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Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628852/skin-regeneration-in-three-dimensions-current-status-challenges-and-opportunities
#1
REVIEW
Ahmed T El-Serafi, Ibrahim T El-Serafi, Moustafa Elmasry, Ingrid Steinvall, Folke Sjöberg
Skin regeneration is a life-saving need for many patients, whom list is stretched from burn victims to motor-car accidents. Spraying cells, either keratinocytes or stem cells, were associated with variable results and, in many cases, unfavorable outcomes. As the spatial configuration of the skin is distinctive, many trials investigated the bio-printing or the construction of three dimensional skin models where different layers of the skin were preserved. Although some of these models showed the histological configuration of the skin, their acceptance by the wound was questionable as a consequence of delayed vascularization...
June 15, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609676/hepatocellular-differentiation-status-is-characterized-by-distinct-subnuclear-localization-and-form-of-the-chanzyme-trpm7
#2
Adenike Ogunrinde, Robyn D Pereira, Natalie Beaton, D Hung Lam, Christiane Whetstone, Ceredwyn E Hill
The channel-kinase TRPM7 is important for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation, of many cell types. Both plasma membrane channel activity and kinase function are implicated in these roles. Channel activity is greater in less differentiated hepatoma cells compared with non-dividing, terminally differentiated adult hepatocytes, suggesting differences in protein expression and/or localization. We used electrophysiological and immunofluorescence approaches to establish whether hepatocellular differentiation is associated with altered TRPM7 expression...
June 10, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554048/ascorbic-acid-mediated-enhanced-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-of-mouse-es-cells-involves-interplay-of-dna-methylation-and-multiple-signals
#3
Deepti Abbey, Polani B Seshagiri
Embryonic stem cells (ES-cells) provide a good model system to study lineage-specific differentiation. Though, the differentiation of ES-cells to cardiomyocytes is documented, a clear understanding of the molecular mechanism of differentiation and improved functional-differentiation efficiency are yet to be achieved. In this regard, ascorbic acid (Aa) is shown to be one of the effective cardiac inducers in ES-cells. But, its mechanism is poorly understood. We therefore, investigated the mechanism of Aa-mediated cardiomyocyte differentiation of ES-cells...
May 10, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511052/phosphate-regulates-chondrogenesis-in-a-biphasic-and-maturation-dependent-manner
#4
Biming Wu, Emily K Durisin, Joseph T Decker, Evran E Ural, Lonnie D Shea, Rhima M Coleman
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) has been recognized as an important signaling molecule that modulates chondrocyte maturation and cartilage mineralization. However, conclusive experimental evidence for its involvement in early chondrogenesis is still lacking. Here, using high-density monolayer (2D) and pellet (3D) culture models of chondrogenic ATDC5 cells, we demonstrate that the cell response to Pi does not correlate with the Pi concentration in the culture medium but is better predicted by the availability of Pi on a per cell basis (Pi abundance)...
May 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319735/different-combinations-of-growth-factors-for-the-tenogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-monolayer-culture-and-in-fibrin-based-three-dimensional-constructs
#5
Marta Bottagisio, Silvia Lopa, Valentina Granata, Giuseppe Talò, Chiara Bazzocchi, Matteo Moretti, Arianna Barbara Lovati
Tendon injuries are severe burdens in clinics. The poor tendon healing is related to an ineffective response of resident cells and inadequate vascularization. Thanks to the high proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation capability, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a promising cell source to support the tendon repair. To date, the association of various growth factors to induce the in vitro tenogenic differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells is poorly investigated. This study aimed to investigate the tenogenic differentiation of rabbit BMSCs by testing the combination of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-12 and 14) with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) both in 2D and 3D cultures within fibrin-based constructs...
May 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188999/the-small-gtpase-arf6-regulates-sea-urchin-morphogenesis
#6
Nadezda A Stepicheva, Megan Dumas, Priscilla Kobi, Julie G Donaldson, Jia L Song
The small GTPase Arf6 is a conserved protein that is expressed in all metazoans. Arf6 remodels cytoskeletal actin and mediates membrane protein trafficking between the plasma membrane in its active form and endosomal compartments in its inactive form. While a rich knowledge exists for the cellular functions of Arf6, relatively little is known about its physiological role in development. This study examines the function of Arf6 in mediating cellular morphogenesis in early development. We dissect the function of Arf6 with a loss-of-function morpholino and constitutively active Arf6-Q67L construct...
May 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135608/egf-and-hydrocortisone-as-critical-factors-for-the-co-culture-of-adipogenic-differentiated-ascs-and-endothelial-cells
#7
Ann-Cathrin Volz, Birgit Huber, Alina Maria Schwandt, Petra Juliane Kluger
In vitro composed vascularized adipose tissue is and will continue to be in great demand e.g. for the treatment of extensive high-graded burns or the replacement of tissue after tumor removal. Up to date, the lack of adequate culture conditions, mainly a culture medium, decelerates further achievements. In our study, we evaluated the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hydrocortisone (HC), often supplemented in endothelial cell (EC) specific media, on the co-culture of adipogenic differentiated adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and microvascular endothelial cells (mvECs)...
