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Global Health

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25 papers 500 to 1000 followers
By Emma Sizemore MD/MPH student at Emory University going into EM
Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Jai K Das, Rajiv Bahl, Joy E Lawn, Rehana A Salam, Vinod K Paul, M Jeeva Sankar, Jeeva M Sankar, Hannah Blencowe, Arjumand Rizvi, Victoria B Chou, Neff Walker
Progress in newborn survival has been slow, and even more so for reductions in stillbirths. To meet Every Newborn targets of ten or fewer neonatal deaths and ten or fewer stillbirths per 1000 births in every country by 2035 will necessitate accelerated scale-up of the most effective care targeting major causes of newborn deaths. We have systematically reviewed interventions across the continuum of care and various delivery platforms, and then modelled the effect and cost of scale-up in the 75 high-burden Countdown countries...
July 26, 2014: Lancet
Gary Maartens, Connie Celum, Sharon R Lewin
HIV prevalence is increasing worldwide because people on antiretroviral therapy are living longer, although new infections decreased from 3.3 million in 2002, to 2.3 million in 2012. Global AIDS-related deaths peaked at 2.3 million in 2005, and decreased to 1.6 million by 2012. An estimated 9.7 million people in low-income and middle-income countries had started antiretroviral therapy by 2012. New insights into the mechanisms of latent infection and the importance of reservoirs of infection might eventually lead to a cure...
July 19, 2014: Lancet
Francisco J Luquero, Lise Grout, Iza Ciglenecki, Keita Sakoba, Bala Traore, Melat Heile, Alpha Amadou Diallo, Christian Itama, Anne-Laure Page, Marie-Laure Quilici, Martin A Mengel, Jose Maria Eiros, Micaela Serafini, Dominique Legros, Rebecca F Grais
BACKGROUND: The use of vaccines to prevent and control cholera is currently under debate. Shanchol is one of the two oral cholera vaccines prequalified by the World Health Organization; however, its effectiveness under field conditions and the protection it confers in the first months after administration remain unknown. The main objective of this study was to estimate the short-term effectiveness of two doses of Shanchol used as a part of the integrated response to a cholera outbreak in Africa...
May 29, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Stephanie R Bialek, Donna Allen, Francisco Alvarado-Ramy, Ray Arthur, Arunmozhi Balajee, David Bell, Susan Best, Carina Blackmore, Lucy Breakwell, Andrew Cannons, Clive Brown, Martin Cetron, Nora Chea, Christina Chommanard, Nicole Cohen, Craig Conover, Antonio Crespo, Jeanean Creviston, Aaron T Curns, Rebecca Dahl, Stephanie Dearth, Alfred DeMaria, Fred Echols, Dean D Erdman, Daniel Feikin, Mabel Frias, Susan I Gerber, Reena Gulati, Christa Hale, Lia M Haynes, Lea Heberlein-Larson, Kelly Holton, Kashef Ijaz, Minal Kapoor, Katrin Kohl, David T Kuhar, Alan M Kumar, Marianne Kundich, Susan Lippold, Lixia Liu, Judith C Lovchik, Larry Madoff, Sandra Martell, Sarah Matthews, Jessica Moore, Linda R Murray, Shauna Onofrey, Mark A Pallansch, Nicki Pesik, Huong Pham, Satish Pillai, Pam Pontones, Kimberly Pringle, Scott Pritchard, Sonja Rasmussen, Shawn Richards, Michelle Sandoval, Eileen Schneider, Anne Schuchat, Kristine Sheedy, Kevin Sherin, David L Swerdlow, Jordan W Tappero, Michael O Vernon, Sharon Watkins, John Watson
Since mid-March 2014, the frequency with which cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection have been reported has increased, with the majority of recent cases reported from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In addition, the frequency with which travel-associated MERS cases have been reported and the number of countries that have reported them to the World Health Organization (WHO) have also increased. The first case of MERS in the United States, identified in a traveler recently returned from Saudi Arabia, was reported to CDC by the Indiana State Department of Health on May 1, 2014, and confirmed by CDC on May 2...
