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Climate Reality

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13 papers 0 to 25 followers
By Manuel C. Co Jr. Population Health, Urban and Built Environment, Social Determinants of Health, Informatics, Data Visualization
Terry P Hughes, James T Kerry, Mariana Álvarez-Noriega, Jorge G Álvarez-Romero, Kristen D Anderson, Andrew H Baird, Russell C Babcock, Maria Beger, David R Bellwood, Ray Berkelmans, Tom C Bridge, Ian R Butler, Maria Byrne, Neal E Cantin, Steeve Comeau, Sean R Connolly, Graeme S Cumming, Steven J Dalton, Guillermo Diaz-Pulido, C Mark Eakin, Will F Figueira, James P Gilmour, Hugo B Harrison, Scott F Heron, Andrew S Hoey, Jean-Paul A Hobbs, Mia O Hoogenboom, Emma V Kennedy, Chao-Yang Kuo, Janice M Lough, Ryan J Lowe, Gang Liu, Malcolm T McCulloch, Hamish A Malcolm, Michael J McWilliam, John M Pandolfi, Rachel J Pears, Morgan S Pratchett, Verena Schoepf, Tristan Simpson, William J Skirving, Brigitte Sommer, Gergely Torda, David R Wachenfeld, Bette L Willis, Shaun K Wilson
During 2015-2016, record temperatures triggered a pan-tropical episode of coral bleaching, the third global-scale event since mass bleaching was first documented in the 1980s. Here we examine how and why the severity of recurrent major bleaching events has varied at multiple scales, using aerial and underwater surveys of Australian reefs combined with satellite-derived sea surface temperatures. The distinctive geographic footprints of recurrent bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef in 1998, 2002 and 2016 were determined by the spatial pattern of sea temperatures in each year...
March 15, 2017: Nature
Damien A Fordham
Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity poses one of the most crucial challenges this century. Currently, we know more about how future climates are likely to shift across the globe than about how species will respond to these changes. Two recent studies show how mesocosm experiments can hasten understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change on species' extinction risk, community structure, and ecosystem functions. Using a large-scale terrestrial warming experiment, Bestion et al...
December 2015: PLoS Biology
Jeremy T Kerr, Alana Pindar, Paul Galpern, Laurence Packer, Simon G Potts, Stuart M Roberts, Pierre Rasmont, Oliver Schweiger, Sheila R Colla, Leif L Richardson, David L Wagner, Lawrence F Gall, Derek S Sikes, Alberto Pantoja
For many species, geographical ranges are expanding toward the poles in response to climate change, while remaining stable along range edges nearest the equator. Using long-term observations across Europe and North America over 110 years, we tested for climate change-related range shifts in bumblebee species across the full extents of their latitudinal and thermal limits and movements along elevation gradients. We found cross-continentally consistent trends in failures to track warming through time at species' northern range limits, range losses from southern range limits, and shifts to higher elevations among southern species...
July 10, 2015: Science
Jacob Schewe, Jens Heinke, Dieter Gerten, Ingjerd Haddeland, Nigel W Arnell, Douglas B Clark, Rutger Dankers, Stephanie Eisner, Balázs M Fekete, Felipe J Colón-González, Simon N Gosling, Hyungjun Kim, Xingcai Liu, Yoshimitsu Masaki, Felix T Portmann, Yusuke Satoh, Tobias Stacke, Qiuhong Tang, Yoshihide Wada, Dominik Wisser, Torsten Albrecht, Katja Frieler, Franziska Piontek, Lila Warszawski, Pavel Kabat
Water scarcity severely impairs food security and economic prosperity in many countries today. Expected future population changes will, in many countries as well as globally, increase the pressure on available water resources. On the supply side, renewable water resources will be affected by projected changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and other climate variables. Here we use a large ensemble of global hydrological models (GHMs) forced by five global climate models and the latest greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways) to synthesize the current knowledge about climate change impacts on water resources...