May 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135607/hierarchical-transcriptional-profile-of-urothelial-cells-development-and-differentiation
#8
REVIEW
Ban Al-Kurdi
The urothelial lining of the lower urinary tract is the most efficient permeability barrier in animals, exhibiting a highly differentiated phenotype and a remarkable regenerative capacity upon wounding. During development and possibly during repair, cells undergo a sequence of hierarchical transcriptional events that mark the transition of these cells from the least differentiated urothelial phenotype characteristic of the basal cell layer, to the most differentiated cellular phenotype characteristic of the superficial cell layer...
May 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107746/induced-differentiation-of-human-gingival-fibroblasts-into-vsmc-like-cells
#9
Xuqian Liu, Jie Wang, Fusheng Dong, Hexiang Li, Yali Hou
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are major component of the vascular wall, and they play an essential role in maintaining the basic physiological function and stable structure of the vascular wall. In the present study, human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were cultured and induced into VSMC-like cells in vitro to confirm that HGFs with properties of stem cells have the potential for differentiation. The epithelium isolated from patients was extracted from normal human gingiva consisting of epithelium and connective tissue...
May 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923152/hydronephrosis-in-the-wnt5a-ablated-kidney-is-caused-by-an-abnormal-ureter-bladder-connection
#10
Kangsun Yun, Alan O Perantoni
The Wnt5a null mouse is a complex developmental model which, among its several posterior-localized axis defects, exhibits multiple kidney phenotypes, including duplex kidney and loss of the medullary zone. We previously reported that ablation of Wnt5a in nascent mesoderm causes duplex kidney formation as a result of aberrant development of the nephric duct and abnormal extension of intermediate mesoderm. However, these mice also display a loss of the medullary region late in gestation. We have now genetically isolated duplex kidney formation from the medullary defect by specifically targeting the progenitors for both the ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme...
March 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056360/nuclear-envelope-localization-of-lemd2-is-developmentally-dynamic-and-lamin-a-c-dependent-yet-insufficient-for-heterochromatin-tethering
#11
Katharina Thanisch, Congdi Song, Dieter Engelkamp, Jeannette Koch, Audrey Wang, Einar Hallberg, Roland Foisner, Heinrich Leonhardt, Colin L Stewart, Boris Joffe, Irina Solovei
Peripheral heterochromatin in mammalian nuclei is tethered to the nuclear envelope by at least two mechanisms here referred to as the A- and B-tethers. The A-tether includes lamins A/C and additional unknown components presumably INM protein(s) interacting with both lamins A/C and chromatin. The B-tether includes the inner nuclear membrane (INM) protein Lamin B-receptor, which binds B-type lamins and chromatin. Generally, at least one of the tethers is always present in the nuclear envelope of mammalian cells...
January 2, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918915/beta-catenin-and-estrogen-signaling-collaborate-to-drive-cyclin-d1-expression-in-developing-mouse-prostate
#12
William A Mulligan, Kyle A Wegner, Kimberly P Keil, Vatsal Mehta, M Mark Taketo, Chad M Vezina
Androgen, beta-catenin (CTNNB1), and estrogen pathways stimulate proliferative growth of developing mouse prostate but how these pathways interact is not fully understood. We previously found that androgens induce CTNNB1 signaling in mouse urogenital sinus (UGS) epithelium from which prostatic ductal epithelium derives. Others have shown that low estradiol concentrations induce UGS epithelial proliferative growth. Here, we found that CTNNB1 signaling overlaps cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression in prostatic buds and we used a genetic approach to test whether CTNNB1 signaling induces CCND1 expression...
January 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918914/transformation-of-jaw-muscle-satellite-cells-to-cardiomyocytes
#13
Randall S Daughters, Susan A Keirstead, Jonathan M W Slack
In the embryo a population of progenitor cells known as the second heart field forms not just parts of the heart but also the jaw muscles of the head. Here we show that it is possible to take skeletal muscle satellite cells from jaw muscles of the adult mouse and to direct their differentiation to become heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). This is done by exposing the cells to extracellular factors similar to those which heart progenitors would experience during normal embryonic development. By contrast, cardiac differentiation does not occur at all from satellite cells isolated from trunk and limb muscles, which originate from the somites of the embryo...
January 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875772/hnf4%C3%AE-is-a-key-gene-that-can-generate-columnar-metaplasia-in-oesophageal-epithelium
#14
Benjamin J Colleypriest, Zoë D Burke, Leonard P Griffiths, Yu Chen, Wei-Yuan Yu, Ramiro Jover, Michael Bock, Leigh Biddlestone, Jonathan M Quinlan, Stephen G Ward, J Mark Farrant, Jonathan M W Slack, David Tosh
Barrett's metaplasia is the only known morphological precursor to oesophageal adenocarcinoma and is characterized by replacement of stratified squamous epithelium by columnar epithelium. The cell of origin is uncertain and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the change in cellular phenotype are poorly understood. We therefore explored the role of two transcription factors, Cdx2 and HNF4α in the conversion using primary organ cultures. Biopsy samples from cases of human Barrett's metaplasia were analysed for the presence of CDX2 and HNF4α...
