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Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331736/dysfunctional-telomeres-and-hematological-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Elena Fiorini, Andrea Santoni, Simona Colla
Telomere biology disorders, which are characterized by telomerase activity haploinsufficiency and accelerated telomere shortening, most commonly manifest as degenerative diseases. Tissues with high rates of cell turnover, such as those in the hematopoietic system, are particularly vulnerable to defects in telomere maintenance genes that eventually culminate in bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes, in which the BM cannot produce sufficient new blood cells. Here, we review how telomere defects induce degenerative phenotypes across multiple organs, with particular focus on how they impact the hematopoietic stem and progenitor compartment and affect hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation...
January 4, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291448/telomeres-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Cagatay Gunes, Alush Irene Avila, K Lenhard Rudolph
Telomere shortening as a consequence of cell divisions during aging and chronic diseases associates with an increased cancer risk. Experimental data revealed that telomere shortening results in telomere dysfunction, which in turn affects tumorigenesis in two ways. First, telomere dysfunction suppresses tumor progression by the activation of DNA damage checkpoints, which induce cell cycle arrest (senescence) or apoptosis, as well as by inducing metabolic compromise and activation of immune responses directed against senescent cells...
December 21, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289755/the-role-of-gastrulation-brain-homeobox-2-gbx2-in-the-development-of-the-ventral-telencephalon-in-zebrafish-embryos
#3
Zhe Wang, Yukiko Nakayama, Sachiko Tsuda, Kyo Yamasu
During vertebrate brain development, the gastrulation brain homeobox 2 gene (gbx2) is expressed in the forebrain, but its precise roles are still unknown. In this study, we addressed this issue in zebrafish (Danio rerio) first by carefully examining gbx2 expression in the developing forebrain. We showed that gbx2 was expressed in the telencephalon during late somitogenesis, from 18h post-fertilization (hpf) to 24 hpf, and in the thalamic primordium after 26 hpf. In contrast, another gbx gene, gbx1, was expressed in the anterior-most ventral telencephalon after 36 hpf...
December 21, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309986/the-ubiquitin-ligase-itch-coordinates-small-intestinal-epithelial-homeostasis-by-modulating-cell-proliferation-differentiation-and-migration
#4
Heather L Mentrup, Amanda Hartman, Elizabeth L Thames, Wassim A Basheer, Lydia E Matesic
Maintenance of the intestinal mucosa is driven by local signals that coordinate epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and turnover in order to separate antigenic luminal contents from the host's immune system. Breaches in this barrier promote gastrointestinal pathologies ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to cancer. The ubiquitin ligase ITCH is known to regulate immune responses, and loss of function of ITCH has been associated with gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, particularly in the colon...
December 15, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274896/impact-of-oxidative-stress-on-telomere-biology
#5
REVIEW
Wareed Ahmed, Joachim Lingner
Telomere integrity is essential for genome stability and it regulates cell proliferation and tissue renewal. Several lines of evidence indicate that telomeres are particularly sensitive to oxidative damage. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate striking inhibitory effects of oxidative damage on telomerase activity. On the other hand, several mechanisms have been uncovered that either counteract oxidative damage at telomeres or remove the modified lesions. Here, we review the current understanding of oxidative damage and protection of telomeric DNA...
December 14, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29268236/mechanisms-of-epithelial-thickening-due-to-il-1-signalling-blockade-and-tnf-%C3%AE-administration-differ-during-wound-repair-and-regeneration
#6
René Fernando Abarca-Buis, Alejandro Martínez-Jiménez, Eduardo Vera-Gómez, María Elena Contreras-Figueroa, David Garciadiego-Cázares, Ralf Paus, Arturo Robles-Tenorio, Edgar Krötzsch
IL-1 and TNF-α are always present during wound repair, but their pleiotropic and synergistic effects are incompletely understood. In this work, we evaluated the role of IL-1 in wound repair, and examined whether TNF-α administration impaired scarless wound repair. First, we characterised wound repair in outbred CD-1 mice according to age and sex in an ear punch wound model. Then, we examined the effects of Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and TNF-α placement inside ear wounds by means of loaded Heparin beads in young and middle-aged male and female mice...
