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Climate Reality

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24 papers 0 to 25 followers
By Manuel C. Co Jr. Population Health, Urban and Built Environment, Social Determinants of Health, Informatics, Data Visualization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658207/climate-change-drives-expansion-of-antarctic-ice-free-habitat
#1
Jasmine R Lee, Ben Raymond, Thomas J Bracegirdle, Iadine Chadès, Richard A Fuller, Justine D Shaw, Aleks Terauds
Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity occurs almost exclusively in ice-free areas that cover less than 1% of the continent. Climate change will alter the extent and configuration of ice-free areas, yet the distribution and severity of these effects remain unclear. Here we quantify the impact of twenty-first century climate change on ice-free areas under two Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate forcing scenarios using temperature-index melt modelling. Under the strongest forcing scenario, ice-free areas could expand by over 17,000 km2 by the end of the century, close to a 25% increase...
July 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125385/climate-change-and-collective-violence
#2
REVIEW
Barry S Levy, Victor W Sidel, Jonathan A Patz
Climate change is causing increases in temperature, changes in precipitation and extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and other environmental impacts. It is also causing or contributing to heat-related disorders, respiratory and allergic disorders, infectious diseases, malnutrition due to food insecurity, and mental health disorders. In addition, increasing evidence indicates that climate change is causally associated with collective violence, generally in combination with other causal factors. Increased temperatures and extremes of precipitation with their associated consequences, including resultant scarcity of cropland and other key environmental resources, are major pathways by which climate change leads to collective violence...
March 20, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856085/the-lancet-countdown-tracking-progress-on-health-and-climate-change
#3
REVIEW
Nick Watts, W Neil Adger, Sonja Ayeb-Karlsson, Yuqi Bai, Peter Byass, Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, Tim Colbourn, Peter Cox, Michael Davies, Michael Depledge, Anneliese Depoux, Paula Dominguez-Salas, Paul Drummond, Paul Ekins, Antoine Flahault, Delia Grace, Hilary Graham, Andy Haines, Ian Hamilton, Anne Johnson, Ilan Kelman, Sari Kovats, Lu Liang, Melissa Lott, Robert Lowe, Yong Luo, Georgina Mace, Mark Maslin, Karyn Morrissey, Kris Murray, Tara Neville, Maria Nilsson, Tadj Oreszczyn, Christine Parthemore, David Pencheon, Elizabeth Robinson, Stefanie Schütte, Joy Shumake-Guillemot, Paolo Vineis, Paul Wilkinson, Nicola Wheeler, Bing Xu, Jun Yang, Yongyuan Yin, Chaoqing Yu, Peng Gong, Hugh Montgomery, Anthony Costello
The Lancet Countdown: tracking progress on health and climate change is an international, multidisciplinary research collaboration between academic institutions and practitioners across the world. It follows on from the work of the 2015 Lancet Commission, which concluded that the response to climate change could be "the greatest global health opportunity of the 21st century". The Lancet Countdown aims to track the health impacts of climate hazards; health resilience and adaptation; health co-benefits of climate change mitigation; economics and finance; and political and broader engagement...
March 18, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791053/impact-of-anthropogenic-climate-change-on-wildfire-across-western-us-forests
#4
John T Abatzoglou, A Park Williams
Increased forest fire activity across the western continental United States (US) in recent decades has likely been enabled by a number of factors, including the legacy of fire suppression and human settlement, natural climate variability, and human-caused climate change. We use modeled climate projections to estimate the contribution of anthropogenic climate change to observed increases in eight fuel aridity metrics and forest fire area across the western United States. Anthropogenic increases in temperature and vapor pressure deficit significantly enhanced fuel aridity across western US forests over the past several decades and, during 2000-2015, contributed to 75% more forested area experiencing high (>1 σ) fire-season fuel aridity and an average of nine additional days per year of high fire potential...
October 18, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844791/climates-past-present-and-yet-to-come-shape-climate-change-vulnerabilities
#5
Christopher P Nadeau, Mark C Urban, Jon R Bridle
Climate change is altering life at multiple scales, from genes to ecosystems. Predicting the vulnerability of populations to climate change is crucial to mitigate negative impacts. We suggest that regional patterns of spatial and temporal climatic variation scaled to the traits of an organism can predict where and why populations are most vulnerable to climate change. Specifically, historical climatic variation affects the sensitivity and response capacity of populations to climate change by shaping traits and the genetic variation in those traits...
