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Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity

Gerald R Cunha, Stanley J Robboy, Takeshi Kurita, Dylan Isaacson, Joel Shen, Mei Cao, Lawrence S Baskin
Development of the human female reproductive tract is reviewed from the ambisexual stage to advanced development of the uterine tube, uterine corpus, uterine cervix and vagina at 22 weeks. Historically this topic has been under-represented in the literature, and for the most part is based upon hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Recent immunohistochemical studies for PAX2 (reactive with Müllerian epithelium) and FOXA1 (reactive with urogenital sinus epithelium and its known pelvic derivatives) shed light on an age-old debate on the derivation of vaginal epithelium supporting the idea that human vaginal epithelium derives solely from urogenital sinus epithelium...
September 6, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Gerald R Cunha, Chad M Vezina, Dylan Isaacson, William A Ricke, Barry G Timms, Mei Cao, Omar Franco, Laurence S Baskin
This paper provides a detailed compilation of human prostatic development that includes human fetal prostatic gross anatomy, histology, and ontogeny of selected epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation markers and signaling molecules throughout the stages of human prostatic development: (a) pre-bud urogenital sinus (UGS), (b) emergence of solid prostatic epithelial buds from urogenital sinus epithelium (UGE), (c) bud elongation and branching, (d) canalization of the solid epithelial cords, (e) differentiation of luminal and basal epithelial cells, and (f) secretory cytodifferentiation...
September 4, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Aron Liaw, Gerald R Cunha, Joel Shen, Mei Cao, Ge Liu, Adriane Sinclair, Laurence Baskin
The urinary bladder collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until the appropriate moment for voiding. The trigone and ureterovesical junctions are key to bladder function, by allowing one-way passage of urine into the bladder without obstruction. Embryological development of these structures has been studied in multiple animal models as well as humans. In this report we review the existing literature on bladder development and cellular signalling with particular focus on bladder development in humans...
August 28, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Yanling Wang, Junxia Zhao, Cuili Cao, Yongxin Yan, Jing Chen, Fan Feng, Najing Zhou, Shuo Han, Yannan Xu, Juan Zhao, Yunli Yan, Huixian Cui
This study aims to test the role of E2F1-topoIIβ signaling in neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. With retinoic acid (RA) induction, a high percentage of cells were found to be arrested at the G0 /G1 phase, with decreased levels of cyclinD1, CDK4, phosphorylation status of pRb and E2F1, in addition to an elevated level of p27. The cells were shown to differentiate into neuronal phenotypes characterized by highly expressed neuronal markers, MAP2 and enriched topoIIβ, and remarkable neurite outgrowth...
July 25, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Mina Azimi, Tien T Le, Nadean L Brown
Presenilins (Psen1 and Psen2 in mice) are polytopic transmembrane proteins that act in the γ-secretase complex to make intra-membrane cleavages of their substrates, including the well-studied Notch receptors. Such processing releases the Notch intracellular domain, allowing it to physically relocate from the cell membrane to the nucleus where it acts in a transcriptional activating complex to regulate downstream genes in the signal-receiving cell. Previous studies of Notch pathway mutants for Jagged1, Notch2, and Rbpj demonstrated that canonical signaling is a necessary component of normal mouse lens development...
July 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Yiming Li, Xiaohua Li, Lidan Xiong, Jie Tang, Li Li
Both skin-derived precursors (SKPs) and dermal mesenchymal stem cells (dMSCs) are promising candidates for cellular therapy and regenerative medicine. To date the comparison of phenotypes and transcriptomes of mouse SKPs (mSKPs) and dMSCs has never been reported. Here we characterized and compared the biological properties and transcriptomes of mSKP and dMSCs from the same mouse dermis sample. Firstly, we analyzed mSKPs and dMSCs by use of immunocytochemistry, cell cycle analysis, and CD antigen expression...
