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Dawn Eliashiv, Alon Y Avidan
Sleep is disrupted in most patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit and the disturbances are even more profound in patients impacted by epilepsy. Nocturnal seizures must be differentiated from other common nocturnal events, such as delirium, parasomnias, and sedation. Many antiepileptic drugs produce undesirable side effects on sleep architecture that may further predispose patients to insomnia during the night and excessive sedation and hypersomnolence during the day. Failure to recognize, correctly diagnose, and adequately manage these disturbances may lead to more prolonged hospitalization, increased risk for nosocomial infections, poorer health-related qualify of life, and greater health care financial burden...
July 2015: Critical Care Clinics
Angelo Ghezzi, Maria Pia Amato, Naila Makhani, Teri Shreiner, Jutta Gärtner, Silvia Tenembaum
Many disease-modifying therapies are currently available for adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) but none of them has been tested in pediatric MS in randomized placebo-controlled trials. At present, as suggested by observational studies and experts' guidelines, interferon-β and glatiramer acetate continue to be the standard first-line treatments for pediatric MS. Observational studies and some controlled unblinded trials have shown a positive effect of these meditations in reducing relapse rate and delaying disease progression, with an acceptable safety profile...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Betsy Cleave, Maria Cartmill, Shiu Shing Soo, Harish Vyas
Children with shunts commonly present with fever, and often the focus of infection will be unrelated to their shunt. However, as shunt infections may present with few or even no specific symptoms, evaluation of a child with a shunt presenting with fever should be careful and comprehensive to ensure shunt infections are not missed. Treatment of an infected shunt involves removal of the shunt followed by a long course of antibiotics; missing or partially treating shunt infections can result in significant morbidity and potentially even mortality...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Mohamed Y Rady, Joseph L Verheijde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Surya N Gupta, Vikash S Gupta, Dawn M Fields
Complicated migraine encompasses several individual clinical syndromes of migraine. Such a syndrome in children frequently presents with various neurological symptoms in the Emergency Department. An acute presentation in the absence of headache presents a diagnostic challenge. A delay in diagnosis and treatment may have medicolegal implication. To date, there are no reports of a common clinical profile proposed in making a clinical diagnosis for the complicated migraine. In this clinical review, we propose and describe: (1) A common clinical profile in aid to clinical diagnosis for spectrum of complicated migraine; (2) How it can be used in differentiating complicated migraine from migraine without aura, migraine with aura, and seizure; (3) We discuss the status of complicated migraine in the International Headache Society classification 2013; and (4) In addition, a common treatment strategy for the spectrum of migraine has been described...
February 8, 2015: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Sophia Varadkar, J Helen Cross
An underlying immune basis is emerging in an increasing number of epileptic and encephalopathic syndromes. The immunopathological mechanisms may be categorized into antibody-mediated, T-cell cytotoxicity, and microglia-induced degeneration. The immune basis in Rasmussen syndrome is thought to be T-cell mediated. Antibodies to extracellular and intracellular epitopes are implicated in limbic and other encephalitides, characterized by seizures, movement disorder, sleep disorder, obtundation, psychosis, mutism, and other psychiatric symptoms...
June 2015: Seminars in Neurology
Alastair H MacLennan, Suzanna C Thompson, Jozef Gecz
Cerebral palsy (CP) is heterogeneous with different clinical types, comorbidities, brain imaging patterns, causes, and now also heterogeneous underlying genetic variants. Few are solely due to severe hypoxia or ischemia at birth. This common myth has held back research in causation. The cost of litigation has devastating effects on maternity services with unnecessarily high cesarean delivery rates and subsequent maternal morbidity and mortality. CP rates have remained the same for 50 years despite a 6-fold increase in cesarean birth...
December 2015: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Charlie Fairhurst
The descriptive term of cerebral palsy encompasses the largest group of childhood movement disorders. Severity and pattern of clinical involvement varies widely dependent on the area of the central nervous system compromised. A multidisciplinary team approach is vital for all the aspects of management to improve function and minimise disability. From a medical viewpoint, there are two pronged approaches. First a focus on developmental and clinical comorbidities such as communication, behaviour, epilepsy, feeding problems, gastro-oesophageal reflux and infections; and second on specifics of muscle tone, motor control and posture...
August 2012: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Elizabeth L Alford, James W Wheless, Stephanie J Phelps
Generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is one of the most common neurologic emergencies and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not treated promptly and aggressively. Management of GCSE is staged and generally involves the use of life support measures, identification and management of underlying causes, and rapid initiation of anticonvulsants. The purpose of this article is to review and evaluate published reports regarding the treatment of impending, established, refractory, and super-refractory GCSE in pediatric patients...
July 2015: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Douglas Swanson
Based on strong evidence, blood cultures usually recover the causative organism of bacterial meningitis in children not pretreated with antibiotics. Based on moderate evidence, pretreatment does not adversely affect the cerebrospinal fluid cell count, but it decreases the positive test result for cerebrospinal fluid culture, especially for meningococcal meningitis. Based on some research evidence as well as consensus, children with suspected bacterial meningitis and no clinical signs of brain herniation do not need neuroimaging as part of their initial clinical evaluation...