December 12, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197683/long-range-telomere-regulation-of-gene-expression-telomere-looping-and-telomere-position-effect-over-long-distances-tpe-old
#7
Wanil Kim, Jerry W Shay
The human cellular reverse transcriptase, telomerase, is very tightly regulated in large long-lived species. Telomerase is expressed during early human fetal development, is turned off in most adult tissues, and then becomes reactivated in almost all human cancers. However, the exact mechanism regulating these switches in expression are not known. We recently described a phenomenon where genes are regulated by telomere length dependent loops (telomere position effects over long distances; TPE-OLD). The hTERT gene is ~ 1...
November 22, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239730/directed-differentiation-of-periocular-mesenchyme-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#8
Matthew Lovatt, Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Gary S Peh, Alan Colman, N Ray Dunn, Jodhbir S Mehta
Corneal tissue is the most transplanted of all body tissues. Currently, cadaveric donor tissues are used for transplantation. However, a global shortage of transplant grade material has prompted development of alternative, cell-based therapies for corneal diseases. Pluripotent stem cells are attractive sources of cells for regenerative medicine, because large numbers of therapeutically useful cells can be generated. However, a detailed understanding of how to differentiate clinically relevant cell types from stem cells is fundamentally required...
November 16, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156254/xenografted-tissue-models-for-the-study-of-human-endometrial-biology
#9
REVIEW
Satu Kuokkanen, Liyin Zhu, Jeffrey W Pollard
The human endometrium undergoes extensive morphological, biochemical and molecular changes under the influence of female sex steroid hormones. Besides the fact that estrogen stimulates endometrial cell proliferation and progesterone inhibits this proliferation and induces differentiation, there is limited knowledge about precise molecular mechanisms underlying human endometrial biology. The importance of paracrine signaling in endometrial physiology explains why in vitro culture of endometrial cells has been challenging...
November 10, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154149/rar%C3%AE-2-dependent-signaling-represses-neuronal-differentiation-in-mouse-es-cells
#10
Sri L Kona, Amita Shrestha, Xiaoping Yi, Serenthia Joseph, Humberto Munoz Barona, Eduardo Martinez-Ceballos
Embryonic Stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells that can be induced to differentiate into cells of all three lineages: mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm. In culture, ES cells can be differentiated into mature neurons by treatment with Retinoic Acid (RA) and this effect is mediated mainly through the activation of the RA nuclear receptors (RAR α, β, and γ), and their isoforms. However, little is known about the role played by specific RAR types on ES cell differentiation. Here, we found that treatment of ES cells with AC55649, an RARβ2 agonist, increased endodermal marker gene expression...
November 10, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156428/involvement-of-the-mab21l1-gene-in-calvarial-osteogenesis
#11
Dan Nguyen, Ryuichi Yamada, Nodoka Yoshimitsu, Akira Oguri, Takuya Kojima, Naoki Takahashi
The Mab-21 gene family is crucial for animal development. A deficiency in the Mab-21 genes associates with several defects, including skeletal malformation in mice and humans. In this study, we observed that mice lacking Mab21l1 displayed an unclosed fontanelle, suggesting impaired calvarial bone development. Cells isolated from the calvaria of these mice showed a greater osteoblast differentiation potential as evidenced by the abundance of mineralized bone nodules and higher expression levels of osteogenic markers than wild-type cells...
November 9, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229161/use-of-immune-deficient-hosts-to-study-human-development-and-pathogenesis
#12
EDITORIAL
Gerald R Cunha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102757/response-of-xenografts-of-developing-human-female-reproductive-tracts-to-the-synthetic-estrogen-diethylstilbestrol
#13
Gerald R Cunha, Takeshi Kurita, Mei Cao, Joel Shen, Stanley J Robboy, Laurence Baskin
Human female fetal reproductive tracts 9.5-22 weeks of gestation were grown for 1 month in ovariectomized athymic adult female mouse hosts that were either untreated or treated continuously with diethylstilbestrol (DES) via subcutaneous pellet. Normal morphogenesis and normal patterns of differentiation marker expression (KRT6, KRT7, KRT8, KRT10, KRT14, KRT19, ESR1, PGR, TP63, RUNX1, ISL1, HOXA11 and α-ACT2) were observed in xenografts grown in untreated hosts and mimicked observations of previously reported (Cunha et al...