July 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Brian Luke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Erica D Smith, Arturo G Garza-Gongora, Kyle L MacQuarrie, Steven T Kosak
The protein-DNA complexes that compose the end of mammalian chromosomes-telomeres-serve to stabilize linear genomic DNA and are involved in cellular and organismal aging. One mechanism that protects telomeres from premature degradation is the formation of structures called t-loops, in which the single-stranded 3' overhang present at the terminal end of telomeres loops back and invades medial double-stranded telomeric DNA. We identified looped structures formed between terminal chromosome ends and interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), which are found throughout the human genome, that we have termed interstitial telomeric loops (ITLs)...
July 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Emma A Fairhall, Alistair C Leitch, Anne F Lakey, Philip M E Probert, Gabriella Richardson, Carol De Santis, Matthew C Wright
The rodent pancreatic AR42J-B13 (B-13) cell line differentiates into non-replicative hepatocyte-like cells in response to glucocorticoid mediated via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The aims of this study were to identify a human cell line that responds similarly and investigate the mechanisms underpinning any alteration in differentiation. Exposing the human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (HPAC) cell line to 1-10 µM concentrations of dexamethasone (DEX) resulted an inhibition of proliferation, suppressed carcinoembryonic antigen expression, limited expression of pancreatic acinar and hepatic gene expression and significant induction of the constitutively-expressed hepatic CYP3A5 mRNA transcript...
July 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Yuefang Zhou, Alan Shiels
Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EPHA2) and one of its ligands, ephrin-A5 (EFNA5), have been associated with loss of eye lens transparency, or cataract, - an important cause of visual impairment. Here we show that mice functionally lacking EPHA2 (Epha2-null), EFNA5 (Efna5-null), or both receptor and ligand (Epha2/Efna5-null) consistently develop mostly transparent lenses with an internal refractive disturbance and a grossly disturbed cellular architecture. In situ hybridization localized Epha2 and Efna5 transcripts to lens epithelial cells and nascent fiber cells at the lens equator...
July 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Ge Liu, Xin Liu, Joel Shen, Adriane Sinclair, Laurence Baskin, Gerald R Cunha
This paper addresses the developmental mechanisms of formation of the mouse and human penile urethra and the possibility that two disparate mechanisms are at play. It has been suggested that the entire penile urethra of the mouse forms via direct canalization of the endodermal urethral plate. While this mechanism surely accounts for development of the proximal portion of the mouse penile urethra, we suggest that the distal portion of the mouse penile urethra forms via a series of epithelial fusion events. Through review of the recent literature in combination with new data, it is unlikely that the entire mouse urethra is formed from the endodermal urethral plate due in part to the fact that from E14 onward the urethral plate is not present in the distal aspect of the genital tubercle...
May 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Gerald R Cunha, Takeshi Kurita, Mei Cao, Joel Shen, Paul S Cooke, Stanley J Robboy, Laurence S Baskin
The role of tissue interactions was explored to determine whether epithelial differentiation within the developing human reproductive tract is induced and specified by mesenchyme in tissue recombinants composed of mouse vaginal mesenchyme + human uterine tubal epithelium (mVgM+hTubE). The tissue recombinants were grown in DES-treated ovariectomized athymic mice. After 2-4 weeks of in vivo growth, several vaginal specific features were expressed in the human tubal epithelium. The mesenchyme-induced effects included morphological change as well as expression of several immunohistochemical markers...
May 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Amilton Cesar Dos Santos, Alan James Conley, Moacir Franco de Oliveira, Antônio Chaves de Assis Neto
This study documented, for the first time, the morphological patterns of differentiation of male and female genital organs of Spix cavy (Galea spixii) using histological and ultrastructural analyses, with immuno-localization of steroidogenic enzymes, cytochromes P450 aromatase (P450arom) and 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase (P450c17), involved in the synthesis of estrogens and androgens respectively throughout fetal sexual development. Undifferentiated gonads of Spix cavy develop into ovaries in females after 25 days of gestation (DG), exhibiting P450arom immunoreactivity...
