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Nutrition. Peds

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25 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831909/blended-foods-for-tube-fed-children-a-safe-and-realistic-option-a-rapid-review-of-the-evidence
#1
REVIEW
Jane Coad, Alex Toft, Susie Lapwood, Joseph Manning, Mark Hunter, Huw Jenkins, Clare Sadlier, Julie Hammonds, Ailsa Kennedy, Simon Murch, David Widdas
With the growing number of children and young people with complex care needs or life-limiting conditions, alternative routes for nutrition have been established (such as gastrostomy feeding). The conditions of children and young people who require such feeding are diverse but could relate to problems with swallowing (dysphagia), digestive disorders or neurological/muscular disorders. However, the use of a blended diet as an alternative to prescribed formula feeds for children fed via a gastrostomy is a contentious issue for clinicians and researchers...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788688/high-dose-intravenous-selenium-does-not-improve-clinical-outcomes-in-the-critically-ill-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
William Manzanares, Margot Lemieux, Gunnar Elke, Pascal L Langlois, Frank Bloos, Daren K Heyland
BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. So far, several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have demonstrated that parenteral Se may improve clinical outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Since publication of our previous systematic review and meta-analysis on antioxidants in the ICU, reports of several trials have been published, including the largest RCT on Se therapy. The purpose of the present systematic review was to update our previous data on intravenous (IV) Se in the critically ill...
October 28, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829456/is-the-glutamine-story-over
#3
Marie Smedberg, Jan Wernerman
Glutamine has been launched as a conditionally indispensible amino acid for the critically ill. Supplementation has been recommended in guidelines from international societies. Although data have been presented pointing out that glutamine supplementation may not be for everybody, recommendations for treatments and design of study protocols have included all critically ill patients. Results from more recent studies and meta-analyses indicate that indiscriminate use of glutamine supplementation in critically ill patients may actually cause harm rather than beneficial effects...
November 10, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832823/resting-energy-expenditure-calorie-and-protein-consumption-in-critically-ill-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Oren Zusman, Miriam Theilla, Jonathan Cohen, Ilya Kagan, Itai Bendavid, Pierre Singer
BACKGROUND: Intense debate exists regarding the optimal energy and protein intake for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, most studies use predictive equations, demonstrated to be inaccurate to target energy intake. We sought to examine the outcome of a large cohort of ICU patients in relation to the percent of administered calories divided by resting energy expenditure (% AdCal/REE) obtained by indirect calorimetry (IC) and to protein intake. METHODS: Included patients were hospitalized from 2003 to 2015 at a 16-bed ICU at a university affiliated, tertiary care hospital, and had IC measurement to assess caloric targets...
November 10, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22307571/initial-trophic-vs-full-enteral-feeding-in-patients-with-acute-lung-injury-the-eden-randomized-trial
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Todd W Rice, Arthur P Wheeler, B Taylor Thompson, Jay Steingrub, R Duncan Hite, Marc Moss, Alan Morris, Ning Dong, Peter Rock
CONTEXT: The amount of enteral nutrition patients with acute lung injury need is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine if initial lower-volume trophic enteral feeding would increase ventilator-free days and decrease gastrointestinal intolerances compared with initial full enteral feeding. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The EDEN study, a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial conducted from January 2, 2008, through April 12, 2011. Participants were 1000 adults within 48 hours of developing acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation whose physicians intended to start enteral nutrition at 44 hospitals in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network...
