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Neurocritical care

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21 papers 0 to 25 followers
Muna Irfan, Bernardo Selim, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Erik K St Louis
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a frequent presenting manifestation of neuromuscular disorders and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. If not recognized and addressed early in the clinical course, SDB can lead to clinical deterioration with respiratory failure. The pathophysiologic basis of SDB in neuromuscular disorders, clinical features encountered in specific neuromuscular diseases, and diagnostic and management strategies for SDB in neuromuscular patients in the critical care setting are reviewed...
July 2015: Critical Care Clinics
Beatrice Borsellino, Marcus J Schultz, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Chiara Robba, Federico Bilotta
INTRODUCTION: Neurocritical care (NCC) patients often require prolonged mechanical ventilation, and they are at high risk of respiratory complications. Therefore, the potential benefit role of protective lung ventilation (PLV), which demonstrated to reduce postoperative complications in patients with acute distress respiratory syndrome, has been suggested even on NCC patients. However, PLV can increase intracranial pressure as result of permissive hypercapnia and of high airway pressures during recruitment maneuvers...
October 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Mohamed Y Rady, Joseph L Verheijde
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Elizabeth L Alford, James W Wheless, Stephanie J Phelps
Generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is one of the most common neurologic emergencies and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not treated promptly and aggressively. Management of GCSE is staged and generally involves the use of life support measures, identification and management of underlying causes, and rapid initiation of anticonvulsants. The purpose of this article is to review and evaluate published reports regarding the treatment of impending, established, refractory, and super-refractory GCSE in pediatric patients...
July 2015: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Shivani Ghoshal, David M Greer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although detailed practice parameters have been developed to help guide physicians in brain death determination, guidelines based on these parameters widely vary. The recent case of Jahi McMath not only highlights social misconceptions but also serves as a call to action to decrease medical variability and confusion regarding brain death determination. This review discusses common sources of variations in brain death determination - we divide these sources into before, during, and after brain death declaration...
April 2015: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Giuseppe Citerio, Mauro Oddo, Fabio Silvio Taccone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multimodal monitoring (MMM) is routinely applied in neurointensive care. Unfortunately, there is no robust evidence on which MMM-derived physiologic variables are the most clinically relevant, how and when they should be monitored, and whether MMM impacts outcome. The complexity is even higher because once the data are continuously collected, interpretation and integration of these complex physiologic events into targeted individualized care is still embryonic. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical investigation mainly focused on intracranial pressure, perfusion of the brain, and oxygen availability along with electrophysiology...
April 2015: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Gentle S Shrestha, Alberto Goffi, Diptesh Aryal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resource-challenged environments of low and middle-income countries face a significant burden of neurocritical illness. This review attempts to elaborate on the multiple barriers to delivering neurocritical care in these settings and the possible solutions to overcome such barriers. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiology of neurocritical illness appears to have changed over time in low and middle-income countries. In addition to neuro-infection, noncommunicable neurological illnesses like stroke, traumatic brain injury, and traumatic spinal cord injury pose a significant neurocritical burden in resource-limited settings...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Mark S Wainwright, Gregory Hansen, Juan Piantino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately one in five children admitted to a pediatric ICU have a new central nervous system injury or a neurological complication of their critical illness. The spectrum of neurologic insults in children is diverse and clinical practice is largely empirical, as few randomized, controlled trials have been reported. This lack of data poses a substantial challenge to the practice of pediatric neurocritical care (PNCC). PNCC has emerged as a novel subspecialty, and its presence is expanding within tertiary care centers...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Greet Hermans, Greet Van den Berghe
A substantial number of patients admitted to the ICU because of an acute illness, complicated surgery, severe trauma, or burn injury will develop a de novo form of muscle weakness during the ICU stay that is referred to as "intensive care unit acquired weakness" (ICUAW). This ICUAW evoked by critical illness can be due to axonal neuropathy, primary myopathy, or both. Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms comprise microvascular, electrical, metabolic, and bioenergetic alterations, interacting in a complex way and culminating in loss of muscle strength and/or muscle atrophy...
2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Renato P Munhoz, Laura M Scorr, Stewart A Factor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although movement disorders are traditionally viewed as chronic diseases that are followed electively, a growing number of these patients present with acute, severe syndromes or complications of their underlying neurological problem. Identifying and managing movement disorders emergencies is challenging, even for the specialist. This review summarizes evidence outlining the clinical presentation of acute, life-threatening movement disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: We review the most significant aspects in the most common movement disorders emergencies, including acute complications related to Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism, serotonergic, and neuroleptic malignant syndromes, chorea, ballismus, dystonia, myoclonus, and tics...
