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Neurology. Peds

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108 papers 25 to 100 followers
By M KKhan Pediatric Intensivist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490181/antibody-mediated-encephalitis
#1
REVIEW
Josep Dalmau, Francesc Graus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399791/proposed-consensus-definitions-for-new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus-norse-febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-and-related-conditions
#2
REVIEW
Lawrence J Hirsch, Nicolas Gaspard, Andreas van Baalen, Rima Nabbout, Sophie Demeret, Tobias Loddenkemper, Vincent Navarro, Nicola Specchio, Lieven Lagae, Andrea O Rossetti, Sara Hocker, Teneille E Gofton, Nicholas S Abend, Emily J Gilmore, Cecil Hahn, Houman Khosravani, Felix Rosenow, Eugen Trinka
We convened an international group of experts to standardize definitions of New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus (NORSE), Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES), and related conditions. This was done to enable improved communication for investigators, physicians, families, patients, and other caregivers. Consensus definitions were achieved via email messages, phone calls, an in-person consensus conference, and collaborative manuscript preparation. Panel members were from 8 countries and included adult and pediatric experts in epilepsy, electroencephalography (EEG), and neurocritical care...
April 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173786/drug-treatment-of-seizures-and-epilepsy-in-newborns-and-children
#3
REVIEW
Louis T Dang, Faye S Silverstein
The mainstay of treatment of childhood epilepsy is to administer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This article provides an overview of the clinical approach to drug treatment of childhood epilepsy, focusing on general principles of therapy and properties of recently introduced medications. Initiation and cessation of therapy, adverse medication effects, drug interactions, indications for the various AEDs, and off-label use of AEDs are reviewed. The distinct challenges in treatment of epileptic spasms and neonatal seizures are addressed...
December 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376438/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-laboratory-diagnostics-and-comparative-clinical-features-in-adults-and-children
#4
Matteo Gastaldi, Margherita Nosadini, Marianna Spatola, Stefano Sartori, Diego Franciotta
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is the most common autoimmune encephalitis due to autoantibodies against neuronal surface antigens, can affect both children and adults, leading to neurological and neuropsychological sequelae. However, it is potentially treatable and the prompt start of immunotherapy associates with better prognosis. Conversely, misdiagnosis can be harmful. The detection of NMDAR antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid plays a pivotal role in the diagnostic work-up. Reliable methods for NMDAR antibody detection are thus fundamental to assure accurate diagnosis and allow early treatments...
February 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373157/new-onset-status-epilepticus-in-pediatric-patients-causes-characteristics-and-outcomes
#5
Saba Jafarpour, Ryan M Hodgeman, Carolina De Marchi Capeletto, Mateus Torres Avelar de Lima, Kush Kapur, Robert C Tasker, Tobias Loddenkemper
BACKGROUND: Many pediatric patients presenting with status epilepticus have no history of seizures. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients aged one month to 21 years who presented during six consecutive years with convulsive status epilepticus and without a history of seizures. New-onset refractory status epilepticus was defined as status epilepticus refractory to two lines of treatment, without an identified cause in the first 48 hours...
March 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114859/antiepileptic-drug-behavioral-side-effects-and-baseline-hyperactivity-in-children-and-adolescents-with-new-onset-epilepsy
#6
Shanna M Guilfoyle, Katherine Follansbee-Junger, Aimee W Smith, Angela Combs, Shannon Ollier, Brooke Hater, Avani C Modi
OBJECTIVE: To examine baseline psychological functioning and antiepileptic drug (AED) behavioral side effects in new onset epilepsy and determine, by age, whether baseline psychological functioning predicts AED behavioral side effects 1 month following AED initiation. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted between July 2011 and December 2014 that included youths with new onset epilepsy. As part of routine interdisciplinary care, caregivers completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition: Parent Rating Scale to report on baseline psychological functioning at the diagnostic visit and the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire to identify AED behavioral side effects at the 1-month follow-up clinic visit following AED initiation...
January 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110887/managing-peripheral-facial-palsy
#7
REVIEW
Aris Garro, Lise E Nigrovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972277/high-sensitivity-and-specificity-in-proposed-clinical-diagnostic-criteria-for-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#8
Alvin C C Ho, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Sekhar C Pillai, Esther Tantsis, Hannah Jones, Reena Ho, Ming Lim, Yael Hacohen, Angela Vincent, Russell C Dale
AIM: To determine the validity of the proposed clinical diagnostic criteria for anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in paediatric patients. METHOD: The diagnostic criteria for anti-NMDAR encephalitis proposed by Graus et al. (2016) use clinical features and conventional investigations to facilitate early immunotherapy before antibody status is available. The criteria are satisfied if patients develop four out of six symptom groups within 3 months, together with at least one abnormal investigation (electroencephalography/cerebrospinal fluid) and reasonable exclusion of other disorders...
December 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968363/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#9
Peter D Donofrio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the current state of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), including its clinical presentation, evaluation, pathophysiology, and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: GBS is an acute/subacute-onset polyradiculoneuropathy typically presenting with sensory symptoms and weakness over several days, often leading to quadriparesis. Approximately 70% of patients report a recent preceding upper or lower respiratory tract infection or gastrointestinal illness...
October 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967695/intravenous-immunoglobulin-for-the-treatment-of-childhood-encephalitis
#10
REVIEW
Mildred A Iro, Natalie G Martin, Michael Absoud, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Encephalitis is a syndrome of neurological dysfunction due to inflammation of the brain parenchyma, caused by an infection or an exaggerated host immune response, or both. Attenuation of brain inflammation through modulation of the immune response could improve patient outcomes. Biological agents such as immunoglobulin that have both anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties may therefore be useful as adjunctive therapies for people with encephalitis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as add-on treatment for children with encephalitis...