May 16, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Edna K Moturi, Kimberly A Porter, Steven G F Wassilak, Rudolf H Tangermann, Ousmane M Diop, Cara C Burns, Hamid Jafari
In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide, and in 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of global polio eradication a programmatic emergency for public health. By 2013, the annual number of WPV cases had decreased by >99% since 1988, and only three countries remained that had never interrupted WPV transmission: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. This report summarizes global progress toward polio eradication during 2013-2014 and updates previous reports...
May 30, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Joseph L Dieleman, Casey M Graves, Tara Templin, Elizabeth Johnson, Ranju Baral, Katherine Leach-Kemon, Annie M Haakenstad, Christopher J L Murray
Tracking development assistance for health for low- and middle-income countries gives policy makers information about spending patterns and potential improvements in resource allocation. We tracked the flows of development assistance and explored the relationship between national income, disease burden, and assistance. We estimated that development assistance for health reached US$31.3 billion in 2013. Increased assistance from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria; the GAVI Alliance; and bilateral agencies in the United Kingdom helped raise funding to the highest level to date...
May 2014: Health Affairs
M Banu, M Akter, K Begum, R H Choudhury, H E Nasreen
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of a community-based intervention in reducing delays in accessing emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in rural Bangladesh, and the factors associated with delayed decision making, reaching the health facility and receiving treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study. METHODS: Multistage random sampling was used to select 540 villages, from which 1200 women who reported obstetric complications in March-April 2010 were interviewed...
April 2014: Public Health
Samira Asma, Yang Song, Joanna Cohen, Michael Eriksen, Terry Pechacek, Nicole Cohen, John Iskander
During the 20th century, use of tobacco products contributed to the deaths of 100 million persons worldwide. In 2011, approximately 6 million additional deaths were linked to tobacco use, the world's leading underlying cause of death, responsible for more deaths each year than human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis, and malaria combined. One third to one half of lifetime users die from tobacco products, and smokers die an average of 14 years earlier than nonsmokers...
April 4, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ana C Dammert, Jose C Galdo, Virgilio Galdo
Dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world (WHO, 2009). During the last two decades, the dramatic rise in the number of dengue infections has been particularly evident in Latin American and the Caribbean countries. This paper examines the experimental evidence of the effectiveness of mobile phone technology in improving households' health preventive behavior in dengue-endemic areas. The main results suggest that repeated exposure to health information encourages households' uptake of preventive measures against dengue...
May 2014: Journal of Health Economics
Olagoke Akintola, Lydia Hangulu
The majority of HIV and AIDS patients in sub-Saharan African countries receive health care services at home. Yet research on infection control in home-based care settings is virtually non-existent. This study explored infection control practices in home-based care in a South African province with a high HIV/TB prevalence. We conducted interviews with 10 managers of home-based care organizations and 10 focus group discussions with 80 volunteer caregivers working in high HIV/TB prevalent communities in South Africa...
2014: Global Public Health
Karen Milton, Rona Macniven, Adrian Bauman
Almost 80% of deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) occur in low- and middle-income countries. Physical inactivity is a key risk factor for NCDs. Enhancing understanding of the scientific evidence linking physical activity and health in low- and middle-income countries is important for supporting national efforts to promote physical activity and reduce NCDs in these countries. A systematic review of three electronic databases was conducted in July 2013, including large population-based epidemiological studies with adult participants, conducted in low- and middle-income countries, and published in the past 30 years...
2014: Global Public Health
Helen E Jenkins, Arielle W Tolman, Courtney M Yuen, Jonathan B Parr, Salmaan Keshavjee, Carlos M Pérez-Vélez, Marcello Pagano, Mercedes C Becerra, Ted Cohen
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis threatens to reverse recent reductions in global tuberculosis incidence. Although children younger than 15 years constitute more than 25% of the worldwide population, the global incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis disease in children has never been quantified. We aimed to estimate the regional and global annual incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children. METHODS: We developed two models: one to estimate the setting-specific risk of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among child cases of tuberculosis, and a second to estimate the setting-specific incidence of tuberculosis disease in children...
