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Surgical Pathology

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29 papers 0 to 25 followers
By Jose M. Barria Castro MD from Panama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30385094/morphologic-and-molecular-features-of-breast-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#1
REVIEW
Souzan Sanati
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of lesions that differ with regard to their clinical presentations, histologic features, biomarker profiles, genetic abnormalities, and potential for progression. DCIS is a non-obligatory precursor for invasive carcinoma. With the advent of screening mammography the incidence of DCIS has significantly increased. There is an argument that many of these lesions will not progress to invasive carcinoma within the lifetime of a patient. In addition, many studies have shown enormous heterogeneity within DCIS...
October 29, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258209/cervical-adenosquamous-carcinoma-detailed-analysis-of-morphology-immunohistochemical-profile-and-clinical-outcomes-in-59-cases
#2
Simona Stolnicu, Lien Hoang, Orsolya Hanko-Bauer, Iulia Barsan, Cristina Terinte, Anna Pesci, Sarit Aviel-Ronen, Takako Kiyokawa, Isabel Alvarado-Cabrero, Esther Oliva, Kay J Park, Robert A Soslow
Although 2014 World Health Organization criteria require unequivocal glandular and squamous differentiation for a diagnosis of cervical adenosquamous carcinoma, in practice, adenosquamous carcinoma diagnoses are often made in tumors that lack unequivocal squamous and/or glandular differentiation. Considering the ambiguous etiologic, morphological, and clinical features and outcomes associated with adenosquamous carcinomas, we sought to redefine these tumors. We reviewed slides from 59 initially diagnosed adenosquamous carcinomas (including glassy cell carcinoma and related lesions) to confirm an adenosquamous carcinoma diagnosis only in the presence of unequivocal malignant glandular and squamous differentiation...
September 26, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273605/functional-role-of-micrornas-in-the-progression-of-breast-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#3
REVIEW
Bethany N Hannafon, Wei-Qun Ding
microRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that influence gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Depending on the function of their target genes, miRNAs may regulate the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, thereby contributing to the promotion or inhibition of tumor progression. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), although often diagnosed as breast cancer, is a potential precursor to invasive ductal carcinoma. Many of the genetic events required for the invasive progression of DCIS occur at the pre-invasive stage, and these events include changes to the expression of miRNAs...
September 28, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232607/-high-grade-oncocytic-renal-tumor-morphologic-immunohistochemical-and-molecular-genetic-study-of-14-cases
#4
Huiying He, Kiril Trpkov, Petr Martinek, Ozlem Tanas Isikci, Cristina Maggi-Galuzzi, Reza Alaghehbandan, Anthony J Gill, Maria Tretiakova, Jose Ignacio Lopez, Sean R Williamson, Delia Perez Montiel, Maris Sperga, Eva Comperat, Fadi Brimo, Ali Yilmaz, Kristyna Pivovarcikova, Kveta Michalova, David Slouka, Kristyna Prochazkova, Milan Hora, Michael Bonert, Michal Michal, Ondrej Hes
The spectrum of the renal oncocytic tumors has been expanded in recent years to include several novel and emerging entities. We describe a cohort of novel, hitherto unrecognized and morphologically distinct high-grade oncocytic tumors (HOT), currently diagnosed as "unclassified" in the WHO classification. We identified 14 HOT by searching multiple institutional archives. Morphologic, immunohistochemical (IHC), molecular genetic, and molecular karyotyping studies were performed to investigate these tumors...
December 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30258663/liposarcoma-in-the-inguinal-canal-challenges-in-preoperative-diagnosis-and-importance-of-routine-pathological-examination-of-hernia-sacs
#5
Christopher A Febres-Aldana, Jin Min, Marc Rafols, Irvin Willis, John Alexis
Liposarcoma is the most common histologic subtype of soft tissue sarcoma in the retroperitoneum. The distinction of primary cord liposarcomas, which arise in and are confined to the inguinal canal, from inguinoscrotal extension of a retroperitoneal tumor is mandatory. Both can be found incidentally in inguinal hernia sac specimens. Preoperative diagnosis is essential for adequate surgery with clear margins. We present a clinicopathological correlation of two men with slowly growing right para-testicular masses diagnosed as inguinal hernias...
2018: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221780/sox11-a-potentially-useful-marker-in-surgical-pathology-a-systematic-analysis-of-sox11-expression-in-epithelial-and-nonepithelial-tumors
#6
Sanpeng Xu, Yuting Dong, Zitian Huo, Lu Yu, Jin Xue, Guoping Wang, Yaqi Duan
AIMS: SOX11 is known as an essential transcription factor for regulating neurogenesis. Recently, SOX11 has been suggested to be a diagnostic marker and oncogene because of its significant expression in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). However, SOX11 expression in other tumor types has not been extensively studied yet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein, we examined SOX11 expression in 2026 cases of neuroectodermal, germ cell, mesenchymal, and epithelial tumors by immunohistochemistry...
