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Infections

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129 papers 25 to 100 followers
By M KKhan Pediatric Intensivist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138010/diagnosis-treatment-and-prevention-of-congenital-toxoplasmosis-in-the-united-states
#1
Yvonne A Maldonado, Jennifer S Read
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
30, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106022/complicated-left-sided-infective-endocarditis-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients-a-case-report
#2
Öykü Gülmez, Mehtap Aydın
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious infectious condition with high morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It has been particularly associated with recurrent bacteremia due to vascular access via lumen catheters. The most common pathogen is Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, and most affected valve is mitral valve, which frequently calcified. Two patients with ESRD who received hemodialysis treatment via tunneled catheters, aged 56 and 88 years, were admitted with fever and high troponin level...
January 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514947/the-changing-face-of-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#3
REVIEW
P Kale, B Dhawan
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of infection, both in hospitalised patients with significant healthcare exposure and in patients without healthcare risk factors. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) are known for their rapid community transmission and propensity to cause aggressive skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired pneumonia. The distinction between the healthcare-associated (HA)-MRSA and CA-MRSA is gradually fading owing to the acquisition of multiple virulence factors and genetic elements...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823794/clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhoea-an-increased-problem
#4
Leticia Urbina Soto, Sara García Ávila, Ana Isabel Córdoba Alonso, M Pía Roiz Mesones, Ana M Arnaiz García, M Carmen Valero Díaz de Lamadrid
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea is a major health problem that seems to be on the increase. In our study, we analyse the changes in the incidence of this infection over the last 11 years. METHODS: A descriptive study in hospitalised patients with Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea in University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla (Santander, Spain) from 2004 to 2014. RESULTS: A total of 244 adults were identified [53% men; 66 (SD 15) years]...
December 16, 2016: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27066882/empirical-therapy-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-an-up-to-date-approach
#5
REVIEW
Alison S VanEperen, John Segreti
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be an important pathogen worldwide, with high prevalence of infection in both community and hospital settings. Timely and appropriate choice of empirical therapy in the setting of MRSA infection is imperative due to the high rate of associated morbidity and mortality with MRSA infections. Initial choices should be made based on the site and severity of the infection, most notably moderate skin and soft tissue infections which may be treated with oral antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, doxycycline/minocycline, linezolid) in the outpatient setting, versus choice of parenteral therapy in the inpatient setting of more invasive or severe disease...
June 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475789/prevalence-of-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-paediatric-urinary-tract-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Myrto Eleni Flokas, Marios Detsis, Michail Alevizakos, Eleftherios Mylonakis
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of paediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), identify predisposing factors and examine their effect on the length of hospital stay (LOS). METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases for studies that provide data on the rate of ESBL-PE among paediatric UTIs. RESULTS: Out of 1828 non-duplicate citations, 16 studies reporting a total of 7374 cases of UTI were included...
December 2016: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159154/viral-pneumonia-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Raj D Shah, Richard G Wunderink
Respiratory viruses are a common cause of severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults. The advent of new diagnostic technologies, particularly multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, have increased the recognition of viral respiratory infections in critically ill adults. Supportive care for adults with ARDS caused by respiratory viruses is similar to the care of patients with ARDS from other causes. Although antiviral therapy is available for some respiratory viral infections, further research is needed to determine which groups of patients would benefit...
March 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077581/redeploying-%C3%AE-lactams-against-staphylococcus-aureus-repurposing-with-a-purpose
#8
EDITORIAL
Arnold S Bayer, Yan Q Xiong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24396135/early-onset-neonatal-sepsis
#9
REVIEW
Kari A Simonsen, Ann L Anderson-Berry, Shirley F Delair, H Dele Davies
Early-onset sepsis remains a common and serious problem for neonates, especially preterm infants. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common etiologic agent, while Escherichia coli is the most common cause of mortality. Current efforts toward maternal intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis have significantly reduced the rates of GBS disease but have been associated with increased rates of Gram-negative infections, especially among very-low-birth-weight infants. The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is based on a combination of clinical presentation; the use of nonspecific markers, including C-reactive protein and procalcitonin (where available); blood cultures; and the use of molecular methods, including PCR...
January 2014: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816145/infection-prevention-and-control-in-healthcare-part-ii-epidemiology-and-prevention-of-infections
#10
EDITORIAL
Keith S Kaye, Sorabh Dhar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26372826/treatment-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-2015
#11
REVIEW
Anthony O'Connor, Javier P Gisbert, Colm O'Morain, Spiros Ladas
Many interesting articles have been published from many parts of the world over the last year assessing different issues around Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. This article will address the published literature over the last year pertaining to the topic of treatment of H. pylori infection. The main themes that emerge are assessing the efficacy of standard triple therapy, as well as exploring new first-line treatments, mainly optimized nonbismuth- and bismuth-containing quadruple therapies with some promising data also emerging on dual therapy...
