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Gut

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7 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409811/human-gut-microbes-impact-host-serum-metabolome-and-insulin-sensitivity
#1
Helle Krogh Pedersen, Valborg Gudmundsdottir, Henrik Bjørn Nielsen, Tuulia Hyotylainen, Trine Nielsen, Benjamin A H Jensen, Kristoffer Forslund, Falk Hildebrand, Edi Prifti, Gwen Falony, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Florence Levenez, Joel Doré, Ismo Mattila, Damian R Plichta, Päivi Pöhö, Lars I Hellgren, Manimozhiyan Arumugam, Shinichi Sunagawa, Sara Vieira-Silva, Torben Jørgensen, Jacob Bak Holm, Kajetan Trošt, Karsten Kristiansen, Susanne Brix, Jeroen Raes, Jun Wang, Torben Hansen, Peer Bork, Søren Brunak, Matej Oresic, S Dusko Ehrlich, Oluf Pedersen
Insulin resistance is a forerunner state of ischaemic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Here we show how the human gut microbiome impacts the serum metabolome and associates with insulin resistance in 277 non-diabetic Danish individuals. The serum metabolome of insulin-resistant individuals is characterized by increased levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which correlate with a gut microbiome that has an enriched biosynthetic potential for BCAAs and is deprived of genes encoding bacterial inward transporters for these amino acids...
July 21, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16625204/suppression-of-basal-autophagy-in-neural-cells-causes-neurodegenerative-disease-in-mice
#2
Taichi Hara, Kenji Nakamura, Makoto Matsui, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Yohko Nakahara, Rika Suzuki-Migishima, Minesuke Yokoyama, Kenji Mishima, Ichiro Saito, Hideyuki Okano, Noboru Mizushima
Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation process through which a portion of the cytoplasm is delivered to lysosomes to be degraded. Although the primary role of autophagy in many organisms is in adaptation to starvation, autophagy is also thought to be important for normal turnover of cytoplasmic contents, particularly in quiescent cells such as neurons. Autophagy may have a protective role against the development of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we report that loss of autophagy causes neurodegeneration even in the absence of any disease-associated mutant proteins...
June 15, 2006: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279214/acetate-mediates-a-microbiome-brain-%C3%AE-cell-axis-to-promote-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Rachel J Perry, Liang Peng, Natasha A Barry, Gary W Cline, Dongyan Zhang, Rebecca L Cardone, Kitt Falk Petersen, Richard G Kibbey, Andrew L Goodman, Gerald I Shulman
Obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome are associated with changes to the gut microbiota; however, the mechanism by which modifications to the gut microbiota might lead to these conditions is unknown. Here we show that increased production of acetate by an altered gut microbiota in rodents leads to activation of the parasympathetic nervous system, which, in turn, promotes increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, increased ghrelin secretion, hyperphagia, obesity and related sequelae. Together, these findings identify increased acetate production resulting from a nutrient-gut microbiota interaction and subsequent parasympathetic activation as possible therapeutic targets for obesity...
9, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006047/the-microbiome-and-risk-for-obesity-and-diabetes
#4
Anthony L Komaroff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24621052/diet-effects-in-gut-microbiome-and-obesity
#5
REVIEW
Jia Chen, Xianzhi He, Jinhai Huang
The 100 trillion microbes in human gut coevolve with the host and exert significant influences on human health. The gut microbial composition presents dynamic changes correlated with various factors including host genotypes, age, and external environment. Effective manipulation of the gut microbiota through diets (both long-term and short-term diet patterns), probiotics and/or prebiotics, and antibiotics has been proved being potential to prevent from metabolic disorders such as obesity in many studies. The dietary regulation exerts influences on microbial metabolism and host immune functions through several pathways, of which may include selectively bacterial fermentation of nutrients, lower intestinal barrier function, overexpression of genes associated with disorders, and disruptions to both innate and adaptive immunity...
April 2014: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21248165/zonulin-and-its-regulation-of-intestinal-barrier-function-the-biological-door-to-inflammation-autoimmunity-and-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Alessio Fasano
The primary functions of the gastrointestinal tract have traditionally been perceived to be limited to the digestion and absorption of nutrients and to electrolytes and water homeostasis. A more attentive analysis of the anatomic and functional arrangement of the gastrointestinal tract, however, suggests that another extremely important function of this organ is its ability to regulate the trafficking of macromolecules between the environment and the host through a barrier mechanism. Together with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the neuroendocrine network, the intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junctions, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self antigens...
January 2011: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20686513/dominant-and-diet-responsive-groups-of-bacteria-within-the-human-colonic-microbiota
#7
Alan W Walker, Jennifer Ince, Sylvia H Duncan, Lucy M Webster, Grietje Holtrop, Xiaolei Ze, David Brown, Mark D Stares, Paul Scott, Aurore Bergerat, Petra Louis, Freda McIntosh, Alexandra M Johnstone, Gerald E Lobley, Julian Parkhill, Harry J Flint
The populations of dominant species within the human colonic microbiota can potentially be modified by dietary intake with consequences for health. Here we examined the influence of precisely controlled diets in 14 overweight men. Volunteers were provided successively with a control diet, diets high in resistant starch (RS) or non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and a reduced carbohydrate weight loss (WL) diet, over 10 weeks. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences in stool samples of six volunteers detected 320 phylotypes (defined at >98% identity) of which 26, including 19 cultured species, each accounted for >1% of sequences...
February 2011: ISME Journal
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