September 17, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212392/satb2-is-superior-to-cdx2-in-distinguishing-signet-ring-cell-carcinoma-of-the-upper-gastrointestinal-tract-and-lower-gastrointestinal-tract
#7
Changqing Ma, Brett M Lowenthal, Reetesh K Pai
Signet ring cell carcinomas of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are clinically aggressive neoplasms with frequent intra-abdominal metastases at initial presentation. Currently available immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers cannot distinguish signet ring cell carcinomas of the lower GI tract and upper GI tract, suggesting the need for more specific diagnostic markers. SATB2 is a novel, sensitive marker for colorectal carcinoma. We hypothesized that SATB2 IHC can reliably identify primary and metastatic signet ring cell carcinomas of lower GI tract origin...
December 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212867/a-proposal-for-separation-of-nuclear-atypia-and-architectural-atypia-in-bethesda-category-iii-aus-flus-based-on-differing-rates-of-thyroid-malignancy
#8
Daniel N Johnson, Allison B Cavallo, Imran Uraizee, Kevin Tanager, Ricardo R Lastra, Tatjana Antic, Nicole A Cipriani
Objectives: Bethesda category III (atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance) includes sparsely cellular specimens with nuclear atypia (3N) and/or architectural atypia (3A). This study investigates whether the two types of atypia have different rates of malignancy (ROMs). Methods: Cytologic and histologic diagnoses of resected thyroid nodules were recorded. ROM was calculated for all Bethesda categories and for 3N and 3A subcategories...
September 13, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413656/precursor-lesions-of-the-low-grade-breast-neoplasia-pathway
#9
REVIEW
Laura C Collins
The nonobligate precursor lesions columnar cell change/hyperplasia and flat epithelial atypia, atypical ductal hyperplasia and atypical lobular hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ, and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ share morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features supporting the existence of a low-grade breast neoplasia pathway. The practical implication for pathologists is that the identification of one of these lesions should prompt careful search for others. From a clinical management perspective, however, their designation as "precursor lesions" should not be overemphasized, as the risk of progression among the earliest lesions is exceedingly low...
March 2018: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25674263/ki-67-mib-1-immunostaining-in-a-cohort-of-human-gliomas
#10
Anne J Skjulsvik, Jørgen N Mørk, Morten O Torp, Sverre H Torp
Histopathological malignancy grading of human gliomas is limited by subjective interpretation of the morphological criteria. Assessment of mitotic activity is a cornerstone of grading these tumours, but mitotic figures can be hard to identify in haematoxylin-eosin stained sections. Thus, determining proliferative activity by means of Ki-67/MIB-1 immunostaining has become a useful supplement. However, this method has drawbacks, so continuous testing and evaluation are required for optimization and standardization...
2014: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333309/intraperitoneal-granulomas-unexpectedly-found-during-a-cesarean-delivery-a-late-complication-of-dropped-gallstones
#11
David A Suarez-Zamora, Luis E Barrera-Herrera, Ricardo Caceres-Mileo, Mauricio A Palau-Lazaro
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice for patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis. Spillage of gallstones into the abdominal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy occurs in approximately one-third of cases. Although retained gallstones remain asymptomatic, few cases may develop complications. We report the case of a 29-year-old nulliparous woman presenting with several hard nodules in the omentum, raising the possibility of a metastatic disease. Histological examination demonstrated a bile-stained material and a foreign body-type granulomatous response without neoplastic tissue...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140757/new-insights-into-lymphoma-pathogenesis
#12
Kojo S J Elenitoba-Johnson, Megan S Lim
Lymphomas represent clonal proliferations of lymphocytes that are broadly classified based upon their maturity (peripheral or mature versus precursor) and lineage (B cell, T cell, and natural killer cell). Insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in lymphoma impact the classification of lymphoma and have significant implications for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients. Serial scientific and technologic advances over the last 30 years in immunology, cytogenetics, molecular biology, gene expression profiling, mass spectrometry-based proteomics, and, more recently, next-generation sequencing have contributed to greatly enhance our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms in lymphoma...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195051/the-glymphatic-system-in-central-nervous-system-health-and-disease-past-present-and-future
#13
Benjamin A Plog, Maiken Nedergaard
The central nervous system (CNS) is unique in being the only organ system lacking lymphatic vessels to assist in the removal of interstitial metabolic waste products. Recent work has led to the discovery of the glymphatic system, a glial-dependent perivascular network that subserves a pseudolymphatic function in the brain. Within the glymphatic pathway, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the brain via periarterial spaces, passes into the interstitium via perivascular astrocytic aquaporin-4, and then drives the perivenous drainage of interstitial fluid (ISF) and its solute...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189064/the-updated-world-health-organization-glioma-classification-cellular-and-molecular-origins-of-adult-infiltrating-gliomas
#14
REVIEW
David J Pisapia
CONTEXT: - In the recently updated World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors, our concept of infiltrating gliomas as a molecular dichotomy between oligodendroglial and astrocytic tumors has been codified. Advances in animal models of glioma and a wealth of sophisticated molecular analyses of human glioma tissue have led to a greater understanding of some of the biologic underpinnings of gliomagenesis. OBJECTIVE: - To review our understanding of gliomagenesis in the setting of the recently updated WHO classification of central nervous system tumors...