February 22, 2012: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790606/nutrition-a-primary-therapy-in-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Bryan Wilson, Katri Typpo
Appropriate nutrition is an essential component of intensive care management of children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is linked to patient outcomes. One out of every two children in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) will develop malnutrition or have worsening of baseline malnutrition and present with specific micronutrient deficiencies. Early and adequate enteral nutrition (EN) is associated with improved 60-day survival after pediatric critical illness, and, yet, despite early EN guidelines, critically ill children receive on average only 55% of goal calories by PICU day 10...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604334/effect-of-saline-0-9-or-plasma-lyte-148-therapy-on-feeding-intolerance-in-patients-receiving-nasogastric-enteral-nutrition
#7
Sumeet Reddy, Michael Bailey, Richard Beasley, Rinaldo Bellomo, Diane Mackle, Alex Psirides, Paul Young
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of Plasma-Lyte (PL)-148 and saline 0.9% (saline) on gastrointestinal (GI) feeding intolerance in mechanically ventilated patients receiving nasogastric (NG) feeding in an intensive care unit. DESIGN AND SETTING: A single-centre pilot study, nested within a multicentre, double-blind, cluster-randomised, double-crossover trial, performed in a mixed medical and surgical ICU. PARTICIPANTS: All adult patients who required crystalloid fluid therapy as part of the 0...
September 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27016160/controversies-in-critical-care-nutrition-support
#8
REVIEW
Jayshil J Patel, Panna Codner
Critical illness predisposes individuals to highly variable metabolic and immune responses, leading to muscle mass loss, impaired healing, immobility, and susceptibility to infections and cognitive impairment. Recommendations for nutrition in critically ill patients are supported by observational studies, small randomized controlled trials, and mechanistic data. There is no standardization of nutritional therapy in critically ill patients and controversies in the type, quantity, and timing of nutrition support persist...
April 2016: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755096/will-the-use-of-anthropometric-measurements-solely-to-assess-nutritional-status-in-picu-suffice
#9
Patrícia Zamberlan, Artur Figueiredo Delgado, Werther Brunow de Carvalho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26539926/nutritional-controversies-in-critical-care-revisiting-enteral-glutamine-during-critical-illness-and-injury
#10
REVIEW
John A Stroster, Selman Uranues, Rifat Latifi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article examines some of the articles that inspired recent changes to critical care guidelines related to glutamine in enteral nutrition. RECENT FINDINGS: Two recent multicenter randomized controlled trials involving enteral glutamine have reported increased mortality rates in groups of mechanically ventilated adult patients, while demonstrating no additional benefits to other outcomes, such as nosocomial infections. SUMMARY: Recent studies suggest that enteral glutamine supplementation may not provide significant clinical benefits to adult patients on mechanical ventilation with multiple organ failure, but more information is still needed when attempting to apply these results to other groups of critical care patients...
December 2015: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26808138/biomarkers-of-gut-barrier-failure-in-the-icu
#11
Gaël Piton, Gilles Capellier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gut barrier failure is associated with bacterial translocation, systemic inflammation, and is presumed to be associated with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. As the gut barrier function is carried out by a monolayer of enterocytes, a minimum requirement is the integrity of the enterocytes, and controlled paracellular permeability between adjacent enterocytes. Many factors can cause critically ill patients to lose gut barrier function by a mechanism of enterocyte damage; for example, small bowel ischemia or hypoxia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, or absence of enteral feeding...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26835609/gastrointestinal-failure-in-the-icu
#12
Annika Reintam Blaser, Stephan M Jakob, Joel Starkopf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes different aspects of assessment of gastrointestinal function and provides a practical approach to management of adult patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction in the ICU. RECENT FINDINGS: Different ways to define gastrointestinal failure have been used in the past. Recently, the term 'acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI)' has been proposed to specifically describe gastrointestinal dysfunction as a part of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214748/parenteral-or-enteral-nutrition-do-you-have-the-choice
#13
Taku Oshima, Pierre Singer, Claude Pichard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review focuses on the use of parenteral nutrition and enteral nutrition in critically ill patients to optimize the nutrition care throughout the ICU stay. The key message is: you have the choice! RECENT FINDINGS: Enteral nutrition has been recommended for critically ill patients, whereas parenteral nutrition has been considered harmful and to be avoided. However, recent studies have challenged this theory. They demonstrated that enteral nutrition is frequently associated with energy and protein undernutrition, whereas parenteral nutrition becomes deleterious only if overfeeding is induced...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27253841/intravenous-lipid-emulsions-in-the-critically-ill-an-update