October 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30166491/past-and-future-global-transformation-of-terrestrial-ecosystems-under-climate-change
#6
Connor Nolan, Jonathan T Overpeck, Judy R M Allen, Patricia M Anderson, Julio L Betancourt, Heather A Binney, Simon Brewer, Mark B Bush, Brian M Chase, Rachid Cheddadi, Morteza Djamali, John Dodson, Mary E Edwards, William D Gosling, Simon Haberle, Sara C Hotchkiss, Brian Huntley, Sarah J Ivory, A Peter Kershaw, Soo-Hyun Kim, Claudio Latorre, Michelle Leydet, Anne-Marie Lézine, Kam-Biu Liu, Yao Liu, A V Lozhkin, Matt S McGlone, Robert A Marchant, Arata Momohara, Patricio I Moreno, Stefanie Müller, Bette L Otto-Bliesner, Caiming Shen, Janelle Stevenson, Hikaru Takahara, Pavel E Tarasov, John Tipton, Annie Vincens, Chengyu Weng, Qinghai Xu, Zhuo Zheng, Stephen T Jackson
Impacts of global climate change on terrestrial ecosystems are imperfectly constrained by ecosystem models and direct observations. Pervasive ecosystem transformations occurred in response to warming and associated climatic changes during the last glacial-to-interglacial transition, which was comparable in magnitude to warming projected for the next century under high-emission scenarios. We reviewed 594 published paleoecological records to examine compositional and structural changes in terrestrial vegetation since the last glacial period and to project the magnitudes of ecosystem transformations under alternative future emission scenarios...
August 31, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690934/studying-plant-pollinator-interactions-facing-climate-change-and-changing-environments
#7
Diane L Byers, Shu-Mei Chang
Plant-pollinator interactions are essential for successful plant reproduction in both natural and agricultural systems. These interactions are negatively impacted by recent large-scale alterations of the environments, particularly climate change. The responses of plants and pollinators to changing abiotic conditions that vary seasonally and geographically are often uncoordinated, potentially leading to the breakdown of this interaction. The complexity of the responses of plants and pollinators to our changing climate necessitates creative approaches...
June 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276803/projections-of-temperature-related-excess-mortality-under-climate-change-scenarios
#8
Antonio Gasparrini, Yuming Guo, Francesco Sera, Ana Maria Vicedo-Cabrera, Veronika Huber, Shilu Tong, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva, Eric Lavigne, Patricia Matus Correa, Nicolas Valdes Ortega, Haidong Kan, Samuel Osorio, Jan Kyselý, Aleš Urban, Jouni J K Jaakkola, Niilo R I Ryti, Mathilde Pascal, Patrick G Goodman, Ariana Zeka, Paola Michelozzi, Matteo Scortichini, Masahiro Hashizume, Yasushi Honda, Magali Hurtado-Diaz, Julio Cesar Cruz, Xerxes Seposo, Ho Kim, Aurelio Tobias, Carmen Iñiguez, Bertil Forsberg, Daniel Oudin Åström, Martina S Ragettli, Yue Leon Guo, Chang-Fu Wu, Antonella Zanobetti, Joel Schwartz, Michelle L Bell, Tran Ngoc Dang, Dung Do Van, Clare Heaviside, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Shakoor Hajat, Andy Haines, Ben Armstrong
Background: Climate change can directly affect human health by varying exposure to non-optimal outdoor temperature. However, evidence on this direct impact at a global scale is limited, mainly due to issues in modelling and projecting complex and highly heterogeneous epidemiological relationships across different populations and climates. Methods: We collected observed daily time series of mean temperature and mortality counts for all causes or non-external causes only, in periods ranging from Jan 1, 1984, to Dec 31, 2015, from various locations across the globe through the Multi-Country Multi-City Collaborative Research Network...
