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Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity

Lijuan Zhou, Xianqi Zhang, Ralf Paus, Zhongfa Lu
Human skin organ culture (hSOC) is a simple but highly instructive and clinically relevant skin research method. It has been used for decades to study the development, differentiation, and function as well as the response to wounding or test agents of intact human skin in the presence of its appendages and all resident cell populations. hSOC has also proven useful in toxicological and oncological studies and studies of skin aging (both chronological aging and photoaging), skin energy metabolism, skin immunology, pigmentation biology, and cutaneous (neuro-)endocrinology and neurobiology...
October 16, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Nobumasa Matoba, Tomoki Yamashita, Kazuo Takayama, Fuminori Sakurai, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from human iPS cells are expected to be utilized in pharmaceutical research and regenerative medicine. Recently, various culture methods for human iPS cell maintenance have been developed. However, it is not well known whether human iPS cell maintenance method affects hepatic differentiation potency. In this study, we cultured human iPS cells using four maintenance methods: ReproStem medium with feeder cells (mouse embryonic fibroblasts), AK02N medium with iMatrix-511 (E8 fragments of laminin511), Essential 8 medium with Vitronectin N (N-terminal domain of vitronectin), TeSR-E8 medium with Vitronectin XF (xeno-free vitronectin)...
September 24, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Joel Shen, Dylan Isaacson, Mei Cao, Adriane Sinclair, Gerald R Cunha, Laurence Baskin
We have studied the ontogeny of the developing human male and female urogenital tracts from 9 weeks (indifferent stage) to 16 weeks (advanced sex differentiation) of gestation by immunohistochemistry on mid-sagittal sections. Sixteen human fetal pelvises were serial sectioned in the sagittal plane and stained with antibodies to epithelial, muscle, nerve, proliferation and hormone receptor markers. Key findings are: (1) The corpus cavernosum in males and females extends into the glans penis and clitoris, respectively, during the ambisexual stage (9 weeks) and thus appears to be an androgen-independent event...
September 19, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Gerald R Cunha, Laurence Baskin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Dylan Isaacson, Joel Shen, Maya Overland, Yi Li, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Dylan McCreedy, Meredith Calvert, Todd McDevitt, Gerald R Cunha, Laurence Baskin
Recent studies in our lab have utilized three imaging techniques to visualize the developing human fetal urogenital tract in three dimensions: optical projection tomography, scanning electron microscopy and lightsheet fluorescence microscopy. We have applied these technologies to examine changes in morphology and differential gene expression in developing human external genital specimens from the ambisexual stage (<9 weeks fetal age) to well-differentiated male and female organs (>13 weeks fetal age)...
September 13, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Gerald R Cunha, Stanley J Robboy, Takeshi Kurita, Dylan Isaacson, Joel Shen, Mei Cao, Laurence S Baskin
Development of the human female reproductive tract is reviewed from the ambisexual stage to advanced development of the uterine tube, uterine corpus, uterine cervix and vagina at 22 weeks. Historically this topic has been under-represented in the literature, and for the most part is based upon hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Recent immunohistochemical studies for PAX2 (reactive with Müllerian epithelium) and FOXA1 (reactive with urogenital sinus epithelium and its known pelvic derivatives) shed light on an age-old debate on the derivation of vaginal epithelium supporting the idea that human vaginal epithelium derives solely from urogenital sinus epithelium...
September 6, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Gerald R Cunha, Chad M Vezina, Dylan Isaacson, William A Ricke, Barry G Timms, Mei Cao, Omar Franco, Laurence S Baskin
This paper provides a detailed compilation of human prostatic development that includes human fetal prostatic gross anatomy, histology, and ontogeny of selected epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation markers and signaling molecules throughout the stages of human prostatic development: (a) pre-bud urogenital sinus (UGS), (b) emergence of solid prostatic epithelial buds from urogenital sinus epithelium (UGE), (c) bud elongation and branching, (d) canalization of the solid epithelial cords, (e) differentiation of luminal and basal epithelial cells, and (f) secretory cytodifferentiation...
