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Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity

Qian Peng, Chaomin Yue, Andy Chun Hang Chen, Kai Chuen Lee, Sze Wan Fong, William Shu Biu Yeung, Yin Lau Lee
Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is important for maintaining the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). However, human ESC (hESC) have a high level of connexin (Cx) molecules with unknown function. In this study, we found that the major Cx molecule, Cx43, was highly expressed in undifferentiated hESC. It was down-regulated upon spontaneously differentiation by embryoid body formation and induced differentiation along ectoderm, mesoderm and extraembryonic lineages, but up-regulated along endoderm differentiation...
December 19, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Timo Ditz, Lydia Schnapka-Hille, Nicole Noack, Juliane Dorow, Uta Ceglarek, Dieter Niederwieser, Jürgen Schiller, Beate Fuchs, Michael Cross
Horse serum is commonly used as an additive to support the maintenance of hematopoietic progenitor cells in culture. However, the wide variability in the performance of different lots calls for parallel testing of multiple batches over extended periods of culture. Identification of the serum components that determine hematopoietic support would therefore save considerable time and effort and would help to standardize culture procedures. We report here that the ability of horse serum to support the self-renewal of multipotent murine hematopoietic progenitor FDCP-Mix cells is correlated to the concentration of specific fatty acid products of phospholipase A2 and more closely to the spectrum of eicosanoids generated by their further processing through cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways...
December 6, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Cinzia Maria Chinnici, Giada Pietrosi, Gioacchin Iannolo, Giandomenico Amico, Nicola Cuscino, Valeria Pagano, Pier Giulio Conaldi
We isolated a population of proliferating cells from cultured human fetal hepatocytes of 16-22 weeks gestational age. The cells shared a similar phenotype to that of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) according to the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT), including plastic adherence, antigen expression profile, and in vitro multilineage differentiation potential. Fetal liver (FL)-MSCs expressed the albumin gene, and harbored a subpopulation of CK18+ cells (20-40%), which defined their hepatic origin...
December 5, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Tiam Feridooni, Kishore B S Pasumarthi
Mid-gestation mouse ventricles (E11.5) contain a larger number of Nkx2.5+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). The proliferation rates are consistently higher in CPCs compared to myocyte population of developing ventricles. Recent studies suggested that CPCs are an ideal donor cell type for replacing damaged tissue in diseased hearts. Thus, the ability to isolate and expand CPCs from embryos or stem cell cultures could be useful for cell fate studies and regenerative therapies. Since embryonic CPCs possess fewer mitochondria compared to cardiomyocytes, we reasoned that CPCs can be fractionated using a fluorescent mitochondrial membrane potential dye (TMRM) and these cells may retain cardiomyogenic potential even in the absence of cardiomyocytes (CMs)...
November 23, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Nadia Rajab, Matthew Rutar, Andrew L Laslett, Christine A Wells
Macrophages are phagocytic immune cells resident in every tissue that are not only important for host defence, but are also involved in tissue homeostasis, injury, and disease. Despite increasingly sophisticated methods for in vitro macrophage isolation, expansion and activation over the past three decades, these have largely been restricted to modelling bone-marrow or blood-derived cells. The in vitro derivation of macrophages from human pluripotent stem cells provides new opportunities to study macrophage biology, including the factors that impact human myeloid development and those that induce macrophage activation...
November 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Muthurangan Manikandan, Sarah Abuelreich, Mona Elsafadi, Hussain Alsalman, Hassan Almalak, Abdulaziz Siyal, Jamil Amjad Hashmi, Abdullah Aldahmash, Moustapha Kassem, Musaad Alfayez, Amer Mahmood
Endochondral ossification is the process by which long bones are formed; the process of long bone formation is regulated by numerous factors such as transcription factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix molecules. Human hormone Nuclear receptors (hHNR) are a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors that are activated by steroid hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, and various lipid-soluble signals, including retinoic acid, oxysterols, and thyroid hormone. Whole genome microarray data from our previous study revealed that most hHNR's are up-regulated during osteoblast differentiation in hMSCS...
