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Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity

Benjamin J Colleypriest, Zoë D Burke, Leonard P Griffiths, Yu Chen, Wei-Yuan Yu, Ramiro Jover, Michael Bock, Leigh Biddlestone, Jonathan M Quinlan, Stephen G Ward, J Mark Farrant, Jonathan M W Slack, David Tosh
Barrett's metaplasia is the only known morphological precursor to oesophageal adenocarcinoma and is characterized by replacement of stratified squamous epithelium by columnar epithelium. The cell of origin is uncertain and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the change in cellular phenotype are poorly understood. We therefore explored the role of two transcription factors, Cdx2 and HNF4α in the conversion using primary organ cultures. Biopsy samples from cases of human Barrett's metaplasia were analysed for the presence of CDX2 and HNF4α...
November 19, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Rahul Kumar, Anja Ciprianidis, Susanne Theiß, Herbert Steinbeißer, Lilian T Kaufmann
The Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway directs cell migration during vertebrate gastrulation and is essential for proper embryonic development. Paraxial protocadherin (PAPC, Gene Symbol pcdh8.2) is an important activator of Wnt/PCP signaling during Xenopus gastrulation, but how PAPC activity is controlled is incompletely understood. Here we show that Nemo-like kinase 1 (Nlk1), an atypical mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, physically associates with the C-terminus of PAPC. This interaction mutually stabilizes both proteins by inhibiting polyubiquitination...
October 28, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Vincent Grassot, Amel Bouchatal, Anne Da Silva, Sandrine Chantepie, Dulce Papy-Garcia, Abderrahman Maftah, Paul-François Gallet, Jean-Michel Petit
In vitro, extracted muscle satellite cells, called myogenic progenitor cells, can differentiate either in myotubes or preadipocytes, depending on environmental factors and the medium. Transcriptomic analyses on glycosylation genes during satellite cells differentiation into myotubes showed that 31 genes present a significant variation of expression at the early stages of murine myogenic progenitor cells (MPC) differentiation. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of 383 glycosylation related genes during murine MPC differentiation into preadipocytes and compared the data to those previously obtained during their differentiation into myotubes...
September 27, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Nobuaki Ozeki, Naoko Hase, Naoya Higuchi, Taiki Hiyama, Hideyuki Yamaguchi, Rie Kawai, Toru Matsumoto, Kazuhiko Nakata, Makio Mogi
While human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells have potential use in regenerative medicine, there are no reports on odontoblastic differentiation of hiPS cells. In the current study, to examine integrin profiles and explore the early signaling cascade of odontoblastic differentiation in hiPS cells, we investigated the regulation of autophagy-related gene (Atg) and wingless/int1 (Wnt) signaling in gelatin scaffold (GS) combined with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 (GS/BMP-4)-mediated odontoblastic differentiation...
September 15, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Mallika Pathania, Yan Wang, Vladimir N Simirskii, Melinda K Duncan
Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface molecules that mediate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion, ECM assembly, and regulation of both ECM and growth factor induced signaling. However, the developmental context of these diverse functions is not clear. Loss of β1-integrin from the lens vesicle (mouse E10.5) results in abnormal exit of anterior lens epithelial cells (LECs) from the cell cycle and their aberrant elongation toward the presumptive cornea by E12.5. These cells lose expression of LEC markers and initiate expression of the Maf (also known as c-Maf) and Prox1 transcription factors as well as other lens fiber cell markers...
September 2, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Milena B Furtado
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Daniel Karin, Yukinori Koyama, David Brenner, Tatiana Kisseleva
Liver fibrosis results from chronic injury of hepatocytes and activation of Collagen Type I producing myofibroblasts that produce fibrous scar in liver fibrosis. Myofibroblasts are not present in the normal liver but rapidly appear early in experimental and clinical liver injury. The origin of the myofibroblast in liver fibrosis is still unresolved. The possibilities include activation of liver resident cells including portal fibroblasts, hepatic stellate cells, mesenchymal progenitor cells, and fibrocytes recruited from the bone marrow...
August 30, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Bahram Amiri, Marzieh Ghollasi, Mohsen Shahrousvand, Mehdi Kamali, Ali Salimi
Tissue engineering has attracted a great deal of interest by combining fibrous scaffolds and stem cells regarding bone regeneration applications. In the present study, polymeric fibrous polyethersulphone-polyethylene glycol (PES-PEG) was fabricated by electrospinning. It was then treated with NH3 plasma to enhance surface hydrophilicity, cell attachment, growth and differentiation potential. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were used to evaluate the modification of the scaffold's surface chemistry...
August 26, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Robert G McKinnell, Debra L Carlson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 6, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Jie Yang, Junnai Wang, Zhen Zeng, Long Qiao, Liang Zhuang, Lijun Jiang, Juncheng Wei, Quanfu Ma, Mingfu Wu, Shuangmei Ye, Qinglei Gao, Ding Ma, Xiaoyuan Huang
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates cellular functions and plays key roles in development and carcinogenesis. Smad4 is the central intracellular mediator of TGF-beta signaling and plays crucial roles in tissue regeneration, cell differentiation, embryonic development, regulation of the immune system and tumor progression. To clarify the role of smad4 in development, we examined both the pattern of smad4 expression in zebrafish embryos and the effect of smad4 suppression on embryonic development using smad4-specific antisense morpholino-oligonucleotides...