August 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
Peter Jackson, Akram Khan
Delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a common diagnosis, with an incidence ranging between 45% and 87%. Delirium represents a significant burden both to the patient and to the health care system, with a 3.2-fold increase in 6-month mortality and annual US health care costs up to $16 billion. In this review, the diagnosis, epidemiology, and risk factors for delirium in the ICU are discussed. The pathophysiology of delirium and evolving prevention and treatment modalities are outlined.
July 2015: Critical Care Clinics
John P Kress, Jesse B Hall
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 370, Issue 17, Page 1626-1635, April 2014.
April 24, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
John P Kress, Jesse B Hall
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 371, Issue 3, Page 287-288, July 2014.
July 17, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Francesco Brigo, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Susanna Bacigaluppi, Raffaele Nardone, Eugen Trinka
BACKGROUND: Some guidelines or expert consensus indicate that intravenous (IV) lorazepam (LZP) is preferable to IV diazepam (DZP) for initial treatment of convulsive status epilepticus (SE). We aimed to critically assess all the available data on efficacy and tolerability of IV LZP compared with IV DZP as first-line treatment of convulsive SE. METHODS: Systematic search of the literature (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing IV LZP versus IV DZP used as first-line treatment for convulsive SE (generalized or focal)...
October 9, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Susan R Wilcox
Weakness is common in critically ill patients, associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and increased mortality. Corticosteroids and neuromuscular blockade (NMB) administration have been implicated as etiologies of acquired weakness in the intensive care unit. Medical literature since the 1970s is replete with case reports and small case series of patients with weakness after receiving high-dose corticosteroids, prolonged NMB, or both. Several risk factors for weakness appear in the early literature, including large doses of steroids, the dose and duration of NMB, hyperglycemia, and the duration of mechanical ventilation...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Rebecca R Dixon, Maryalice Nocera, Adam J Zolotor, Heather T Keenan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of intracranial pressure monitors and treatment for elevated intracranial pressure in children 24 months old or younger with traumatic brain injury in North Carolina between April 2009 and March 2012 and compare this with a similar cohort recruited 2000-2001. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Twelve PICUs in North Carolina. PATIENTS: All children 24 months old or younger with traumatic brain injury, admitted to an included PICU...
September 13, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Denis Azzopardi, Brenda Strohm, Neil Marlow, Peter Brocklehurst, Aniko Deierl, Oya Eddama, Julia Goodwin, Henry L Halliday, Edmund Juszczak, Olga Kapellou, Malcolm Levene, Louise Linsell, Omar Omar, Marianne Thoresen, Nora Tusor, Andrew Whitelaw, A David Edwards
BACKGROUND: In the Total Body Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy Trial (TOBY), newborns with asphyxial encephalopathy who received hypothermic therapy had improved neurologic outcomes at 18 months of age, but it is uncertain whether such therapy results in longer-term neurocognitive benefits. METHODS: We randomly assigned 325 newborns with asphyxial encephalopathy who were born at a gestational age of 36 weeks or more to receive standard care alone (control) or standard care with hypothermia to a rectal temperature of 33 to 34°C for 72 hours within 6 hours after birth...
July 10, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Syndi Seinfeld, Howard P Goodkin, Shlomo Shinnar
Although the majority of seizures are brief and cause no long-term consequences, a subset is sufficiently prolonged that long-term consequences can result. These very prolonged seizures are termed "status epilepticus" (SE) and are considered a neurological emergency. The clinical presentation of SE can be diverse. SE can occur at any age but most commonly occurs in the very young and the very old. There are numerous studies on SE in animals in which the pathophysiology, medication responses, and pathology can be rigorously studied in a controlled fashion...
March 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Thomas Spentzas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Nancy Carney, Annette M Totten, Cindy OʼReilly, Jamie S Ullman, Gregory W J Hawryluk, Michael J Bell, Susan L Bratton, Randall Chesnut, Odette A Harris, Niranjan Kissoon, Andres M Rubiano, Lori Shutter, Robert C Tasker, Monica S Vavilala, Jack Wilberger, David W Wright, Jamshid Ghajar
: The scope and purpose of this work is 2-fold: to synthesize the available evidence and to translate it into recommendations. This document provides recommendations only when there is evidence to support them. As such, they do not constitute a complete protocol for clinical use. Our intention is that these recommendations be used by others to develop treatment protocols, which necessarily need to incorporate consensus and clinical judgment in areas where current evidence is lacking or insufficient...
September 20, 2016: Neurosurgery
2016-10-12 15:36:30
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