November 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Lijuan Zhou, Xianqi Zhang, Ralf Paus, Zhongfa Lu
Human skin organ culture (hSOC) is a simple but highly instructive and clinically relevant skin research method. It has been used for decades to study the development, differentiation, and function as well as the response to wounding or test agents of intact human skin in the presence of its appendages and all resident cell populations. hSOC has also proven useful in toxicological and oncological studies and studies of skin aging (both chronological aging and photoaging), skin energy metabolism, skin immunology, pigmentation biology, and cutaneous (neuro-)endocrinology and neurobiology...
October 16, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Nobumasa Matoba, Tomoki Yamashita, Kazuo Takayama, Fuminori Sakurai, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from human iPS cells are expected to be utilized in pharmaceutical research and regenerative medicine. Recently, various culture methods for human iPS cell maintenance have been developed. However, it is not well known whether human iPS cell maintenance method affects hepatic differentiation potency. In this study, we cultured human iPS cells using four maintenance methods: ReproStem medium with feeder cells (mouse embryonic fibroblasts), AK02N medium with iMatrix-511 (E8 fragments of laminin511), Essential 8 medium with Vitronectin N (N-terminal domain of vitronectin), TeSR-E8 medium with Vitronectin XF (xeno-free vitronectin)...
September 24, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Joel Shen, Dylan Isaacson, Mei Cao, Adriane Sinclair, Gerald R Cunha, Laurence Baskin
We have studied the ontogeny of the developing human male and female urogenital tracts from 9 weeks (indifferent stage) to 16 weeks (advanced sex differentiation) of gestation by immunohistochemistry on mid-sagittal sections. Sixteen human fetal pelvises were serial sectioned in the sagittal plane and stained with antibodies to epithelial, muscle, nerve, proliferation and hormone receptor markers. Key findings are: (1) The corpus cavernosum in males and females extends into the glans penis and clitoris, respectively, during the ambisexual stage (9 weeks) and thus appears to be an androgen-independent event...
September 19, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Gerald R Cunha, Laurence Baskin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Dylan Isaacson, Joel Shen, Maya Overland, Yi Li, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Dylan McCreedy, Meredith Calvert, Todd McDevitt, Gerald R Cunha, Laurence Baskin
Recent studies in our lab have utilized three imaging techniques to visualize the developing human fetal urogenital tract in three dimensions: optical projection tomography, scanning electron microscopy and lightsheet fluorescence microscopy. We have applied these technologies to examine changes in morphology and differential gene expression in developing human external genital specimens from the ambisexual stage (<9 weeks fetal age) to well-differentiated male and female organs (>13 weeks fetal age)...
September 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Laurence Baskin, Joel Shen, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Xin Liu, Ge Liu, Dylan Isaacson, Maya Overland, Yi Li, Gerald R Cunha
The human penis and clitoris develop from the ambisexual genital tubercle. To compare and contrast the development of human penis and clitoris, we used macroscopic photography, optical projection tomography, light sheet microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry. The human genital tubercle differentiates into a penis under the influence of androgens forming a tubular urethra that develops by canalization of the urethral plate to form a wide diamond-shaped urethral groove (opening zipper) whose edges (urethral folds) fuse in the midline (closing zipper)...
September 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Xin Liu, Ge Liu, Joel Shen, Aaron Yue, Dylan Isaacson, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Aron Liaw, Gerald R Cunha, Laurence Baskin
The urethra within the human penile shaft develops via (1) an "Opening Zipper" that facilitates distal canalization of the solid urethral plate to form a wide urethral groove and (2) a "Closing Zipper" that facilitates fusion of the epithelial surfaces of the urethral folds. Herein, we extend our knowledge by describing formation of the human urethra within the glans penis as well as development of the prepuce. Forty-eight normal human fetal penile specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy and optical projection tomography...
September 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Joel Shen, Gerald R Cunha, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Dylan Isaacson, Laurence Baskin
We present a detailed review of fetal development of the male and female human urogenital tract from 8 to 22 weeks gestation at the macroscopic and morphometric levels. Human fetal specimens were sexed based on macroscopic identification of fetal testes or ovaries, Wolffian or Müllerian structures and the presence of the SRY gene in the specimens at or near the indifferent stage (8-9 weeks). Specimens were photographed using a dissecting microscope with transmitted and reflected light. Morphometric measurements were taken of each urogenital organ...