January 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043016/flutamide-induced-hypospadias-in-rats-a-critical-assessment
#15
Adriane Watkins Sinclair, Mei Cao, Andrew Pask, Laurence Baskin, Gerald R Cunha
This paper provides the first detailed description of flutamide-induced hypospadias in the rat based upon wholemount, histologic, three-dimensional reconstruction, scanning electron microscopic, and immunocytochemical analysis. The penile malformations elicited by this potent anti-androgen include a substantial proximal shift in the urethral meatus that clearly conforms to the definition of hypospadias based upon specific morphological criteria for this malformation. Through examination of the normal penile development and flutamide-induced abnormal penile development observed in prenatally oil- and flutamide-treated rats, our analysis provides insights into the morphogenetic mechanism of development of hypospadias...
December 30, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027501/disruption-of-homeobox-containing-gene-hbx9-results-in-the-deregulation-of-prestalk-cell-patterning-in-dictyostelium-discoideum
#16
Himanshu Mishra, Pooja Bhadoriya, Shweta Saran
We have earlier classified the homeobox containing genes from Dictyostelium discoideum and identified 5 genes belonging to the TALE class. Here, we have characterized hbx9, a member of TALE class. In situ hybridization results show it to be preferentially expressed in the prestalkA (pstA) cells but not in the prestalkO (pstO) cells. Disruption of the hbx9 gene in Ax2 cells delay initiation of development and also slows cell proliferation. There was decreased cadA expression during the development of hbx9(-) cells, which results in inappropriate cell contacts, altered cell motility and patterning properties...
December 24, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939834/focus-on-the-role-of-caveolin-and-cavin-protein-families-in-liposarcoma
#17
REVIEW
Silvia Codenotti, Marika Vezzoli, Eugenio Monti, Alessandro Fanzani
The identification of ancillary biomarkers useful to improve diagnosis is a major challenge for adipocytic liposarcoma (LPS), the most common type among soft tissue sarcomas affecting adulthood. Recent findings have reported the expression of some proteins belonging to Caveolin and Cavin families as a critical hallmark distinctive of the least aggressive, well-differentiated LPS tumors. These proteins are involved in the biogenesis, morphology and function of caveolae, minute bulb-shaped domains of the plasma membrane that play a crucial role in the adipose tissue by controlling hormone-dependent uptake of nutrients and contributing to the maintenance of tissue integrity...
December 7, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930960/loss-of-rearranged-l-myc-fusion-rlf-results-in-defects-in-heart-development-in-the-mouse
#18
L M Bourke, G Del Monte-Nieto, J E Outhwaite, V Bharti, P M Pollock, D G Simmons, A Adam, S S J Hur, G J Maghzal, E Whitelaw, R Stocker, C M Suter, R P Harvey, S K Harten
Recently we reported that Rearranged L-Myc Fusion, RLF, acts as an epigenetic modifier maintaining low levels of DNA methylation at CpG island shores and enhancers across the genome. Here we focus on the phenotype of Rlf null mutant mice generated via an ENU mutagenesis screen, to identify genes required for epigenetic regulation. RLF is expressed in a range of fetal mouse tissues, including the fetal heart. Comprehensive timed-mating studies are consistent with our previously reported findings that Rlf homozygous mutant mice rarely survive to adulthood, with the majority dying shortly after birth...
December 5, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292314/the-long-and-short-of-non-coding-rnas-during-post-natal-growth-and-differentiation-of-skeletal-muscles-focus-on-lncrna-and-mirnas
#19
Lauren C Butchart, Archa Fox, Tea Shavlakadze, Miranda D Grounds
Post-natal growth of skeletal muscle is a dynamic process involving proliferation and fusion of myoblasts with elongating myofibres (hyperplasia of myonuclei) until 3 weeks post-natally in mice, with ongoing differentiation and further increases in myofibre size mostly by hypertrophy until about 12 weeks of age. The expression of mRNAs that control these events are well described, but little is known about the in vivo roles of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including both microRNAs (miRNAs) and the lesser-studied long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)...
December 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238416/retinoic-acid-signalling-in-the-development-of-the-epidermis-the-limbs-and-the-secondary-palate
#20
REVIEW
Aysel Mammadova, Huiqing Zhou, Carine E L Carels, Johannes W Von den Hoff
Retinoic acid (RA), the active derivative of vitamin A, is one of the major regulators of embryonic development, including the development of the epidermis, the limbs and the secondary palate. In the embryo, RA levels are tightly regulated by the activity of RA synthesizing and degrading enzymes. Aberrant RA levels due to genetic variations in RA metabolism pathways contribute to congenital malformations in these structures. In vitro and in vivo studies provide considerable evidence on the effects of RA and its possible role in the development of the epidermis, the limbs and the secondary palate...
December 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
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