December 2017: The Lancet. Planetary health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26039073/effects-of-climate-change-on-plant-population-growth-rate-and-community-composition-change
#9
Xiao-Yu Chang, Bao-Ming Chen, Gang Liu, Ting Zhou, Xiao-Rong Jia, Shao-Lin Peng
The impacts of climate change on forest community composition are still not well known. Although directional trends in climate change and community composition change were reported in recent years, further quantitative analyses are urgently needed. Previous studies focused on measuring population growth rates in a single time period, neglecting the development of the populations. Here we aimed to compose a method for calculating the community composition change, and to testify the impacts of climate change on community composition change within a relatively short period (several decades) based on long-term monitoring data from two plots-Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China (DBR) and Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI)-that are located in tropical and subtropical regions...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214380/urban-air-pollution-and-climate-change-the-decalogue-allergy-safe-tree-for-allergic-and-respiratory-diseases-care
#10
REVIEW
Vincenzo Patella, Giovanni Florio, Diomira Magliacane, Ada Giuliano, Maria Angiola Crivellaro, Daniela Di Bartolomeo, Arturo Genovese, Mario Palmieri, Amedeo Postiglione, Erminia Ridolo, Cristina Scaletti, Maria Teresa Ventura, Anna Zollo
Background: According to the World Health Organization, air pollution is closely associated with climate change and, in particular, with global warming. In addition to melting of ice and snow, rising sea level, and flooding of coastal areas, global warming is leading to a tropicalization of temperate marine ecosystems. Moreover, the effects of air pollution on airway and lung diseases are well documented as reported by the World Allergy Organization. Methods: Scientific literature was searched for studies investigating the effect of the interaction between air pollution and climate change on allergic and respiratory diseases...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29252921/responsibilities-of-the-occupational-and-environmental-medicine-provider-in-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-climate-change-related-health-problems
#11
William B Perkison, Gregory D Kearney, Pouné Saberi, Tee Guidotti, Ronda McCarthy, Margaret Cook-Shimanek, Mellisa A Pensa, Ismail Nabeel
: Workers are uniquely susceptible to the health hazards imposed by environmental changes. Occupational and environmental medicine (OEM) providers are at the forefront of emerging health issues pertaining to working populations including climate change, and must be prepared to recognize, respond to, and mitigate climate change-related health effects in workers. This guidance document from the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine focuses on North American workers health effects that may occur as a result of climate change and describes the responsibilities of the OEM provider in responding to these health challenges...
February 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300113/global-warming-and-recurrent-mass-bleaching-of-corals
#12
Terry P Hughes, James T Kerry, Mariana Álvarez-Noriega, Jorge G Álvarez-Romero, Kristen D Anderson, Andrew H Baird, Russell C Babcock, Maria Beger, David R Bellwood, Ray Berkelmans, Tom C Bridge, Ian R Butler, Maria Byrne, Neal E Cantin, Steeve Comeau, Sean R Connolly, Graeme S Cumming, Steven J Dalton, Guillermo Diaz-Pulido, C Mark Eakin, Will F Figueira, James P Gilmour, Hugo B Harrison, Scott F Heron, Andrew S Hoey, Jean-Paul A Hobbs, Mia O Hoogenboom, Emma V Kennedy, Chao-Yang Kuo, Janice M Lough, Ryan J Lowe, Gang Liu, Malcolm T McCulloch, Hamish A Malcolm, Michael J McWilliam, John M Pandolfi, Rachel J Pears, Morgan S Pratchett, Verena Schoepf, Tristan Simpson, William J Skirving, Brigitte Sommer, Gergely Torda, David R Wachenfeld, Bette L Willis, Shaun K Wilson
During 2015-2016, record temperatures triggered a pan-tropical episode of coral bleaching, the third global-scale event since mass bleaching was first documented in the 1980s. Here we examine how and why the severity of recurrent major bleaching events has varied at multiple scales, using aerial and underwater surveys of Australian reefs combined with satellite-derived sea surface temperatures. The distinctive geographic footprints of recurrent bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef in 1998, 2002 and 2016 were determined by the spatial pattern of sea temperatures in each year...
March 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26680131/mesocosms-reveal-ecological-surprises-from-climate-change
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Damien A Fordham
Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity poses one of the most crucial challenges this century. Currently, we know more about how future climates are likely to shift across the globe than about how species will respond to these changes. Two recent studies show how mesocosm experiments can hasten understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change on species' extinction risk, community structure, and ecosystem functions. Using a large-scale terrestrial warming experiment, Bestion et al...
December 2015: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26160945/climate-change-climate-change-impacts-on-bumblebees-converge-across-continents
#14
Jeremy T Kerr, Alana Pindar, Paul Galpern, Laurence Packer, Simon G Potts, Stuart M Roberts, Pierre Rasmont, Oliver Schweiger, Sheila R Colla, Leif L Richardson, David L Wagner, Lawrence F Gall, Derek S Sikes, Alberto Pantoja
For many species, geographical ranges are expanding toward the poles in response to climate change, while remaining stable along range edges nearest the equator. Using long-term observations across Europe and North America over 110 years, we tested for climate change-related range shifts in bumblebee species across the full extents of their latitudinal and thermal limits and movements along elevation gradients. We found cross-continentally consistent trends in failures to track warming through time at species' northern range limits, range losses from southern range limits, and shifts to higher elevations among southern species...
