharing, and open sourcing to tackle some of the most pressing problems in medicine...
March 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356901/penicillin-s-discovery-and-antibiotic-resistance-lessons-for-the-future
#19
REVIEW
Mariya Lobanovska, Giulia Pilla
Undoubtedly, the discovery of penicillin is one of the greatest milestones in modern medicine. 2016 marks the 75th anniversary of the first systemic administration of penicillin in humans, and is therefore an occasion to reflect upon the extraordinary impact that penicillin has had on the lives of millions of people since. This perspective presents a historical account of the discovery of the wonder drug, describes the biological nature of penicillin, and considers lessons that can be learned from the golden era of antibiotic research, which took place between the 1940s and 1960s...
March 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356900/medication-safety-in-clinical-trials-role-of-the-pharmacist-in-optimizing-practice-collaboration-and-education-to-reduce-errors
#20
REVIEW
Jamie N Brown, Sara R Britnell, Andrew P Stivers, Jennifer L Cruz
Standardized safety practices for investigational drugs in clinical research protocols are limited and the vast majority of research pharmacists have concerns regarding its safety. Identified areas for medication safety risks include protocol complexity, medication ordering, and the processes for packaging, storage, and dispensing investigational medications. Inclusion of a pharmacist creates multiple mechanisms to promote safety and improve the quality of clinical research. This is accomplished through collaborating in the development of a research protocol, reviewing as a member of an advisory committee, developing mechanisms that contribute to safety, and assuring compliance with local and national regulations and standards...
March 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
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