September 4, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Joel Shen, Gerald R Cunha, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Dylan Isaacson, Laurence Baskin
We present a detailed review of fetal development of the male and female human urogenital tract from 8 to 22 weeks gestation at the macroscopic and morphometric levels. Human fetal specimens were sexed based on macroscopic identification of fetal testes or ovaries, Wolffian or Müllerian structures and the presence of the SRY gene in the specimens at or near the indifferent stage (8-9 weeks). Specimens were photographed using a dissecting microscope with transmitted and reflected light. Morphometric measurements were taken of each urogenital organ...
August 30, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Aron Liaw, Gerald R Cunha, Joel Shen, Mei Cao, Ge Liu, Adriane Sinclair, Laurence Baskin
The urinary bladder collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until the appropriate moment for voiding. The trigone and ureterovesical junctions are key to bladder function, by allowing one-way passage of urine into the bladder without obstruction. Embryological development of these structures has been studied in multiple animal models as well as humans. In this report we review the existing literature on bladder development and cellular signalling with particular focus on bladder development in humans...
August 28, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Laurence Baskin, Joel Shen, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Xin Liu, Ge Liu, Dylan Isaacson, Maya Overland, Yi Li, Gerald R Cunha
The human penis and clitoris develop from the ambisexual genital tubercle. To compare and contrast the development of human penis and clitoris, we used macroscopic photography, optical projection tomography, light sheet microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry. The human genital tubercle differentiates into a penis under the influence of androgens forming a tubular urethra that develops by canalization of the urethral plate to form a wide diamond-shaped urethral groove (opening zipper) whose edges (urethral folds) fuse in the midline (closing zipper)...
August 23, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Xin Liu, Ge Liu, Joel Shen, Aaron Yue, Dylan Isaacson, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Aron Liaw, Gerald R Cunha, Laurence Baskin
The urethra within the human penile shaft develops via (1) an "Opening Zipper" that facilitates distal canalization of the solid urethral plate to form a wide urethral groove and (2) a "Closing Zipper" that facilitates fusion of the epithelial surfaces of the urethral folds. Herein, we extend our knowledge by describing formation of the human urethra within the glans penis as well as development of the prepuce. Forty-eight normal human fetal penile specimens were examined using scanning electron microscopy and optical projection tomography...
August 23, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Yanling Wang, Junxia Zhao, Cuili Cao, Yongxin Yan, Jing Chen, Fan Feng, Najing Zhou, Shuo Han, Yannan Xu, Juan Zhao, Yunli Yan, Huixian Cui
This study aims to test the role of E2F1-topoIIβ signaling in neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. With retinoic acid (RA) induction, a high percentage of cells were found to be arrested at the G0 /G1 phase, with decreased levels of cyclinD1, CDK4, phosphorylation status of pRb and E2F1, in addition to an elevated level of p27. The cells were shown to differentiate into neuronal phenotypes characterized by highly expressed neuronal markers, MAP2 and enriched topoIIβ, and remarkable neurite outgrowth...
July 25, 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Mina Azimi, Tien T Le, Nadean L Brown
Presenilins (Psen1 and Psen2 in mice) are polytopic transmembrane proteins that act in the γ-secretase complex to make intra-membrane cleavages of their substrates, including the well-studied Notch receptors. Such processing releases the Notch intracellular domain, allowing it to physically relocate from the cell membrane to the nucleus where it acts in a transcriptional activating complex to regulate downstream genes in the signal-receiving cell. Previous studies of Notch pathway mutants for Jagged1, Notch2, and Rbpj demonstrated that canonical signaling is a necessary component of normal mouse lens development...