December 2015: Pediatrics in Review
Anna Rosati, Salvatore De Masi, Renzo Guerrini
Most children with new-onset epilepsy achieve seizure freedom with appropriate antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, nearly 20 % will continue to have seizures despite AEDs, as either monotherapy or in combination. Despite the growing market of new molecules over the last 20 years, the proportion of drug-resistant epilepsies has not changed. In this review, we report the evidence of efficacy and safety based on phase III randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of AEDs currently used in the paediatric population...
2015: CNS Drugs
Matteo Gastaldi, Anaïs Thouin, Angela Vincent
Over the last 15 years it has become clear that rare but highly recognizable diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including newly identified forms of limbic encephalitis and other encephalopathies, are likely to be mediated by antibodies (Abs) to CNS proteins. The Abs are directed against membrane receptors and ion channel-associated proteins that are expressed on the surface of neurons in the CNS, such as N-methyl D-aspartate receptors and leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 protein and contactin-associated protein like 2, that are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels...
January 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Michael J Rivkin, Timothy J Bernard, Michael M Dowling, Catherine Amlie-Lefond
Stroke in children carries lasting morbidity. Once recognized, it is important to evaluate and treat children with acute stroke efficiently and accurately. All children should receive neuroprotective measures. It is reasonable to consider treatment with advanced thrombolytic and endovascular agents. Delivery of such care requires purposeful institutional planning and organization in pediatric acute care centers. Primary stroke centers established for adults provide an example of the multidisciplinary approach that can be applied to the evaluation and treatment of children who present with acute stroke...
March 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Katharina Vezyroglou, J Helen Cross
The mainstay of treatment of epilepsy has been antiepileptic drugs; however, despite the emergence of new agents, a consistent proportion remain drug-resistant. Newer AEDs show promise. However, as it becomes clear that the epilepsies are a group of diseases rather than a single disorder the prospect of targeted treatment in some may become a reality.
June 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Shivani Ghoshal, David M Greer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although detailed practice parameters have been developed to help guide physicians in brain death determination, guidelines based on these parameters widely vary. The recent case of Jahi McMath not only highlights social misconceptions but also serves as a call to action to decrease medical variability and confusion regarding brain death determination. This review discusses common sources of variations in brain death determination - we divide these sources into before, during, and after brain death declaration...
April 2015: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Katharina M Busl, Thomas P Bleck
OBJECTIVE: Neurogenic pulmonary edema is an underrecognized and underdiagnosed form of pulmonary compromise that complicates acute neurologic illness and is not explained by cardiovascular or pulmonary pathology. This review aims to provide a concise overview on pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, impact on outcome and treatment of neurogenic pulmonary edema, and considerations for organ donation. DATA SOURCES: Database searches and a review of the relevant medical literature...
August 2015: Critical Care Medicine
Jennifer E Fugate, Alejandro A Rabinstein
Almost two decades have elapsed since posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) was described in an influential case series. This usually reversible clinical syndrome is becoming increasingly recognised, in large part because of improved and more readily available brain imaging. Although the pathophysiological changes underlying PRES are not fully understood, endothelial dysfunction is a key factor. A diagnosis of PRES should be considered in the setting of acute neurological symptoms in patients with renal failure, blood pressure fluctuations, use of cytotoxic drugs, autoimmune disorders, or eclampsia...
September 2015: Lancet Neurology
Renato P Munhoz, Laura M Scorr, Stewart A Factor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although movement disorders are traditionally viewed as chronic diseases that are followed electively, a growing number of these patients present with acute, severe syndromes or complications of their underlying neurological problem. Identifying and managing movement disorders emergencies is challenging, even for the specialist. This review summarizes evidence outlining the clinical presentation of acute, life-threatening movement disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: We review the most significant aspects in the most common movement disorders emergencies, including acute complications related to Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism, serotonergic, and neuroleptic malignant syndromes, chorea, ballismus, dystonia, myoclonus, and tics...
August 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
Manya Prasad, Pudukode R Krishnan, Reginald Sequeira, Khaldoon Al-Roomi
BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus is a medical emergency associated with significant mortality and morbidity that requires immediate and effective treatment. OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine whether a particular anticonvulsant is more effective or safer to use in status epilepticus compared to another and compared to placebo.(2) To delineate reasons for disagreement in the literature regarding recommended treatment regimens and to highlight areas for future research. SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update of this review, the following electronic databases were searched on 15/08/2013: the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialized Register, CENTRAL The Cochrane Library July 2013, Issue 7, and MEDLINE (Ovid) 1946 to 15/08/2013...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Raquel Farias-Moeller, Luca Bartolini, Archana Pasupuleti, R D Brittany Cines, Amy Kao, Jessica L Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) ensues when there is no improvement of seizure control in response to anesthetic therapy or seizure recurrence after reduction of anesthetic agents. There is no consensus on standard of care for SRSE. Ketogenic diet (KD) has reported success, but technical challenges exist including inability to feed patients, concomitant steroid use, acidotic states, and lack of dieticians with experience. The optimal protocol for KD is yet to be determined...
August 23, 2016: Neurocritical Care
2016-10-18 16:50:02
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