March 4, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mary B Rice, George D Thurston, John R Balmes, Kent E Pinkerton
Recent changes in the global climate system have resulted in excess mortality and morbidity, particularly among susceptible individuals with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease. These weather patterns are projected to continue and intensify as a result of rising CO2 levels, according to the most recent projections by climate scientists. In this Pulmonary Perspective, motivated by the American Thoracic Society Committees on Environmental Health Policy and International Health, we review the global human health consequences of projected changes in climate for which there is a high level of confidence and scientific evidence of health effects, with a focus on cardiopulmonary health...
March 1, 2014: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Jolyon M Medlock, Steve A Leach
During the early part of the 21st century, an unprecedented change in the status of vector-borne disease in Europe has occurred. Invasive mosquitoes have become widely established across Europe, with subsequent transmission and outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus. Malaria has re-emerged in Greece, and West Nile virus has emerged throughout parts of eastern Europe. Tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme disease, continue to increase, or, in the case of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses, have changed their geographical distribution...
June 2015: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Elvire Bestion, Aimeric Teyssier, Murielle Richard, Jean Clobert, Julien Cote
Evidence has accumulated in recent decades on the drastic impact of climate change on biodiversity. Warming temperatures have induced changes in species physiology, phenology, and have decreased body size. Such modifications can impact population dynamics and could lead to changes in life cycle and demography. More specifically, conceptual frameworks predict that global warming will severely threaten tropical ectotherms while temperate ectotherms should resist or even benefit from higher temperatures. However, experimental studies measuring the impacts of future warming trends on temperate ectotherms' life cycle and population persistence are lacking...
October 2015: PLoS Biology
Raquel A Garcia, Mar Cabeza, Carsten Rahbek, Miguel B Araújo
The 21st century is projected to witness unprecedented climatic changes, with greater warming often reported for high latitudes. Yet, climate change can be measured in a variety of ways, reflecting distinct dimensions of change with unequal spatial patterns across the world. Polar climates are projected to not only warm, but also to shrink in area. By contrast, today's hot and arid climates are expected to expand worldwide and to reach climate states with no current analog. Although rarely appreciated in combination, these multiple dimensions of change convey complementary information...
May 2, 2014: Science
Jonathan A Patz, Howard Frumkin, Tracey Holloway, Daniel J Vimont, Andrew Haines
IMPORTANCE: Health is inextricably linked to climate change. It is important for clinicians to understand this relationship in order to discuss associated health risks with their patients and to inform public policy. OBJECTIVES: To provide new US-based temperature projections from downscaled climate modeling and to review recent studies on health risks related to climate change and the cobenefits of efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA SYNTHESIS: We searched PubMed and Google Scholar from 2009 to 2014 for articles related to climate change and health, focused on governmental reports, predictive models, and empirical epidemiological studies...
October 15, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Marco Springmann, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Sherman Robinson, Tara Garnett, H Charles J Godfray, Douglas Gollin, Mike Rayner, Paola Ballon, Peter Scarborough
BACKGROUND: One of the most important consequences of climate change could be its effects on agriculture. Although much research has focused on questions of food security, less has been devoted to assessing the wider health impacts of future changes in agricultural production. In this modelling study, we estimate excess mortality attributable to agriculturally mediated changes in dietary and weight-related risk factors by cause of death for 155 world regions in the year 2050. METHODS: For this modelling study, we linked a detailed agricultural modelling framework, the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT), to a comparative risk assessment of changes in fruit and vegetable consumption, red meat consumption, and bodyweight for deaths from coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and an aggregate of other causes...
May 7, 2016: Lancet
Aileen Y Chang, Douglas O Fuller, Olveen Carrasquillo, John C Beier
Climate change should be viewed fundamentally as an issue of global justice. Understanding the complex interplay of climatic and socioeconomic trends is imperative to protect human health and lessen the burden of diseases such as dengue fever. Dengue fever is rapidly expanding globally. Temperature, rainfall, and frequency of natural disasters, as well as non-climatic trends involving population growth and migration, urbanization, and international trade and travel, are expected to increase the prevalence of mosquito breeding sites, mosquito survival, the speed of mosquito reproduction, the speed of viral incubation, the distribution of dengue virus and its vectors, human migration patterns towards urban areas, and displacement after natural disasters...
June 14, 2014: Health and Human Rights
Barack Obama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Science
David Rosner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Milbank Quarterly
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