July 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Yiming Li, Xiaohua Li, Lidan Xiong, Jie Tang, Li Li
Both skin-derived precursors (SKPs) and dermal mesenchymal stem cells (dMSCs) are promising candidates for cellular therapy and regenerative medicine. To date the comparison of phenotypes and transcriptomes of mouse SKPs (mSKPs) and dMSCs has never been reported. Here we characterized and compared the biological properties and transcriptomes of mSKP and dMSCs from the same mouse dermis sample. Firstly, we analyzed mSKPs and dMSCs by use of immunocytochemistry, cell cycle analysis, and CD antigen expression...
July 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Brian Luke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Erica D Smith, Arturo G Garza-Gongora, Kyle L MacQuarrie, Steven T Kosak
The protein-DNA complexes that compose the end of mammalian chromosomes-telomeres-serve to stabilize linear genomic DNA and are involved in cellular and organismal aging. One mechanism that protects telomeres from premature degradation is the formation of structures called t-loops, in which the single-stranded 3' overhang present at the terminal end of telomeres loops back and invades medial double-stranded telomeric DNA. We identified looped structures formed between terminal chromosome ends and interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), which are found throughout the human genome, that we have termed interstitial telomeric loops (ITLs)...
July 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Emma A Fairhall, Alistair C Leitch, Anne F Lakey, Philip M E Probert, Gabriella Richardson, Carol De Santis, Matthew C Wright
The rodent pancreatic AR42J-B13 (B-13) cell line differentiates into non-replicative hepatocyte-like cells in response to glucocorticoid mediated via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The aims of this study were to identify a human cell line that responds similarly and investigate the mechanisms underpinning any alteration in differentiation. Exposing the human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (HPAC) cell line to 1-10 µM concentrations of dexamethasone (DEX) resulted an inhibition of proliferation, suppressed carcinoembryonic antigen expression, limited expression of pancreatic acinar and hepatic gene expression and significant induction of the constitutively-expressed hepatic CYP3A5 mRNA transcript...
July 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Yuefang Zhou, Alan Shiels
Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EPHA2) and one of its ligands, ephrin-A5 (EFNA5), have been associated with loss of eye lens transparency, or cataract, - an important cause of visual impairment. Here we show that mice functionally lacking EPHA2 (Epha2-null), EFNA5 (Efna5-null), or both receptor and ligand (Epha2/Efna5-null) consistently develop mostly transparent lenses with an internal refractive disturbance and a grossly disturbed cellular architecture. In situ hybridization localized Epha2 and Efna5 transcripts to lens epithelial cells and nascent fiber cells at the lens equator...
July 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Ge Liu, Xin Liu, Joel Shen, Adriane Sinclair, Laurence Baskin, Gerald R Cunha
This paper addresses the developmental mechanisms of formation of the mouse and human penile urethra and the possibility that two disparate mechanisms are at play. It has been suggested that the entire penile urethra of the mouse forms via direct canalization of the endodermal urethral plate. While this mechanism surely accounts for development of the proximal portion of the mouse penile urethra, we suggest that the distal portion of the mouse penile urethra forms via a series of epithelial fusion events. Through review of the recent literature in combination with new data, it is unlikely that the entire mouse urethra is formed from the endodermal urethral plate due in part to the fact that from E14 onward the urethral plate is not present in the distal aspect of the genital tubercle...
May 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Gerald R Cunha, Takeshi Kurita, Mei Cao, Joel Shen, Paul S Cooke, Stanley J Robboy, Laurence S Baskin
The role of tissue interactions was explored to determine whether epithelial differentiation within the developing human reproductive tract is induced and specified by mesenchyme in tissue recombinants composed of mouse vaginal mesenchyme + human uterine tubal epithelium (mVgM+hTubE). The tissue recombinants were grown in DES-treated ovariectomized athymic mice. After 2-4 weeks of in vivo growth, several vaginal specific features were expressed in the human tubal epithelium. The mesenchyme-induced effects included morphological change as well as expression of several immunohistochemical markers...
May 2018: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
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