October 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638987/leukodystrophies-a-proposed-classification-system-based-on-pathological-changes-and-pathogenetic-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Marjo S van der Knaap, Marianna Bugiani
Leukodystrophies are genetically determined disorders characterized by the selective involvement of the central nervous system white matter. Onset may be at any age, from prenatal life to senescence. Many leukodystrophies are degenerative in nature, but some only impair white matter function. The clinical course is mostly progressive, but may also be static or even improving with time. Progressive leukodystrophies are often fatal, and no curative treatment is known. The last decade has witnessed a tremendous increase in the number of defined leukodystrophies also owing to a diagnostic approach combining magnetic resonance imaging pattern recognition and next generation sequencing...
September 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833051/the-end-of-spasticity
#12
EDITORIAL
Bernard Dan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870420/value-of-protein-concentration-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-paediatric-patients-with-guillain-barre-syndrome
#13
Martha Esther Vidrio-Becerra, Jaime Valle-Leal, María Enriqueta Loaiza-Sarabia, Lucia Alvarez-Bastidas, Jesus Ignacio Lachica-Valle, Cruz Mónica López-Morales
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The albumin-cytologic dissociation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) supports the diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) but does not support the prognosis, so the aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of protein numbers in the CSF to predict progression in paediatric patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A diagnostic test was performed in paediatric patients with GBS, analysing sociodemographic, clinical and protein variables in CSF as well as electromyography...
September 1, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904568/pediatric-autoimmune-encephalitis
#14
REVIEW
Massimo Barbagallo, Giovanna Vitaliti, Piero Pavone, Catia Romano, Riccardo Lubrano, Raffaele Falsaperla
Autoimmune (antibody mediated) encephalitis (AE) is emerging as a more common cause of pediatric encephalopathy than previously thought. The autoimmune process may be triggered by an infection, vaccine, or occult neoplasm. In the latter case, onconeural autoantibodies are directed against intracellular neuronal antigens, but a recent heterogeneous group of encephalitic syndromes has been found not to have underlying tumor but is associated with autoantibodies to the neuronal surface or synaptic antigens. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are very common in autoimmune encephalopathy; as a result, affected children may be initially present to psychiatrists...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844551/safety-and-efficacy-of-high-dose-enteral-intravenous-and-transdermal-clonidine-for-the-acute-management-of-severe-intractable-childhood-dystonia-and-status-dystonicus-an-illustrative-case-series
#15
V Nakou, K Williamson, T Arichi, D E Lumsden, Steve Tomlin, M Kaminska, J-P Lin
OBJECTIVE: Acute dystonia in children is distressing, painful and can progress to life-threatening status dystonicus. Typical management involves benzodiazepines which can result in respiratory depression requiring PICU admission. Clonidine is less respiratory-depressant, and by facilitating sleep, switches dystonia off. It can also be administered via enteral, continuous intravenous infusion, and transdermal slow release routes. We describe the dose range and safety profile of clonidine management in a case-series of children with severe acute exacerbation of dystonia in a tertiary hospital setting...
November 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667183/occipital-headaches-and-neuroimaging-in-children
#16
Joshua J Bear, Amy A Gelfand, Peter J Goadsby, Nancy Bass
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the common thinking, as reinforced by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta), that occipital headaches in children are rare and suggestive of serious intracranial pathology. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review cohort study of all patients ≤18 years of age referred to a university child neurology clinic for headache in 2009. Patients were stratified by headache location: solely occipital, occipital plus other area(s) of head pain, or no occipital involvement...
August 1, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798922/practical-approach-to-the-patient-with-acute-neuromuscular-weakness
#17
REVIEW
Rajeev Nayak
Acute neuromuscular paralysis (ANMP) is a clinical syndrome characterized by rapid onset muscle weakness progressing to maximum severity within several days to weeks (less than 4 wk). Bulbar and respiratory muscle weakness may or may not be present. It is a common neurological emergency which requires immediate and careful investigations to determine the etiology because accurate diagnosis has significant impact on therapy and prognosis. Respiratory failure caused by neuromuscular weakness is considered as more critical than lung disease because its development may be insidious or subtle until sudden decompensation leads to life threatening hypoxia...
July 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738441/neuromuscular-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
EDITORIAL
Rudolf Korinthenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920282/nmda-receptor-encephalitis-and-other-antibody-mediated-disorders-of-the-synapse-the-2016-cotzias-lecture
#19
REVIEW
Josep Dalmau
Investigations during the last 10 years have revealed a group of disorders mediated by antibodies against ion channels and synaptic receptors, which cause both neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. In this review, I discuss the process of discovery and immunologic triggers of these disorders, and use anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis to emphasize the importance of understanding the underlying physiopathologic mechanisms in those diseases. A better knowledge of these mechanisms reveals points of convergence with other disorders (e...
December 6, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506503/extended-clinical-spectrum-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-in-children-a-case-series
#20
Ajay Goenka, Vivek Jain, Hiroki Nariai, Alfred Spiro, Mitchell Steinschneider
OBJECTIVE: There is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in children with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody encephalitis from two different health care settings. METHODS: We describe our experience with 13 patients (median age, 7 years; range, 5 months to 19 years) presenting to tertiary referral centers in India and the United States. RESULTS: Initial manifestations were neurological (seizures or movement disorders) in eight patients, and psychiatric (e...
July 2017: Pediatric Neurology
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