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Infections

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178 papers 25 to 100 followers
By M KKhan Pediatric Intensivist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628546/the-impact-of-multiple-viral-respiratory-infections-on-outcomes-for-critically-ill-children
#1
Jigar C Chauhan, Nicholas B Slamon
OBJECTIVE: Advances in molecular diagnosis have led to increased testing for single and multiviral respiratory infection in routine clinical practice. This study compares outcomes between single and multiviral respiratory infections in children younger than 5 years old admitted to the PICU with respiratory failure. DESIGN: Retrospective, single-center, cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary-care, freestanding children's hospital. PATIENTS: Children younger than 5 years old admitted to the PICU with respiratory failure and positive respiratory molecular panel...
August 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267992/clostridium-difficile-disease-diagnosis-pathogenesis-and-treatment-update
#2
REVIEW
Lena M Napolitano, Charles E Edmiston
Clostridium difficile infections are the leading cause of health care-associated infectious diarrhea, posing a significant risk for both medical and surgical patients. Because of the significant morbidity and mortality associated with C difficile infections, knowledge of the epidemiology of C difficile in combination with a high index of suspicion and susceptible patient populations (including surgical, postcolectomy, and inflammatory bowel disease patients) is warranted. C difficile infections present with a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis or small bowel enteritis and recurrent C difficile infections...
March 3, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22219235/skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-classifying-and-treating-a-spectrum
#3
REVIEW
Sabitha Rajan
Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common presenting problem in both inpatients and outpatients. SSTIs have been broadly classified as complicated or uncomplicated, but specific disease processes and patient characteristics are important in guiding clinical management. Early recognition of the extent of infection, close follow-up, and familiarity with local antibiotic susceptibility data are critical to successful treatment.
January 2012: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688574/clinical-and-bacteriological-differences-of-deep-neck-infection-in-pediatric-and-adult-patients-review-of-123-cases
#4
Yuichi Shimizu, Hiroshi Hidaka, Daiki Ozawa, Risako Kakuta, Kazuhiro Nomura, Hisakazu Yano, Ken-Ichi Watanabe, Yukio Katori
OBJECTIVES: Deep neck infections (DNIs) can lead to life-threatening disease. However, the detailed pathophysiology remains unclear due to its rarity and only a few reports have directly compared DNIs in children and adults. This study aimed to reveal the clinical differences between DNIs in children and adults. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 123 patients who suffered from DNIs at Tohoku University Hospital from August 2005 to July 2015. We extracted data on patient sex, age, antecedent illness, extension of infections, operative procedures, and bacteriology results...
August 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758623/risk-factors-and-predictors-of-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-mortality-in-critically-ill-bacteraemic-patients-over-a-6-year-period-2010-15-antibiotics-do-matter
#5
Matthaios Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Fotini Fligou, Anastasia Spiliopoulou, Kyriaki Koutsileou, Fevronia Kolonitsiou, Aikaterini Spyropoulou, Anastasia Zotou, Markos Marangos, Evangelos D Anastassiou, Myrto Christofidou, Iris Spiliopoulou
PURPOSE: Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa provoke serious infections, especially in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODOLOGY: The risk factors and predictors of mortality for P. aeruginosa (n=84; 46 carbapenem-resistant) and A. baumannii (n=129; all carbapenem-resistant) bloodstream infections (BSIs) in an ICU were evaluated. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the agar disk diffusion method according to EUCAST guidelines...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749714/risk-factors-for-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-a-meta-analysis
#6
Pin Liu, Xuan Li, Mei Luo, Xuan Xu, Kewen Su, Shuai Chen, Ying Qing, Yingli Li, Jingfu Qiu
AIMS: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infection has been rapidly emerging as a life-threatening nosocomial disease in many countries. However, studies on the corresponding risk factors of CRKP infection showed inconsistent results. To resolve these inconsistencies, we conducted a meta-analysis of previous studies on the potential risk factors of CRKP infection. The results of this study could be used to develop CRKP infection prevention strategies. METHODS: Relevant works were systematically searched from five electronic databases up to September 2016...
July 27, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757125/update-on-childhood-and-adult-infectious-tracheitis
#7
REVIEW
M Blot, P Bonniaud-Blot, N Favrolt, P Bonniaud, P Chavanet, L Piroth
The trachea is a pivotal organ of the respiratory tract. Rather than a genuine anatomic border, it acts as a crossroad in all respiratory infectious processes. Even though not strictly limited to the trachea, infections such as laryngotracheitis and tracheobronchitis are frequently diagnosed in children, in particular during the winter season. Infectious tracheitis etiologies are diverse and the distinction between viral and bacterial origins, albeit difficult, remains relevant considering the substantial differences in terms of gravity and therapeutic management...