May 3, 2014: Lancet
Lixia Wang, Hui Zhang, Yunzhou Ruan, Daniel P Chin, Yinyin Xia, Shiming Cheng, Mingting Chen, Yanlin Zhao, Shiwen Jiang, Xin Du, Guangxue He, Jun Li, Shengfen Wang, Wei Chen, Caihong Xu, Fei Huang, Xiaoqiu Liu, Yu Wang
BACKGROUND: China scaled up a tuberculosis control programme (based on the directly observed treatment, short-course [DOTS] strategy) to cover half the population during the 1990s, and to the entire population after 2000. We assessed the effect of the programme. METHODS: In this longitudinal analysis, we compared data from three national tuberculosis prevalence surveys done in 1990, 2000, and 2010. The 2010 survey screened 252,940 eligible individuals aged 15 years and older at 176 investigation points, chosen by stratified random sampling from all 31 mainland provinces...
June 14, 2014: Lancet
Negar Niki Alami, Courtney M Yuen, Roque Miramontes, Robert Pratt, Sandy F Price, Thomas R Navin
In 2013, a total of 9,588 new tuberculosis (TB) cases were reported in the United States, with an incidence rate of 3.0 cases per 100,000 population, a decrease of 4.2% from 2012. This report summarizes provisional TB surveillance data reported to CDC in 2013. Although case counts and incidence rates continue to decline, certain populations are disproportionately affected. The TB incidence rate among foreign-born persons in 2013 was approximately 13 times greater than the incidence rate among U.S.-born persons, and the proportion of TB cases occurring in foreign-born persons continues to increase, reaching 64...
March 21, 2014: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Matthew DeCamp, Samuel Enumah, Daniel O'Neill, Jeremy Sugarman
Participation in short-term global health programmes for low-income countries is increasing amongst practising clinicians and trainees from high-income countries. However, few studies explicitly examine the perceptions of programme recipients. In July 2012, we conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 47 adults receiving care from Medical Ministry International, an international non-governmental organisation providing short-term medical programmes in the Dominican Republic. Thirty interviews met criteria for inclusion...
2014: Global Public Health
Nigel Crisp, Lincoln Chen
There is a global crisis of severe shortages and marked maldistribution of health professionals that is exacerbated by three great global transitions — demographic changes, epidemiologic shifts, and redistribution of the disability burden. Each of these transitions exerts a powerful force for..
March 6, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Valérie D'Acremont, Mary Kilowoko, Esther Kyungu, Sister Philipina, Willy Sangu, Judith Kahama-Maro, Christian Lengeler, Pascal Cherpillod, Laurent Kaiser, Blaise Genton
BACKGROUND: As the incidence of malaria diminishes, a better understanding of nonmalarial fever is important for effective management of illness in children. In this study, we explored the spectrum of causes of fever in African children. METHODS: We recruited children younger than 10 years of age with a temperature of 38°C or higher at two outpatient clinics--one rural and one urban--in Tanzania. Medical histories were obtained and clinical examinations conducted by means of systematic procedures...
February 27, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Quantar Balthip, J Guy Edwards
BACKGROUND: This paper reports findings on the implementation, acceptability and uptake of the screening and brief intervention programme based on the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) to help decrease substance misuse in primary care in Thailand. METHODS: Action research involving selection of suitable study areas; obtaining support for its introduction and corporation at national and local levels; training and monitoring of healthcare providers; delivery of the ASSIST-BI (brief intervention) procedure and assessments of acceptability and uptake of the procedure by patients and staff...
September 2014: Journal of Public Health
Kate Cahill, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: The workplace has potential as a setting through which large groups of people can be reached to encourage smoking cessation. OBJECTIVES: 1. To categorize workplace interventions for smoking cessation tested in controlled studies and to determine the extent to which they help workers to stop smoking.2. To collect and evaluate data on costs and cost effectiveness associated with workplace interventions. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register (July 2013), MEDLINE (1966 - July 2013), EMBASE (1985 - June 2013), and PsycINFO (to June 2013), amongst others...
February 26, 2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Abdisalan M Noor, Damaris K Kinyoki, Clara W Mundia, Caroline W Kabaria, Jonesmus W Mutua, Victor A Alegana, Ibrahima Socé Fall, Robert W Snow
BACKGROUND: Over a decade ago, the Roll Back Malaria Partnership was launched, and since then there has been unprecedented investment in malaria control. We examined the change in malaria transmission intensity during the period 2000-10 in Africa. METHODS: We assembled a geocoded and community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate standardised to the age group 2-10 years (PfPR2-10) database from across 49 endemic countries and territories in Africa from surveys undertaken since 1980...
May 17, 2014: Lancet
2014-02-26 14:23:03
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