September 2015: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032484/treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#12
REVIEW
Eun Ju Choo, Henry F Chambers
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant cause of health care-associated infections. Vancomycin remains an acceptable treatment option. There has been a welcome increase in the number of agents available for the treatment of MRSA infection. These drugs have certain differentiating attributes and may offer some advantages over vancomycin, but they also have significant limitations. These agents provide some alternative when no other options are available.
December 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25805835/india-should-screen-all-tuberculosis-patients-for-drug-resistant-disease-at-diagnosis
#13
Yogesh Jain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22016079/unexplained-deterioration-during-antituberculous-therapy-in-children-and-adolescents-clinical-presentation-and-risk-factors
#14
Nisha Thampi, Derek Stephens, Elizabeth Rea, Ian Kitai
BACKGROUND: Patients may unexpectedly deteriorate clinically and/or radiographically during the course of appropriate treatment for tuberculosis. These events have been extensively studied in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients; however, there are few data about immunocompetent children and adolescents. METHODS: We studied all human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients treated for tuberculosis at our center between January 2002 and July 2009. Demographics, sites of disease at diagnosis and deterioration, and actions at the time of deterioration were reviewed...
February 2012: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813024/cytomegalovirus-infection-in-immunocompetent-critically-ill-adults-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Awad Al-Omari, Fadi Aljamaan, Waleed Alhazzani, Samer Salih, Yaseen Arabi
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is increasingly recognized in critically ill immunocompetent patients. Some studies have demonstrated an association between CMV disease and increased mortality rates, prolonged intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and nosocomial infections. However, there is a considerable controversy whether such association represents a causal relationship between CMV disease and unfavorable outcomes or just a marker of the severity of the critical illness...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986679/prevention-and-infection-management-in-mechanical-circulatory-support-device-recipients
#16
Shimon Kusne, Linda Staley, Francisco Arabia
There are currently no guidelines for the management of infection and its prevention in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) device recipients. The International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) has initiated a multidisciplinary collaboration for the creation of a consensus document to guide clinicians in infection prevention and management in MCS patients. Most medical centers use local protocols that are based on expert opinion. MCS recipients are debilitated and have some immunological dysfunction...
January 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927672/influenza
#17
REVIEW
Sam Ghebrehewet, Peter MacPherson, Antonia Ho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152067/characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-and-predictors-of-early-and-late-mortality
#18
Matteo Bassetti, Maddalena Peghin, Enrico Maria Trecarichi, Alessia Carnelutti, Elda Righi, Paola Del Giacomo, Filippo Ansaldi, Cecilia Trucchi, Cristiano Alicino, Roberto Cauda, Assunta Sartor, Teresa Spanu, Claudio Scarparo, Mario Tumbarello
We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and to evaluate the risk factors associated with early (7-day) and late (30-day) mortality. We performed an observational study including all consecutive episodes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia diagnosed at two Italian university hospitals during 2010-2014. A total of 337 patients were included. Mean age was 69 years (range, 57-78) and 65% were males. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was identified in 132/337 (39%)cases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151843/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-associated-diarrheal-diseases-in-children
#19
Chih-Hsien Chuang, Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Yi-Hsin Wang, Hsin-Ju Chang, Yhu-Chering Huang, Tzou-Yien Lin, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal tract is not the common infection site of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The role of P. aeruginosa as a causative agent for diarrhea in children without pre-existing disease is controversial. METHODS: From 2003 to 2012 we reviewed the records of 259 diarrheal patients less than 5 years of age whose stool culture grew P. aeruginosa. Virulence phenotypes of bacterial isolates were determined in vitro, including cytotoxicity, penetration and adherence to epithelial cells...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151994/toxin-mediates-sepsis-caused-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#20
Li Qin, Fei Da, Emilie L Fisher, Daniel C S Tan, Thuan H Nguyen, Chih-Lung Fu, Vee Y Tan, Joshua W McCausland, Daniel E Sturdevant, Hwang-Soo Joo, Shu Y Queck, Gordon Y C Cheung, Michael Otto
Bacterial sepsis is a major killer in hospitalized patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) with the leading species Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most frequent causes of nosocomial sepsis, with most infectious isolates being methicillin-resistant. However, which bacterial factors underlie the pathogenesis of CNS sepsis is unknown. While it has been commonly believed that invariant structures on the surface of CNS trigger sepsis by causing an over-reaction of the immune system, we show here that sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant S...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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