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Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102757/response-of-xenografts-of-developing-human-female-reproductive-tracts-to-the-synthetic-estrogen-diethylstilbestrol
#1
Gerald R Cunha, Takeshi Kurita, Mei Cao, Joel Shen, Stanley J Robboy, Laurence Baskin
Human female fetal reproductive tracts 9.5-22 weeks of gestation were grown for 1 month in ovariectomized athymic adult female mouse hosts that were either untreated or treated continuously with diethylstilbestrol (DES) via subcutaneous pellet. Normal morphogenesis and normal patterns of differentiation marker expression (KRT6, KRT7, KRT8, KRT10, KRT14, KRT19, ESR1, PGR, TP63, RUNX1, ISL1, HOXA11 and α-ACT2) were observed in xenografts grown in untreated hosts and mimicked observations of previously reported (Cunha et al...
October 4, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031189/renal-subcapsular-xenografing-of-human-fetal-external-genital-tissue-a-new-model-for-investigating-urethral-development
#2
Dylan Isaacson, Joel Shen, Mei Cao, Adriane Sinclair, Xuan Yue, Gerald Cunha, Laurence Baskin
In this paper, we introduce our novel renal subcapsular xenograft model for the study of human penile urethral and clitoral development. We grafted fifteen intact fetal penes and clitorides 8-11 weeks fetal age under the renal capsules of gonadectomized athymic mice. The mice were treated with a subcutaneous pellet of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), diethylstilbestrol (DES) or untreated with hormones. Xenografts were harvested after fourteen days of growth and analyzed via serial histologic sectioning and immunostaining for Ki-67, cytokeratins 6, 7 and 10, uroplakin and the androgen receptor...
September 22, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078082/evaluating-the-regenerative-potential-and-functionality-of-human-liver-cells-in-mice
#3
REVIEW
Antson Kiat Yee Tan, Kyle M Loh, Lay Teng Ang
Liver diseases afflict millions of patients worldwide. Currently, the only long-term treatment for liver failure is the transplantation of a new liver. However, intravenously transplanting a suspension of human hepatocytes might be a less-invasive approach to partially reconstitute lost liver functions in human patients as evinced by promising outcomes in clinical trials. The purpose of this essay is to emphasize outstanding questions that continue to surround hepatocyte transplantation. While adult primary human hepatocytes are the gold standard for transplantation, hepatocytes are heterogeneous...
September 18, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059535/human-reconstructed-skin-xenografts-on-mice-to-model-skin-physiology
#4
REVIEW
Giorgiana Salgado, Yi Zhen Ng, Li Fang Koh, Christabelle S M Goh, John E Common
Xenograft models to study skin physiology have been popular for scientific use since the 1970s, with various developments and improvements to the techniques over the decades. Xenograft models are particularly useful and sought after due to the lack of clinically relevant animal models in predicting drug effectiveness in humans. Such predictions could in turn boost the process of drug discovery, since novel drug compounds have an estimated 8% chance of FDA approval despite years of rigorous preclinical testing and evaluation, albeit mostly in non-human models...
September 14, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946057/xenotransplantation-as-a-model-for-human-testicular-development
#5
REVIEW
Marsida Hutka, Lee B Smith, Rod T Mitchell
The developing male reproductive system may be sensitive to disruption by a wide range of exogenous 'endocrine disruptors'. In-utero exposure to environmental chemicals and pharmaceuticals have been hypothesized to have an impact in the increasing incidence of male reproductive disorders. The vulnerability to adverse effects as a consequence of such exposures is elevated during a specific 'window of susceptibility' in fetal life referred to as the masculinisation programing window (MPW). Exposures that occur during prepuberty, such as chemotherapy treatment for cancer during childhood, may also affect future fertility...
September 13, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923776/prostate-cancer-xenografts-and-hormone-induced-prostate-carcinogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Dalton T McLean, Douglas W Strand, William A Ricke
Despite the advancement of transgenic and gene knockout animal models in the prostate cancer research, there is still a need for utilizing xenograft models. Xenografts can be grown in multiple sites/organs within immunocompromised animals such as mice and rats. Although prostate xenografts have been derived from many species, human cells and tissues are the most commonly used due to their potential clinical significance. Xenograft models that progress from one state or stage to another are commonly used to address important scientific questions including malignant transformation, metastatic spread, and castration resistance...
September 8, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946056/tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-suppresses-adipogenic-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cell-by-inhibiting-mir-21-spry1-functional-axis
#7
Nan Yang, Yang Li, Guang Wang, Yin Ding, Yan Jin, Yiquan Xu
Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease that leads to progressive destruction of periodontal tissue. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are the most favorable candidate for the reconstruction of tissues destroyed by periodontal diseases. PDLSCs derived from inflammatory microenvironment show attenuated differentiation potential, however the mechanism is still unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of posttranscriptional regulators, and they play key roles in regulating cell differentiation...