July 27, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756598/risk-factors-and-predictors-of-mortality-of-candidaemia-among-critically-ill-patients-role-of-antifungal-prophylaxis-in-its-development-and-in-selection-of-non-albicans-species
#8
Matthaios Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Anastasia Spiliopoulou, Fotini Fligou, Iris Spiliopoulou, Lora Tanaseskou, Georgios Karpetas, Markos Marangos, Evangelos D Anastassiou, Myrto Christofidou
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study is to identify risk factors for development and predictors of mortality of candidaemia among critically ill patients. METHODS: A 1:7 case-control study was conducted during a 4-year period (2012-2015) in a Greek Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Candidaemia was confirmed by positive blood cultures. All yeasts were identified using API 20C AUX System or Vitek 2 Advanced Expert System. Epidemiologic data were collected from the ICU computerized database and patients' chart reviews...
July 29, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681941/the-respiratory-threat-posed-by-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#9
REVIEW
Ana Rodrigo-Troyano, Oriol Sibila
Respiratory infections are a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. In recent years, an increased incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) has been described. Microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Acinetobacter baumannii have been identified as causative pathogens of different respiratory tract infections. Several studies have detected MDR-GNB in patients with community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Furthermore, MDR-GNB have also been isolated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis having acute or chronic bronchial infection...
July 6, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600447/the-epidemiology-management-and-outcomes-of-bacterial-meningitis-in-infants
#10
Lynda Ouchenir, Christian Renaud, Sarah Khan, Ari Bitnun, Andree-Anne Boisvert, Jane McDonald, Jennifer Bowes, Jason Brophy, Michelle Barton, Joseph Ting, Ashley Roberts, Michael Hawkes, Joan L Robinson
OBJECTIVES: The pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis in infants and their antimicrobial susceptibilities may have changed in this era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, use of conjugated vaccines, and maternal antibiotic prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus (GBS). The objective was to determine the optimal empirical antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in early infancy. METHODS: This was a cohort study of infants <90 days of age with bacterial meningitis at 7 pediatric tertiary care hospitals across Canada in 2013 and 2014...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578553/how-should-we-treat-hospital-acquired-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#11
Jean-François Timsit, Benoit Pilmis, Jean-Ralph Zahar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578556/emergence-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-implications-for-therapy
#12
Joseph P Lynch, George G Zhanel, Nina M Clark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578557/new-strategies-targeting-virulence-factors-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#13
Bruno François, Charles-Edouard Luyt, C Kendall Stover, Jeffery O Brubaker, Jean Chastre, Hasan S Jafri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603226/infections-in-patients-affected-by-liver-cirrhosis-an-update
#14
Tiziana Ascione, Giusy Di Flumeri, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro
Patients with liver cirrhosis present an increased incidence of infections. The main cause has been founded in alterations of the enteric flora and of the intestinal barrier probably due to portal hypertension, in addition to a reticulo-endothelial system dysfunction. Furthermore, those living with cirrhosis can report a high predisposition to sepsis and septic shock, due to the excessive response of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a complessive hemodynamic derangement. By the analysis in the experimental model of the cirrhotic rat, it was demonstrated that radio-labelled Escherichia coli given by the oral route resulted in the location of the bacteria in the gut, the ascitic fluid and mesenteric lymph nodes, a phenomenon known as bacterial translocation...
June 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747261/enterovirus-d68-infection-in-a-cluster-of-children-with-acute-flaccid-myelitis-buenos-aires-argentina-2016
#15
Victor Ruggieri, Maria Ivana Paz, María Gabriela Peretti, Carlos Rugilo, Rosa Bologna, Cecilia Freire, Silvana Vergel, Andrea Savransky
OBJECTIVE: To report a outbreak of 11 cases of acute asymmetric flaccid myelopathy due to spinal motor neuron injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven children, six male, with a mean age of 3 years presented with acute flaccid myelitis. We analyzed clinical features, etiology, neuroradiological images, treatment, and outcome. RESULTS: Nine children had bilateral and asymmetric flaccid myelitis of the upper limbs, 1 had upper limb monoplegia, and 1 presented with hemiparesis...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661966/pneumococcal-meningitis-before-and-after-universal-vaccination-with-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-7-13-impact-on-pediatric-hospitalization-in-public-and-non-public-institutions-in-uruguay
#16
María Catalina Pírez, María Inés Mota, Gustavo Giachetto, Mercedes Sánchez Varela, Jeannette Galazka, Stella Gutierrez, Adriana Varela, Teresa Picón, Gabriela Algorta
This is the first study showing the impact of PCV13 on pneumococcal meningitis in Latin America; a significant (63.5%) reduction in hospitalization was observed during the first 6 years after starting vaccination. A 90% reduction of PCV7/13 serotypes was observed (p<0.0001). After vaccination, all strains were penicillin-susceptible. Mortality had a reduction of 71%.
