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Infections

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91 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875593/enterovirus-d68-in-hospitalized-children-sequence-variation-viral-loads-and-clinical-outcomes
#1
Katherine Moyer, Huanyu Wang, Douglas Salamon, Amy Leber, Asuncion Mejias
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) caused severe respiratory illness in 2014. The disease spectrum of EV-D68 infections in children with underlying medical conditions other than asthma, the role of EV-D68 loads on clinical illness, and the variation of EV-D68 strains within the same institution over time have not been described. We sought to define the association between EV-D68 loads and sequence variation, and the clinical characteristic in hospitalized children at our institution from 2011 to 2014...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190911/is-reactive-dengue-ns1antigen-test-a-warning-call-for-hospital-admissions
#2
Sriram Pothapregada, Banupriya Kamalakannan, Mahalakshmy Thulasingam, Srinivasan Sampath
INTRODUCTION: Dengue fever is a major public health problem worldwide. The 2011 revised World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines have emphasized on early diagnosis and intervention to reduce the case fatality rate due to dengue fever. Rapid diagnostic tests like NS1 antigen assays have improved the detection of cases in early clinical phase of illness but its role as a predictor of severe dengue infection is not very clear. AIM: To evaluate the utility of NS1 Ag assay as an early diagnostic marker and predictor of severe dengue infection...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662890/urinary-tract-infections-in-adults
#3
Chee Wei Tan, Maciej Piotr Chlebicki
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with appropriate investigations depending on individual risk factors...
September 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846062/symptomatic-cmv-infections-in-the-1st-year-of-life-when-is-antiviral-therapy-conceived-to-be-justified
#4
Katharina Schuster, Rangmar Goelz, Carsten Speckmann, Philipp Henneke
All infants treated with antiviral medication for symptomatic congenital (diagnosis < 3 weeks) and probably postnatal (> 3 weeks) CMV infection were characterized with the help of a survey covering all German Pediatric hospitals between 2012-2013. We found that > 50% of infants treated for CMV were classified as probably postnatal CMV infection, which was associated with preterm birth and underlying diseases of the immune system, heart or lung.
November 11, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867816/severe-ards-caused-by-adenovirus-early-initiation-of-ecmo-plus-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#5
Sang Ook Ha, Hyoung Soo Kim, Sunghoon Park, Ki-Suck Jung, Seung Hun Jang, Sang Jin Han, Hyun-Sook Kim, Sun Hee Lee
The reported survival rates of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by human adenovirus (HAdV) pneumonia are poor. The results do not differ much in immunocompetent patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We report two immunocompetent patients with severe ARDS complicating HAdV pneumonia who were treated successfully and survived to discharge. Compared with previous cases, our cases might have benefited from several factors. First, the time interval between mechanical ventilator support and ECMO implantation was shorter...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816139/health-care-acquired-viral-respiratory-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Ryan K Dare, Thomas R Talbot
Health care-acquired viral respiratory infections are common and cause increased patient morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus are frequently transmitted in the hospital setting. Studies report decreased nosocomial transmission when aggressive infection control measures are implemented with more success using a multicomponent approach. Influenza vaccination of health care personnel has been shown to further decrease rates of transmission, thus mandatory vaccination is becoming more common...
December 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828810/community-acquired-bacterial-meningitis
#7
Joost M Costerus, Matthijs C Brouwer, Merijn W Bijlsma, Diederik van de Beek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and is associated with a high disease burden. We reviewed recent progress in the management of patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis. RECENT FINDINGS: The worldwide burden of disease of bacterial meningitis remains high, despite the decreasing incidence following introduction of routine vaccination campaigns. Delay in diagnosis and treatment remain major concerns in the management of acute bacterial meningitis...