October 4, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031189/renal-subcapsular-xenografing-of-human-fetal-external-genital-tissue-a-new-model-for-investigating-urethral-development
#14
Dylan Isaacson, Joel Shen, Mei Cao, Adriane Sinclair, Xuan Yue, Gerald Cunha, Laurence Baskin
In this paper, we introduce our novel renal subcapsular xenograft model for the study of human penile urethral and clitoral development. We grafted fifteen intact fetal penes and clitorides 8-11 weeks fetal age under the renal capsules of gonadectomized athymic mice. The mice were treated with a subcutaneous pellet of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), diethylstilbestrol (DES) or untreated with hormones. Xenografts were harvested after fourteen days of growth and analyzed via serial histologic sectioning and immunostaining for Ki-67, cytokeratins 6, 7 and 10, uroplakin and the androgen receptor...
September 22, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078082/evaluating-the-regenerative-potential-and-functionality-of-human-liver-cells-in-mice
#15
REVIEW
Antson Kiat Yee Tan, Kyle M Loh, Lay Teng Ang
Liver diseases afflict millions of patients worldwide. Currently, the only long-term treatment for liver failure is the transplantation of a new liver. However, intravenously transplanting a suspension of human hepatocytes might be a less-invasive approach to partially reconstitute lost liver functions in human patients as evinced by promising outcomes in clinical trials. The purpose of this essay is to emphasize outstanding questions that continue to surround hepatocyte transplantation. While adult primary human hepatocytes are the gold standard for transplantation, hepatocytes are heterogeneous...
September 18, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059535/human-reconstructed-skin-xenografts-on-mice-to-model-skin-physiology
#16
REVIEW
Giorgiana Salgado, Yi Zhen Ng, Li Fang Koh, Christabelle S M Goh, John E Common
Xenograft models to study skin physiology have been popular for scientific use since the 1970s, with various developments and improvements to the techniques over the decades. Xenograft models are particularly useful and sought after due to the lack of clinically relevant animal models in predicting drug effectiveness in humans. Such predictions could in turn boost the process of drug discovery, since novel drug compounds have an estimated 8% chance of FDA approval despite years of rigorous preclinical testing and evaluation, albeit mostly in non-human models...
September 14, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946057/xenotransplantation-as-a-model-for-human-testicular-development
#17
REVIEW
Marsida Hutka, Lee B Smith, Rod T Mitchell
The developing male reproductive system may be sensitive to disruption by a wide range of exogenous 'endocrine disruptors'. In-utero exposure to environmental chemicals and pharmaceuticals have been hypothesized to have an impact in the increasing incidence of male reproductive disorders. The vulnerability to adverse effects as a consequence of such exposures is elevated during a specific 'window of susceptibility' in fetal life referred to as the masculinisation programing window (MPW). Exposures that occur during prepuberty, such as chemotherapy treatment for cancer during childhood, may also affect future fertility...
September 13, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923776/prostate-cancer-xenografts-and-hormone-induced-prostate-carcinogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Dalton T McLean, Douglas W Strand, William A Ricke
Despite the advancement of transgenic and gene knockout animal models in the prostate cancer research, there is still a need for utilizing xenograft models. Xenografts can be grown in multiple sites/organs within immunocompromised animals such as mice and rats. Although prostate xenografts have been derived from many species, human cells and tissues are the most commonly used due to their potential clinical significance. Xenograft models that progress from one state or stage to another are commonly used to address important scientific questions including malignant transformation, metastatic spread, and castration resistance...
September 8, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946056/tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-suppresses-adipogenic-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cell-by-inhibiting-mir-21-spry1-functional-axis
#19
Nan Yang, Yang Li, Guang Wang, Yin Ding, Yan Jin, Yiquan Xu
Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease that leads to progressive destruction of periodontal tissue. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are the most favorable candidate for the reconstruction of tissues destroyed by periodontal diseases. PDLSCs derived from inflammatory microenvironment show attenuated differentiation potential, however the mechanism is still unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of posttranscriptional regulators, and they play key roles in regulating cell differentiation...
September 1, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918284/new-insights-into-human-female-reproductive-tract-development
#20
Stanley J Robboy, Takeshi Kurita, Laurence Baskin, Gerald R Cunha
We present a detailed review of the embryonic and fetal development of the human female reproductive tract utilizing specimens from the 5th through the 22nd gestational week. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) as well as immunohistochemical stains were used to study the development of the human uterine tube, endometrium, myometrium, uterine cervix and vagina. Our study revisits and updates the classical reports of Koff (1933) and Bulmer (1957) and presents new data on development of human vaginal epithelium. Koff proposed that the upper 4/5ths of the vagina is derived from Müllerian epithelium and the lower 1/5th derived from urogenital sinus epithelium, while Bulmer proposed that vaginal epithelium derives solely from urogenital sinus epithelium...
August 11, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
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