December 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905666/second-opinion-expert-pathology-review-in-bladder-cancer-implications-for-patient-care
#15
Jennifer Gordetsky, Robin Collingwood, Win Shun Lai, Maria Del Carmen Rodriquez Pena, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
OBJECTIVES: To review bladder specimens referred to our facility for secondary review to determine the frequency and degree of changes in pathological diagnoses, which could affect patient care. METHODS: A retrospective review of 246 bladder specimens sent to our pathology department for second opinion pathological review was performed. All consultation specimens were reviewed by a single genitourinary (GU)-subspecialized surgical pathologist. Any changes in the pathological grade, stage, or histological tumor type were noted as well as patient demographic data...
February 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877052/diagnostic-efficiency-in-digital-pathology-a-comparison-of-optical-versus-digital-assessment-in-510-surgical-pathology-cases
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Anne M Mills, Sarah E Gradecki, Bethany J Horton, Rebecca Blackwell, Christopher A Moskaluk, James W Mandell, Stacey E Mills, Helen P Cathro
Prior work has shown that digital images and microscopic slides can be interpreted with comparable diagnostic accuracy. Although accuracy has been well-validated, the interpretative time for digital images has scarcely been studied and concerns about efficiency remain a major barrier to adoption. We investigated the efficiency of digital pathology when compared with glass slide interpretation in the diagnosis of surgical pathology biopsy and resection specimens. Slides were pulled from 510 surgical pathology cases from 5 organ systems (gastrointestinal, gynecologic, liver, bladder, and brain)...
January 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877064/desmoplastic-pattern-at-the-tumor-front-defines-poor-prognosis-subtypes-of-colorectal-cancer
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
Hideki Ueno, Yukihide Kanemitsu, Shigeki Sekine, Megumi Ishiguro, Eisaku Ito, Yojiro Hashiguchi, Fukuo Kondo, Hideyuki Shimazaki, Satsuki Mochizuki, Yoshiki Kajiwara, Eiji Shinto, Junji Yamamoto
Although recent findings of cancer biology research indicate that prognostic power arises from genes expressed by stromal cells rather than epithelial cells, desmoplastic reaction (DR) has not been completely examined as a prognostic marker for colorectal cancer. A pathologic review of 821 stage II and III patients who underwent R0 resection for colorectal cancer at 4 independent institutions was conducted. DR was classified as mature, intermediate, or immature based on the existence of hyalinized keloid-like collagen and myxoid stroma at the extramural desmoplastic front...
November 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611977/clinicopathology-of-early-gastric-carcinoma-an-update-for-pathologists-and-gastroenterologists
#18
REVIEW
Qin Huang, Xiaoping Zou
BACKGROUND: The WHO defines early gastric carcinoma (EGC) as invasive carcinoma up to the submucosal layer, regardless of nodal metastasis. The recent study results indicate that EGC varies in location, histology, nodal metastasis, and prognosis. SUMMARY: The heterogeneity in EGC may be related to various types of epithelial stem cells. The most important stem cells include Lgr5+ cells at the base of a gastric unit in the antrum-pylorus-cardia, Mist1+ cells at the isthmus/Troy+ cells at the base in the corpus-fundus, and Sox2+ cells at the base in almost all regions...
March 2017: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751996/leiomyosarcoma-and-squamous-cell-carcinoma-arising-in-mature-cystic-teratoma-of-the-ovary
#19
Tip Pongsuvareeyakul, Kornkanok Sukpan, Somjet Chaicharoen, Surapan Khunamornpong
The occurrence of malignant transformation in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is rare, with squamous cell carcinoma being the most common histologic type. Sarcomatous transformation has been rarely described in the literature. We present a case of leiomyosarcoma with a minor component of squamous cell carcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of ovary in a 65-year-old woman. The malignant tumor showed two distinct components of sarcomatous and invasive epithelial elements, which were confirmed by immunostaining...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890838/adenocarcinoma-ex-goblet-cell-carcinoid-of-appendix-two-case-reports
#20
Yu-Ting Wang, Yi-Ru Li, Tuan-Ying Ke
Adenocarcinoma ex goblet cell carcinoid is a rare tumor incidentally found in specimens of appendicitis. Most patients present with acute abdomen, similar to acute appendicitis. Here we present two cases, which were found incidentally after operation. We give a brief summary about clinical and biological behavior of this entity.
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
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