September 1, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918284/new-insights-into-human-female-reproductive-tract-development
#8
Stanley J Robboy, Takeshi Kurita, Laurence Baskin, Gerald R Cunha
We present a detailed review of the embryonic and fetal development of the human female reproductive tract utilizing specimens from the 5th through the 22nd gestational week. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) as well as immunohistochemical stains were used to study the development of the human uterine tube, endometrium, myometrium, uterine cervix and vagina. Our study revisits and updates the classical reports of Koff (1933) and Bulmer (1957) and presents new data on development of human vaginal epithelium. Koff proposed that the upper 4/5ths of the vagina is derived from Müllerian epithelium and the lower 1/5th derived from urogenital sinus epithelium, while Bulmer proposed that vaginal epithelium derives solely from urogenital sinus epithelium...
August 11, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802143/extrinsic-control-of-wnt-signaling-in-the-intestine
#9
REVIEW
Stefan Koch
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a central regulator of development and tissue homeostasis. In the intestine, Wnt signaling is primarily known as the principal organizer of epithelial stem cell identity and proliferation. Within the last decade, numerous scientific breakthroughs have shed light on epithelial self-organization in the gut, and organoids are now routinely used to study stem cell biology and intestinal pathophysiology. The contribution of non-epithelial cells to Wnt signaling in the gut has received less attention...
August 5, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802115/production-of-high-purity-alveolar-like-cells-from-ipscs-through-depletion-of-uncommitted-cells-after-afe-induction
#10
Adam Mitchell, Charles T Drinnan, Todd Jensen, Christine Finck
Protocols to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into specialized cells are continually evolving. iPSCs can be differentiated to alveolar cells with protocols that focus on development, specifically by inducing differentiation into definitive endoderm (DE), anterior foregut endoderm (AFE) and then lung bud progenitor intermediaries. However, current protocols result in a relatively low yield of the desired alveolar cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether depleting uncommitted cells after AFE induction would have a beneficial effect on alveolar cell yield...
August 3, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053991/molecular-mechanisms-of-development-of-the-human-fetal-female-reproductive-tract
#11
Gerald R Cunha, Takeshi Kurita, Mei Cao, Joel Shen, Stanley Robboy, Laurence Baskin
Human female reproductive tract development rests mostly upon hematoxilyn and eosin stained sections despite recent advances on molecular mechanisms in mouse studies. We report application of immunohistochemical methods to explore the ontogeny of epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation markers (keratins, homobox proteins, steroid receptors), transcription factors and signaling molecules (TP63 and RUNX1) during human female reproductive tract development. Keratins 6, 7, 8, 10, 14 and 19 (KRT6, KRT7, KRT8, KRT10, KRT14, KRT19) were expressed in a temporally and spatially dynamic fashion...
July 29, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753444/effect-of-matrix-stiffness-on-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Juanjuan Xu, Meiyu Sun, Ye Tan, Haowei Wang, Heping Wang, Pengdong Li, Ziran Xu, Yuhan Xia, Lisha Li, Yulin Li
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a compatible cellular alternative for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering because of their powerful multipotency. Matrix stiffness plays a profound role on stem cell behavior. Nevertheless, the effect of matrix stiffness on umbilical cordmesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) remains unexplored. To conduct an in-depth exploration, we cultured UC-MSCs on different stiffness (Young's modulus: 13-16, 35-38, 48-53, and 62-68 kPa) polyacrylamide gels coated with fibronectin. We found that the proliferation and adhesion of UC-MSCs varied when cultured on the different matrices, and the spreading capacity was stronger as the stiffness increased (*P<0...
July 21, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915407/differentiation-and-sarcomere-formation-in-skeletal-myocytes-directly-prepared-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-a-sphere-based-culture
#13
Saowanee Jiwlawat, Eileen Lynch, Jennifer Glaser, Ivy Smit-Oistad, Jeremy Jeffrey, Jonathan M Van Dyke, Masatoshi Suzuki
Human induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising resource for propagation of myogenic progenitors. Our group recently reported a unique protocol for the derivation of myogenic progenitors directly (without genetic modification) from human pluripotent cells using free-floating spherical culture. Here we expand our previous efforts and attempt to determine how differentiation duration, culture surface coatings, and nutrient supplements in the medium influence progenitor differentiation and formation of skeletal myotubes containing sarcomeric structures...