May 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Faizal Z Asumda, Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Derek M Dykxhoorn, Silvia Jakubski, Jasmine Edwards, Emmanuel Thomas, Eugene R Schiff
A variety of approaches have been developed for the derivation of hepatocyte-like cells from pluripotent stem cells. Currently, most of these strategies employ step-wise differentiation approaches with recombinant growth-factors or small-molecule analogs to recapitulate developmental signaling pathways. Here, we tested the efficacy of a small-molecule based differentiation protocol for the generation of hepatocyte-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells. Quantitative gene-expression, immunohistochemical, and western blot analyses for SOX17, FOXA2, CXCR4, HNF4A, AFP, indicated the stage-specific differentiation into definitive endoderm, hepatoblast and hepatocyte-like derivatives...
May 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Fereshteh Karamali, Mohammad-Hossein Nasr Esfahani, Sara Taleahmad, Leila Satarian, Hossein Baharvand
Recently, we have found that human stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) show a stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA). To examine SDIA competence for retinal cells differentiation, we co-cultured SCAP with human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). In comparison with Matrigel-cultured hPSCs, SCAP significantly induces hPSCs to differentiate into rostral neural cells as demonstrated by upregulation of OTX2 and PAX6 and down-regulation of EN1, HOXB4 and HOXC8. Furthermore, the differentiated cells on SCAP significantly expressed eye-field markers, RAX, PAX6, LHX2 and SIX3 and showed five folds pigmented colonies...
May 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Jung-Il Jung, Kyeong-Yong Park, Yura Lee, Mira Park, Jiyeon Kim
Vitamin C-linker-conjugated Ala-His-Lys tripeptide (Vit C-AHK) is a derivative of Vitamin C-conjugated tripeptides, which were originally developed as a component of a product for collagen synthesis enhancement or human dermal fibroblast growth. Here, we investigated the effect of Vit C-AHK on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2-induced osteoblast differentiation in a cell culture model. Vit C-AHK enhanced proliferation of C2C12 cells and induction of BMP-2-induced alkaline phosphatase, a typical marker of osteoblast differentiation...
May 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Rafal P Piprek, Milena Damulewicz, Malgorzata Kloc, Jacek Z Kubiak
Development of the gonads is a complex process, which starts with a period of undifferentiated, bipotential gonads. During this period the expression of sex-determining genes is initiated. Sex determination is a process triggering differentiation of the gonads into the testis or ovary. Sex determination period is followed by sexual differentiation, i.e. appearance of the first testis- and ovary-specific features. In Xenopus laevis W-linked DM-domain gene (DM-W) had been described as a master determinant of the gonadal female sex...
March 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Stefano Misino, Diego Bonetti, Sarah Luke-Glaser, Brian Luke
Cancer cells activate telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs) to bypass replicative senescence and achieve immortality by either upregulating telomerase or promoting homology-directed repair (HDR) at chromosome ends to maintain telomere length, the latter being referred to as ALT (Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres). In yeast telomerase mutants, the HDR-based repair of telomeres leads to the generation of 'survivors' that escape senescence and divide indefinitely. So far, yeast has proven to provide an accurate model to study the generation and maintenance of telomeres via HDR...
March 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Alex C Y Chang, Helen M Blau
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and the incidence increases with age. Genetic testing has taught us much about the pathogenic pathways that drive heritable cardiomyopathies. Here we discuss an unexpected link between shortened telomeres, a molecular marker of aging, and genetic cardiomyopathy. Positioned at the ends of chromosomes, telomeres are DNA repeats which serve as protective caps that shorten with each cell division in proliferative tissues. Cardiomyocytes are an anomaly, as they are largely non-proliferative post-birth and retain relatively stable telomere lengths throughout life in healthy individuals...
March 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Esther Aix, Alex Gallinat, Ignacio Flores
Although recent advances have overturned the old view of the human heart as an inert postmitotic organ, it is clear that the adult heart´s capacity to regenerate after an ischemic episode is very limited. Unlike humans, zebrafish and other lower vertebrates vigorously regenerate damaged myocardium after cardiac injury. Understanding how the zebrafish is able to conserve life-long cardiac regeneration capacity while mammals lose it soon after birth is crucial for the development of new treatments for myocardial infarction...
March 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
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