September 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Gerald R Cunha, Stanley J Robboy, Takeshi Kurita, Dylan Isaacson, Joel Shen, Mei Cao, Laurence S Baskin
Development of the human female reproductive tract is reviewed from the ambisexual stage to advanced development of the uterine tube, uterine corpus, uterine cervix and vagina at 22 weeks. Historically this topic has been under-represented in the literature, and for the most part is based upon hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Recent immunohistochemical studies for PAX2 (reactive with Müllerian epithelium) and FOXA1 (reactive with urogenital sinus epithelium and its known pelvic derivatives) shed light on an age-old debate on the derivation of vaginal epithelium supporting the idea that human vaginal epithelium derives solely from urogenital sinus epithelium...
September 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Gerald R Cunha, Chad M Vezina, Dylan Isaacson, William A Ricke, Barry G Timms, Mei Cao, Omar Franco, Laurence S Baskin
This paper provides a detailed compilation of human prostatic development that includes human fetal prostatic gross anatomy, histology, and ontogeny of selected epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation markers and signaling molecules throughout the stages of human prostatic development: (a) pre-bud urogenital sinus (UGS), (b) emergence of solid prostatic epithelial buds from urogenital sinus epithelium (UGE), (c) bud elongation and branching, (d) canalization of the solid epithelial cords, (e) differentiation of luminal and basal epithelial cells, and (f) secretory cytodifferentiation...
September 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Aron Liaw, Gerald R Cunha, Joel Shen, Mei Cao, Ge Liu, Adriane Sinclair, Laurence Baskin
The urinary bladder collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until the appropriate moment for voiding. The trigone and ureterovesical junctions are key to bladder function, by allowing one-way passage of urine into the bladder without obstruction. Embryological development of these structures has been studied in multiple animal models as well as humans. In this report we review the existing literature on bladder development and cellular signalling with particular focus on bladder development in humans...
August 28, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Yanling Wang, Junxia Zhao, Cuili Cao, Yongxin Yan, Jing Chen, Fan Feng, Najing Zhou, Shuo Han, Yannan Xu, Juan Zhao, Yunli Yan, Huixian Cui
This study aims to test the role of E2F1-topoIIβ signaling in neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. With retinoic acid (RA) induction, a high percentage of cells were found to be arrested at the G0 /G1 phase, with decreased levels of cyclinD1, CDK4, phosphorylation status of pRb and E2F1, in addition to an elevated level of p27. The cells were shown to differentiate into neuronal phenotypes characterized by highly expressed neuronal markers, MAP2 and enriched topoIIβ, and remarkable neurite outgrowth...
July 25, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Mina Azimi, Tien T Le, Nadean L Brown
Presenilins (Psen1 and Psen2 in mice) are polytopic transmembrane proteins that act in the γ-secretase complex to make intra-membrane cleavages of their substrates, including the well-studied Notch receptors. Such processing releases the Notch intracellular domain, allowing it to physically relocate from the cell membrane to the nucleus where it acts in a transcriptional activating complex to regulate downstream genes in the signal-receiving cell. Previous studies of Notch pathway mutants for Jagged1, Notch2, and Rbpj demonstrated that canonical signaling is a necessary component of normal mouse lens development...
July 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Yiming Li, Xiaohua Li, Lidan Xiong, Jie Tang, Li Li
Both skin-derived precursors (SKPs) and dermal mesenchymal stem cells (dMSCs) are promising candidates for cellular therapy and regenerative medicine. To date the comparison of phenotypes and transcriptomes of mouse SKPs (mSKPs) and dMSCs has never been reported. Here we characterized and compared the biological properties and transcriptomes of mSKP and dMSCs from the same mouse dermis sample. Firstly, we analyzed mSKPs and dMSCs by use of immunocytochemistry, cell cycle analysis, and CD antigen expression...
July 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
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