June 28, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747350/urinary-tract-infection-in-the-very-young-can-we-avoid-voiding-cystography
#17
EDITORIAL
Peter F Hoyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702076/the-management-of-intra-abdominal-infections-from-a-global-perspective-2017-wses-guidelines-for-management-of-intra-abdominal-infections
#18
REVIEW
Massimo Sartelli, Alain Chichom-Mefire, Francesco M Labricciosa, Timothy Hardcastle, Fikri M Abu-Zidan, Abdulrashid K Adesunkanmi, Luca Ansaloni, Miklosh Bala, Zsolt J Balogh, Marcelo A Beltrán, Offir Ben-Ishay, Walter L Biffl, Arianna Birindelli, Miguel A Cainzos, Gianbattista Catalini, Marco Ceresoli, Asri Che Jusoh, Osvaldo Chiara, Federico Coccolini, Raul Coimbra, Francesco Cortese, Zaza Demetrashvili, Salomone Di Saverio, Jose J Diaz, Valery N Egiev, Paula Ferrada, Gustavo P Fraga, Wagih M Ghnnam, Jae Gil Lee, Carlos A Gomes, Andreas Hecker, Torsten Herzog, Jae Il Kim, Kenji Inaba, Arda Isik, Aleksandar Karamarkovic, Jeffry Kashuk, Vladimir Khokha, Andrew W Kirkpatrick, Yoram Kluger, Kaoru Koike, Victor Y Kong, Ari Leppaniemi, Gustavo M Machain, Ronald V Maier, Sanjay Marwah, Michael E McFarlane, Giulia Montori, Ernest E Moore, Ionut Negoi, Iyiade Olaoye, Abdelkarim H Omari, Carlos A Ordonez, Bruno M Pereira, Gerson A Pereira Júnior, Guntars Pupelis, Tarcisio Reis, Boris Sakakhushev, Norio Sato, Helmut A Segovia Lohse, Vishal G Shelat, Kjetil Søreide, Waldemar Uhl, Jan Ulrych, Harry Van Goor, George C Velmahos, Kuo-Ching Yuan, Imtiaz Wani, Dieter G Weber, Sanoop K Zachariah, Fausto Catena
Intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are common surgical emergencies and have been reported as major contributors to non-trauma deaths in the emergency departments worldwide. The cornerstones of effective treatment of IAIs are early recognition, adequate source control, and appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Prompt resuscitation of patients with ongoing sepsis is of utmost important. In hospitals worldwide, non-acceptance of, or lack of access to, accessible evidence-based practices and guidelines result in overall poorer outcome of patients suffering IAIs...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737623/an-observational-study-of-severe-pertussis-in-100-infants-%C3%A2-120-days-of-age
#19
James D Cherry, Kristen Wendorf, Brooke Bregman, Deborah Lehman, Delma Nieves, John S Bradley, Wilbert H Mason, Linette Sande-Lopez, Merrick Lopez, Myke Federman, Tempe Chen, Dean Blumberg, Samantha Johnston, Hayden T Schwenk, Peggy Weintrub, Kevin K Quinn, Kathleen Winter, Kathleen Harriman
BACKGROUND: Pertussis in young infants is a unique, severe, afebrile, cough illness that is frequently fatal. METHODS: All pertussis cases ≤ 120 days of age admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in California between October 1, 2013 and April 25, 2015 were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 100 pertussis patients ≤ 120 days of age admitted to PICU's, there were 5 deaths. The white blood cell (WBC) counts in the fatal cases were significantly higher than in the non-fatal cases...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672402/testing-for-respiratory-viruses-in-children-to-swab-or-not-to-swab
#20
Peter J Gill, Susan E Richardson, Olivia Ostrow, Jeremy N Friedman
Importance: While most viral respiratory tract infections can be diagnosed clinically, clinicians frequently order tests to identify the specific offending virus. While there has been tremendous growth in the variety, availability, and sophistication of the types of respiratory viral tests, there may have been less critical thought and discussion among frontline clinicians about the clinical utility and specific indications for testing. We summarize the rationale historically used to support respiratory virus testing in children, with a review of the supporting evidence...
August 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
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