November 8, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870206/antibiotics-are-being-misused-to-treat-diarrhoeal-disease-in-children-in-central-asia
#8
EDITORIAL
Jim Runesson, Elmira Shamansurova, Gunnar Jacobsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816413/new-who-recommendations-on-preoperative-measures-for-surgical-site-infection-prevention-an-evidence-based-global-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Benedetta Allegranzi, Peter Bischoff, Stijn de Jonge, N Zeynep Kubilay, Bassim Zayed, Stacey M Gomes, Mohamed Abbas, Jasper J Atema, Sarah Gans, Miranda van Rijen, Marja A Boermeester, Matthias Egger, Jan Kluytmans, Didier Pittet, Joseph S Solomkin
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most preventable health-care-associated infections and are a substantial burden to health-care systems and service payers worldwide in terms of patient morbidity, mortality, and additional costs. SSI prevention is complex and requires the integration of a range of measures before, during, and after surgery. No international guidelines are available and inconsistencies in the interpretation of evidence and recommendations of national guidelines have been identified...
November 1, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816414/new-who-recommendations-on-intraoperative-and-postoperative-measures-for-surgical-site-infection-prevention-an-evidence-based-global-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Benedetta Allegranzi, Bassim Zayed, Peter Bischoff, N Zeynep Kubilay, Stijn de Jonge, Fleur de Vries, Stacey M Gomes, Sarah Gans, Elon D Wallert, Xiuwen Wu, Mohamed Abbas, Marja A Boermeester, E Patchen Dellinger, Matthias Egger, Petra Gastmeier, Xavier Guirao, Jianan Ren, Didier Pittet, Joseph S Solomkin
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common health-care-associated infections in developing countries, but they also represent a substantial epidemiological burden in high-income countries. The prevention of these infections is complex and requires the integration of a range of preventive measures before, during, and after surgery. No international guidelines are available and inconsistencies in the interpretation of evidence and recommendations in national guidelines have been identified. Considering the prevention of SSIs as a priority for patient safety, WHO has developed evidence-based and expert consensus-based recommendations on the basis of an extensive list of preventive measures...
November 1, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751313/varicella-myopericarditis-mimicking-acute-myocardial-infarction-with-ards-a-rare-association-in-an-immunocompetent-young-adult
#11
Mayuresh Chaudhari, Sonu Sharma, Rajesh Kumar Jha, Ramandeep Singh Ahuja, Sandeep Bansal
Primary varicella infection in an immunocompetent young adult is very rare, but it has a high mortality rate due to serious complications. We report a rare association of varicella pneumonia presenting in acute respiratory distress with mild chest pain, however with electrocardiographic and biochemical markers suggestive of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography was done to exclude infarction, serum antibody titers confirmed varicella, acyclovir was started, and ARDS was successfully treated with steroid pulse therapy and mechanical ventilator support...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854508/new-repurposed-drugs-for-pediatric-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-practice-based-recommendations
#12
Elizabeth P Harausz, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, James A Seddon, H Simon Schaaf, Anneke C Hesseling, Jay Achar, Jonathan Bernheimer, Andrea Cruz, Lia D'Ambrosio, Anne Detjen, Stephen M Graham, Jennifer Hughes, Sylvie Jonckheere, Ben J Marais, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Lindsay McKenna, Alena Skrahina, Marina Tadolini, Peyton Wilson, Jennifer Furin
It is estimated that 33,000 children develop multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) each year. In spite of these numbers, children and adolescents have limited access to the new and repurposed MDR-TB drugs. There is also little clinical guidance for the use of these drugs and for the shorter MDR-TB regimen in the pediatric population. This is despite the fact that these drugs and regimens are associated with improved interim outcomes and acceptable safety profiles in adults. This review fills a gap in the pediatric MDR-TB literature by providing practice-based recommendations for the use of the new (delamanid and bedaquiline) and repurposed (linezolid and clofazimine) MDR-TB drugs and the new shorter MDR-TB regimen in children and adolescents...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853091/tetanus-in-the-elderly-the-management-of-intensive-care-and-prolonged-hospitalization
#13
Hiroki Isono, Taiju Miyagami, Kohta Katayama, Momoko Isono, Ryuichi Hasegawa, Harumi Gomi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi
Tetanus is a potentially fatal infection. Approximately 100 cases are reported in Japan each year; however, little is known about its clinical course and outcomes in the current era of treatment. We herein report three cases of tetanus in elderly patients who survived after mechanical ventilation and intensive care. These patients, together with six other similar cases, had a median weaning period of 31 days and median length of stay of 77 days. In elderly patients, severe systemic forms of tetanus require prolonged mechanical ventilation and hospitalization...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853992/progress-towards-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-dengue-hemorrhagic-fever
#14
REVIEW
Xiaojing Pang, Rudian Zhang, Gong Cheng
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. There are 4 serotypes of DENV that cause human disease through transmission by mosquito vectors. DENV infection results in a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from mild fever to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), the latter of which can progress to dengue shock syndrome (DSS) and death. Researchers have made unremitting efforts over the last half-century to understand DHF pathogenesis. DHF is probably caused by multiple factors, such as virus-specific antibodies, viral antigens and host immune responses...