July 10, 2015: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24344289/multimodel-assessment-of-water-scarcity-under-climate-change
#15
Jacob Schewe, Jens Heinke, Dieter Gerten, Ingjerd Haddeland, Nigel W Arnell, Douglas B Clark, Rutger Dankers, Stephanie Eisner, Balázs M Fekete, Felipe J Colón-González, Simon N Gosling, Hyungjun Kim, Xingcai Liu, Yoshimitsu Masaki, Felix T Portmann, Yusuke Satoh, Tobias Stacke, Qiuhong Tang, Yoshihide Wada, Dominik Wisser, Torsten Albrecht, Katja Frieler, Franziska Piontek, Lila Warszawski, Pavel Kabat
Water scarcity severely impairs food security and economic prosperity in many countries today. Expected future population changes will, in many countries as well as globally, increase the pressure on available water resources. On the supply side, renewable water resources will be affected by projected changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and other climate variables. Here we use a large ensemble of global hydrological models (GHMs) forced by five global climate models and the latest greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways) to synthesize the current knowledge about climate change impacts on water resources...
March 4, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24400619/climate-change-a-global-threat-to-cardiopulmonary-health
#16
REVIEW
Mary B Rice, George D Thurston, John R Balmes, Kent E Pinkerton
Recent changes in the global climate system have resulted in excess mortality and morbidity, particularly among susceptible individuals with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease. These weather patterns are projected to continue and intensify as a result of rising CO2 levels, according to the most recent projections by climate scientists. In this Pulmonary Perspective, motivated by the American Thoracic Society Committees on Environmental Health Policy and International Health, we review the global human health consequences of projected changes in climate for which there is a high level of confidence and scientific evidence of health effects, with a focus on cardiopulmonary health...
March 1, 2014: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25808458/effect-of-climate-change-on-vector-borne-disease-risk-in-the-uk
#17
REVIEW
Jolyon M Medlock, Steve A Leach
During the early part of the 21st century, an unprecedented change in the status of vector-borne disease in Europe has occurred. Invasive mosquitoes have become widely established across Europe, with subsequent transmission and outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus. Malaria has re-emerged in Greece, and West Nile virus has emerged throughout parts of eastern Europe. Tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme disease, continue to increase, or, in the case of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses, have changed their geographical distribution...
June 2015: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26501958/live-fast-die-young-experimental-evidence-of-population-extinction-risk-due-to-climate-change
#18
Elvire Bestion, Aimeric Teyssier, Murielle Richard, Jean Clobert, Julien Cote
Evidence has accumulated in recent decades on the drastic impact of climate change on biodiversity. Warming temperatures have induced changes in species physiology, phenology, and have decreased body size. Such modifications can impact population dynamics and could lead to changes in life cycle and demography. More specifically, conceptual frameworks predict that global warming will severely threaten tropical ectotherms while temperate ectotherms should resist or even benefit from higher temperatures. However, experimental studies measuring the impacts of future warming trends on temperate ectotherms' life cycle and population persistence are lacking...
October 2015: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24786084/multiple-dimensions-of-climate-change-and-their-implications-for-biodiversity
#19
REVIEW
Raquel A Garcia, Mar Cabeza, Carsten Rahbek, Miguel B Araújo
The 21st century is projected to witness unprecedented climatic changes, with greater warming often reported for high latitudes. Yet, climate change can be measured in a variety of ways, reflecting distinct dimensions of change with unequal spatial patterns across the world. Polar climates are projected to not only warm, but also to shrink in area. By contrast, today's hot and arid climates are expected to expand worldwide and to reach climate states with no current analog. Although rarely appreciated in combination, these multiple dimensions of change convey complementary information...
May 2, 2014: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25244362/climate-change-challenges-and-opportunities-for-global-health
#20
REVIEW
Jonathan A Patz, Howard Frumkin, Tracey Holloway, Daniel J Vimont, Andrew Haines
IMPORTANCE: Health is inextricably linked to climate change. It is important for clinicians to understand this relationship in order to discuss associated health risks with their patients and to inform public policy. OBJECTIVES: To provide new US-based temperature projections from downscaled climate modeling and to review recent studies on health risks related to climate change and the cobenefits of efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA SYNTHESIS: We searched PubMed and Google Scholar from 2009 to 2014 for articles related to climate change and health, focused on governmental reports, predictive models, and empirical epidemiological studies...
October 15, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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