July 28, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Milena B Furtado, Mauro W Costa, Nadia A Rosenthal
The mammalian heart is responsible for supplying blood to two separate circulation circuits in a parallel manner. This design provides efficient oxygenation and nutrients to the whole body through the left-sided pump, while the right-sided pump delivers blood to the pulmonary circulation for re-oxygenation. In order to achieve this demanding job, the mammalian heart evolved into a highly specialised organ comprised of working contractile cells or cardiomyocytes, a directional and insulated conduction system, capable of independently generating and conducting electric impulses that synchronises chamber contraction, valves that allow the generation of high pressure and directional blood flow into the circulation, coronary circulation, that supplies oxygenated blood for the heart muscle high metabolically active pumping role and inlet/outlet routes, as the venae cavae and pulmonary veins, aorta and pulmonary trunk...
July 12, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Joel Shen, Maya Overland, Adriane Sinclair, Mei Cao, Xuan Yue, Gerald Cunha, Laurence Baskin
We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization ("opening zipper") opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion ("closing zipper") closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris...
July 5, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Behnam Ebrahimi
Hundreds of transcription factors (TFs) are expressed and work in each cell type, but the identity of the cells is defined and maintained through the activity of a small number of core TFs. Existing reprogramming strategies predominantly focus on the ectopic expression of core TFs of an intended fate in a given cell type regardless of the state of native/somatic gene regulatory networks (GRNs) of the starting cells. Interestingly, an important point is that how much products of the reprogramming, transdifferentiation and differentiation (programming) are identical to their in vivo counterparts...
July 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Tina Jubin, Ashlesha Kadam, Shweta Saran, Rasheedunnisa Begum
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 regulates various biological processes like DNA repair, cell death etc. However, the role of PARP-1 in growth and differentiation still remains elusive. The present study has been undertaken to understand the role of PARP-1 in growth and development of a unicellular eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum. In silico analysis demonstrates ADPRT1A as the ortholog of human PARP-1 in D. discoideum. The present study shows that ADPRT1A overexpression (A OE) led to slow growth of D...
July 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Monika Saxena, Paritosh Prashar, Prem Swaroop Yadav, Jonaki Sen
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are a source of autologous stem cells that have the potential for undergoing differentiation into multiple cell types including neurons. Although the neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells has been studied for a long time, the molecular players involved are still not defined. Here we report that the genetic deletion of two members of the bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) family, Bmp2 and Bmp4 in mouse BMSCs causes their differentiation into cells with neuron-like morphology...
July 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Sami G Almalki, Devendra K Agrawal
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that represent a promising source for regenerative medicine. MSCs are capable of osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic and myogenic differentiation. Efficacy of differentiated MSCs to regenerate cells in the injured tissues requires the ability to maintain the differentiation toward the desired cell fate. Since MSCs represent an attractive source for autologous transplantation, cellular and molecular signaling pathways and micro-environmental changes have been studied in order to understand the role of cytokines, chemokines, and transcription factors on the differentiation of MSCs...
July 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Ann-Cathrin Volz, Birgit Huber, Petra J Kluger
The development of in vitro adipose tissue constructs is highly desired to cope with the increased demand for substitutes to replace damaged soft tissue after high graded burns, deformities or tumor removal. To achieve clinically relevant dimensions, vascularization of soft tissue constructs becomes inevitable but still poses a challenge. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represent a promising cell source for the setup of vascularized fatty tissue constructs as they can be differentiated into adipocytes and endothelial cells in vitro and are thereby available in sufficiently high cell numbers...
July 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Hyun Sook Kim, Kwon-Soo Ha, Hyeok Chan Kwon, Seung Jae Lee, Chung-Hoon Kim, Yong-Pil Cheon
Secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI) plays a role in proliferation and differentiation via the autocrine and paracrine systems. SLPI's expression is well-documented in the reproductive tract, but it remains unclear whether it is active during early embryonic development. In this study, the expression and role of Slpi in the early embryo were evaluated. In vitro embryo cultures in chemically defined simple medium resulted in a reduction in developmental speed from the 8-cell stage, as well as implantation rate compared with in vivo embryos...
July 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Jessica M Swonger, Jocelyn S Liu, Malina J Ivey, Michelle D Tallquist
The use of mouse genetic tools to track and manipulate fibroblasts has provided invaluable in vivo information regarding the activities of these cells. Recently, many new mouse strains have been described for the specific purpose of studying fibroblast behavior. Colorimetric reporter mice and lines expressing Cre are available for the study of fibroblasts in the organs prone to fibrosis, including heart, kidney, liver, lung, and skeletal muscle. In this review we summarize the current state of the models that have been used to define tissue resident fibroblast populations...
June 21, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Shuling Zhou, Anna Ochalek, Karolina Szczesna, Hasan X Avci, Julianna Kobolák, Eszter Varga, Mikkel Rasmussen, Bjørn Holst, Susanna Cirera, Poul Hyttel, Kristine K Freude, András Dinnyés
Neural rosettes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been claimed to be a highly robust in vitro cellular model for biomedical application. They are able to propagate in vitro in the presence of mitogens, including basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). However, these two mitogens are also involved in anterior-posterior patterning in a gradient dependent manner along the neural tube axis. Here, we compared the regional identity of neural rosette cells and specific neural subtypes of their progeny propagated with low and high concentrations of bFGF and EGF...
June 16, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
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