#14
William Manzanares, Pascal L Langlois, Gil Hardy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Purpose of the review is to summarize recent research addressing the role of intravenous lipid emulsions (IVLEs) in the critically ill. RECENT FINDINGS: Soybean oil-based IVLEs, which are high in the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been largely used in parenteral nutrition over the last several decades. However, it is now generally accepted that the higher content of phytosterols and polyunsaturated fatty acids in soybean oil IVLE may adversely affect the immunological and inflammatory status of the critically ill...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258665/protein-delivery-in-critical-illness
#15
Peter J M Weijs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Protein delivery in the critically ill still is a highly debated issue. Here, we discuss only the most recent updates in the literature concerning protein nutrition of the critically ill. RECENT FINDINGS: Up to now, there are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published on enteral provision of protein that were randomized for protein level of intake. In the past year, there have been two new observational studies published, one of which in critically ill children...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258666/bedside-nutrition-evaluation-and-physical-assessment-techniques-in-critical-illness
#16
Fiona Simpson, Gordon S Doig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight emerging techniques used to determine body composition early in ICU stay, their prediction of poor outcome, and what is required before they can be more widely used. RECENT FINDINGS: Opportunistic use of imaging techniques to assess muscle mass shows promise with regard to predicting patient outcomes; however, some of these techniques are expensive. Mid-arm muscle circumference and physical assessments of muscle wasting and subcutaneous fat loss using the subjective global assessment (SGA) are simple cheap tools that can be undertaken at the ICU patient bedside...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27309970/the-science-and-art-of-pediatric-critical-care-nutrition
#17
Enid E Martinez, Nilesh M Mehta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nutritional status and nutrient delivery during critical illness impact clinical outcomes. We have reviewed recent studies that may guide best practices regarding nutrition therapy in critically ill children. RECENT FINDINGS: Malnutrition is prevalent in the pediatric ICU population, and is associated with worse outcomes. Nutrition support teams, dedicated dietitians, and educational programs facilitate surveillance for existing malnutrition and nutrition risk, but specific tools for the pediatric ICU population are lacking...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589411/permissive-underfeeding-or-standard-enteral-feeding-in-high-and-low-nutritional-risk-critically-ill-adults-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-permit-trial
#18
Yaseen M Arabi, Abdulaziz S Aldawood, Hasan M Al-Dorzi, Hani M Tamim, Samir H Haddad, Gwynne Jones, Lauralyn McIntyre, Othman Solaiman, Maram H Sakkijha, Musharaf Sadat, Shihab Mundekkadan, Anand Kumar, Sean M Bagshaw, Sangeeta Mehta
RATIONALE: The optimal nutritional strategy for critically ill adults at high nutritional risk is unclear. OBJECTIVE: In patients with different baseline nutritional risk, we examined the effect of permissive underfeeding with full protein intake compared to standard feeding on 90-day mortality. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of the PermiT (Permissive Underfeeding versus Target Enteral Feeding in Adult Critically Ill Patients) trial...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705610/supplements-nutrition-and-alternative-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Aric F Logsdon, Linda Nguyen, Ahmed Eltanahay, Ryan C Turner, Patrick Bonasso, Chelsea Knotts, Adam Moeck, Joseph C Maroon, Julian E Bailes, Charles L Rosen
Studies using traditional treatment strategies for mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) have produced limited clinical success. Interest in treatment for mild TBI is at an all time high due to its association with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other neurodegenerative diseases, yet therapeutic options remain limited. Traditional pharmaceutical interventions have failed to transition to the clinic for the treatment of mild TBI. As such, many pre-clinical studies are now implementing non-pharmaceutical therapies for TBI...
October 5, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24561706/feeding-the-gut-how-when-and-with-what-the-metabolic-issue
#20
REVIEW
Jan Wernerman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the literature on feeding critically ill patients with special emphasis on the intestine. RECENT FINDINGS: Many dogmas have been questioned in the past few years. In particular, the absence of evidence for impact on outcomes in critically ill patients has been highlighted. So 'early enteral feeding', the trophic effect on intestinal mucosa in humans, 'pharmaco-nutrition', postpyloric feeding and prokinetic drugs have all been found to lack proper evidence to affect outcomes...
April 2014: Current Opinion in Critical Care
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