November 14, 2016: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761778/antibiotic-resistance-in-pediatric-urinary-tract-infections
#15
REVIEW
Jeremy S Stultz, Christopher D Doern, Emily Godbout
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in pediatric patients. Resistance to common antibiotic agents appears to be increasing over time, although resistance rates may vary based on geographic region or country. Prior antibiotic exposure is a pertinent risk factor for acquiring resistant organisms during a first UTI and recurrent UTI. Judicious prescribing of antibiotics for common pediatric conditions is needed to prevent additional resistance from occurring. Complex pediatric patients with histories of hospitalizations, prior antibiotic exposure, and recurrent UTIs are also at high risk for acquiring UTIs due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26304289/management-of-infections-with-drug-resistant-organisms-in-critical-care-an-ongoing-battle
#16
REVIEW
Sergio E Trevino, Marin H Kollef
Infections with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are common in critically ill patients and are challenging to manage appropriately. Strategies that can be used in the treatment of MDRO infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) include combination therapy, adjunctive aerosolized therapy, and optimization of pharmacokinetics with higher doses or extended-infusion therapy as appropriate. Rapid diagnostic tests could assist in improving timely appropriate antimicrobial therapy for MDRO infections in the ICU...
September 2015: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838716/therapy-for-cellulitis
#17
LETTER
Adam B Raff, Daniela Kroshinsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695457/impact-of-viral-infections-on-hematopoiesis-from-beneficial-to-detrimental-effects-on-bone-marrow-output
#18
Maria Fernanda Pascutti, Martje N Erkelens, Martijn A Nolte
The ability of the bone marrow (BM) to generate copious amounts of blood cells required on a daily basis depends on a highly orchestrated process of proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). This process can be rapidly adapted under stress conditions, such as infections, to meet the specific cellular needs of the immune response and the ensuing physiological changes. This requires a tight regulation in order to prevent either hematopoietic failure or transformation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25764606/liver-function-tests-abnormality-and-clinical-severity-of-dengue-infection-in-adult-patients
#19
Chatporn Kittitrakul, Udomsak Silachamroon, Weerapong Phumratanaprapin, Srivicha Krudsood, Polrat Wilairatana, Sombat Treeprasertsuk
BACKGROUND: The clinical manifestations of dengue infection in the adult are different from those in children, i.e. having less prevalence to bleeding, and more commonly, abnormal liver function tests. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective is to describe the clinical manifestations of dengue infection in adult patients. The secondary objective is to compare the clinical manifestations of dengue infection between the groups of normal and abnormal liver function tests in adult patients...
January 2015: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25640583/clinical-predictors-of-disease-severity-during-the-2009-2010-a-hin1-influenza-virus-pandemic-in-a-paediatric-population
#20
M N Garcia, D C Philpott, K O Murray, A Ontiveros, P A Revell, L Chandramohan, F M Munoz
A novel influenza virus emerged in the United States in spring 2009, rapidly becoming a global pandemic. Children were disproportionally affected by the novel influenza A(H1N1) pandemic virus [A(H1N1)pdm]. This retrospective electronic medical record review study aimed to identify clinical predictors of disease severity of influenza A(HIN1)pdm infection in paediatric patients. Disease severity was defined on an increasing three-level scale from non-hospitalized, hospitalized, and admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU)...
October 2015: Epidemiology and Infection
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