July 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800482/targeting-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#14
REVIEW
Douglas W Strand, Daniel N Costa, Franto Francis, William A Ricke, Claus G Roehrborn
Benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tract symptoms remain difficult to treat medically, resulting in hundreds of thousands of surgeries performed annually in elderly males. New therapies have not improved clinical outcomes since alpha blockers and 5 alpha reductase inhibitors were introduced in the 1990s. An underappreciated confounder to identifying novel targets is pathological heterogeneity. Individual patients display unique phenotypes, composed of distinct cell types. We have yet to develop a cellular or molecular understanding of these unique phenotypes, which has led to failure in developing targeted therapies for personalized medicine...
July 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779656/interaction-of-prostate-carcinoma-associated-fibroblasts-with-human-epithelial-cell-lines-in-vivo
#15
REVIEW
Takeshi Sasaki, Omar E Franco, Simon W Hayward
Stromal-epithelial interactions play a crucial and poorly understood role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions have a long history of research in relation to the development of organs. Models designed to study development are often also applicable to studies of benign and malignant disease. Tumor stroma is a complex mixture of cells that includes a fibroblastic component often referred to as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), desmoplasia or "reactive" stroma. Here we discuss the history of, and approaches to, understanding these interactions with particular reference to prostate cancer and to in vivo modeling using human cells and tissues...
July 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628852/skin-regeneration-in-three-dimensions-current-status-challenges-and-opportunities
#16
REVIEW
Ahmed T El-Serafi, Ibrahim T El-Serafi, Moustafa Elmasry, Ingrid Steinvall, Folke Sjöberg
Skin regeneration is a life-saving need for many patients, whom list is stretched from burn victims to motor-car accidents. Spraying cells, either keratinocytes or stem cells, were associated with variable results and, in many cases, unfavorable outcomes. As the spatial configuration of the skin is distinctive, many trials investigated the bio-printing or the construction of three dimensional skin models where different layers of the skin were preserved. Although some of these models showed the histological configuration of the skin, their acceptance by the wound was questionable as a consequence of delayed vascularization...
June 15, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609676/hepatocellular-differentiation-status-is-characterized-by-distinct-subnuclear-localization-and-form-of-the-chanzyme-trpm7
#17
Adenike Ogunrinde, Robyn D Pereira, Natalie Beaton, D Hung Lam, Christiane Whetstone, Ceredwyn E Hill
The channel-kinase TRPM7 is important for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation, of many cell types. Both plasma membrane channel activity and kinase function are implicated in these roles. Channel activity is greater in less differentiated hepatoma cells compared with non-dividing, terminally differentiated adult hepatocytes, suggesting differences in protein expression and/or localization. We used electrophysiological and immunofluorescence approaches to establish whether hepatocellular differentiation is associated with altered TRPM7 expression...
June 10, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554048/ascorbic-acid-mediated-enhanced-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-of-mouse-es-cells-involves-interplay-of-dna-methylation-and-multiple-signals
#18
Deepti Abbey, Polani B Seshagiri
Embryonic stem cells (ES-cells) provide a good model system to study lineage-specific differentiation. Though, the differentiation of ES-cells to cardiomyocytes is documented, a clear understanding of the molecular mechanism of differentiation and improved functional-differentiation efficiency are yet to be achieved. In this regard, ascorbic acid (Aa) is shown to be one of the effective cardiac inducers in ES-cells. But, its mechanism is poorly understood. We therefore, investigated the mechanism of Aa-mediated cardiomyocyte differentiation of ES-cells...
May 10, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511052/phosphate-regulates-chondrogenesis-in-a-biphasic-and-maturation-dependent-manner
#19
Biming Wu, Emily K Durisin, Joseph T Decker, Evran E Ural, Lonnie D Shea, Rhima M Coleman
Inorganic phosphate (Pi) has been recognized as an important signaling molecule that modulates chondrocyte maturation and cartilage mineralization. However, conclusive experimental evidence for its involvement in early chondrogenesis is still lacking. Here, using high-density monolayer (2D) and pellet (3D) culture models of chondrogenic ATDC5 cells, we demonstrate that the cell response to Pi does not correlate with the Pi concentration in the culture medium but is better predicted by the availability of Pi on a per cell basis (Pi abundance)...
May 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319735/different-combinations-of-growth-factors-for-the-tenogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-monolayer-culture-and-in-fibrin-based-three-dimensional-constructs
#20
Marta Bottagisio, Silvia Lopa, Valentina Granata, Giuseppe Talò, Chiara Bazzocchi, Matteo Moretti, Arianna Barbara Lovati
Tendon injuries are severe burdens in clinics. The poor tendon healing is related to an ineffective response of resident cells and inadequate vascularization. Thanks to the high proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation capability, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a promising cell source to support the tendon repair. To date, the association of various growth factors to induce the in vitro tenogenic differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells is poorly investigated. This study aimed to investigate the tenogenic differentiation of rabbit BMSCs by testing the combination of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-12 and 14) with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) both in 2D and 3D cultures within fibrin-based constructs...
May 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
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