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Infections

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221 papers 25 to 100 followers
By M KKhan Pediatric Intensivist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26300457/recommendations-for-the-use-of-long-term-central-venous-catheter-cvc-in-children-with-hemato-oncological-disorders-management-of-cvc-related-occlusion-and-cvc-related-thrombosis-on-behalf-of-the-coagulation-defects-working-group-and-the-supportive-therapy-working
#1
REVIEW
Paola Giordano, Paola Saracco, Massimo Grassi, Matteo Luciani, Laura Banov, Francesca Carraro, Alessandro Crocoli, Simone Cesaro, Giulio Andrea Zanazzo, Angelo Claudio Molinari
Central venous catheters (CVC), used for the management of children with hemato-oncological disorders, are burdened by a significant incidence of mechanical, infective, or thrombotic complications. These complications favor an increasing risk in prolongation of hospitalization, extra costs of care, and sometimes severe life-threatening events. No guidelines for the management of CVC-related occlusion and CVC-related thrombosis are available for children. To this aim, members of the coagulation defects working group and the supportive therapy working group of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) reviewed the pediatric and adult literature to propose the first recommendations for the management of CVC-related occlusion and CVC-related thrombosis in children with hemato-oncological disorders...
November 2015: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895024/tuberculosis-meningitis
#2
REVIEW
Kassem Bourgi, Christina Fiske, Timothy R Sterling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the most severe form of tuberculosis (TB), TB meningitis disproportionately affects developing countries and results in significant morbidity and mortality. In this report, we review recent updates in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of TB meningitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Young children and people living with HIV continue to be at highest risk for TB meningitis. Early diagnosis remains challenging, especially since conventional diagnostic tests have sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity...
September 11, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518018/penicillin-resistance-of-nonvaccine-type-pneumococcus-before-and-after-pcv13-introduction-united-states
#3
Cheryl P Andam, Colin J Worby, Ryan Gierke, Lesley McGee, Tamara Pilishvili, William P Hanage
Introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the United States was not associated with a significant change in prevalence of penicillin resistance in nonvaccine type serotypes because of the variable success of highly resistant serotypes. Differences in regional serotype distribution and serotype-specific resistance contributed to geographic heterogeneity of penicillin resistance.
June 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26901109/what-is-the-clinical-relevance-of-drug-resistant-pneumococcus
#4
REVIEW
Catia Cillóniz, Carmen Ardanuy, Jordi Vila, Antoni Torres
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In recent years, Streptococcus pneumoniae has shown increasing resistance to a several antibiotics, becoming a worldwide problem. The impact of antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae on clinical outcomes is still controversial. The principal reason for this controversy is the existence of several factors related to the patients and to the pathogen that may influence how antibiotic resistance patterns affect clinical outcomes...
May 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28784703/acute-otitis-media-in-the-21st-century-what-now
#5
Richard C Wasserman, Jeffrey S Gerber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848008/when-good-bugs-go-bad-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-corynebacterium-striatum-an-emerging-multidrug-resistant-opportunistic-pathogen
#6
Allison R McMullen, Neil Anderson, Meghan A Wallace, Angela Shupe, C A Burnham
Infections with Corynebacterium striatum have been described in the literature over the last two decades, with the majority being bacteremia, central line infections, and occasionally endocarditis. In recent years, the frequency of C. striatum infections appears to be increasing; a likely factor contributing to this is the increased ease and accuracy of the identification of Corynebacterium spp., including C. striatum, from clinical cultures. The objective of this study was to retrospectively characterize C...
August 28, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457352/carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#7
REVIEW
Alina Iovleva, Yohei Doi
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have emerged as a major threat. Commonly used antibiotics are generally inactive against CRE. Therefore, timely detection of CRE is of paramount importance. Among CRE, those producing carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamase enzymes (carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae) are particularly of concern because they tend to spread, and treatment is difficult. The carbapenemase groups most commonly encountered include KPC, NDM, and OXA-48. Treatment options are limited and include combinations of polymyxins, tigecycline, aminoglycosides, or carbapenems; newer agents with activity against CRE and better safety profiles are becoming available and will likely emerge as the preferred therapy...
June 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457355/chikungunya-virus
#8
REVIEW
David M Vu, Donald Jungkind, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud
For chikungunya virus (CHIKV), the long-term sequelae from infection are yet ill-defined. The prolonged debilitating arthralgia associated with CHIKV infection has tremendous potential for impacting the global economy and should be considered when evaluating the human burden of disease and the allocation of resources. There is much still unknown about CHIKV and the illnesses that it causes. Developing a better understanding of the pathogenesis of CHIKV infection is a priority and forms the basis for developing effective strategies at infection prevention and disease control...
June 2017: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797483/when-to-consider-the-possibility-of-a-fungal-infection-an-overview-of-clinical-diagnosis-and-laboratory-approaches
#9
REVIEW
Cassandra M Batzlaff, Andrew H Limper
Fungal infections are an important and increasingly prevalent cause of disease in certain patient populations. These infections can occur both in immune-compromised and immune-competent individuals. Because the number of patients who are immunocompromised is steadily growing, it is vital for clinicians to consider fungal disease in the differential diagnosis of these patients. This article reviews the epidemiology and approach to diagnosis of a variety of fungal infections.
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797484/overview-of-treatment-approaches-for-fungal-infections
#10
REVIEW
Eva M Carmona, Andrew H Limper
Invasive fungal diseases cause high morbidity and mortality in an immunocompromised host. Antifungals are the drugs of choice and can be divided into 4 main groups: polyenes, azoles, echinocandins, and pyrimidine analogues. Each class has its specific mechanism of action, spectrum of activity, and pharmacokinetic and side effects. It is important to understand the precise use of the established and new antifungal agents to successfully manage these complex infections in an already tenuous and frail host. This article discusses the main characteristics, clinical uses, and secondary effects of the main antifungals used in clinical practice...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797490/fungal-pneumonia-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancy-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
REVIEW
Alisha Y Young, Miguel M Leiva Juarez, Scott E Evans
Fungal pneumonias cause unacceptable morbidity among patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) and recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The high incidence of fungal pneumonias in HM/HSCT populations arises from their frequently severe, complex, and persistent immune dysfunction caused by the underlying disease and its treatment. The cytopenias, treatment toxicities, and other immune derangements that make patients susceptible to fungal pneumonia frequently complicate its diagnosis and increase the intensity and duration of antifungal therapy...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797491/candidemia-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#12
REVIEW
Oleg Epelbaum, Rachel Chasan
Candidemia presents several challenges to the intensive care unit (ICU) community. Recognition and treatment of this infection is frequently delayed, with dramatic clinical deterioration and death often preceding the detection of Candida in blood cultures. Identification of individual patients at the highest risk for developing candidemia remains an imperfect science; the role of antifungal therapy before culture diagnosis is yet to be fully defined in the ICU. The absence of well-established molecular techniques for early detection of candidemia hinders efforts to reduce the heavy clinical and economic impact of this infection...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797492/fungal-infections-after-lung-transplantation
#13
REVIEW
Cassie C Kennedy, Raymund R Razonable
Infection remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality after lung transplant, including fungal infection. Various antifungal prophylactic agents are administered for a variable duration after transplant with the goal of preventing invasive fungal infections. Alternatively, some programs target the use of antifungal agents only in those colonized with Aspergillus spp. Despite prophylaxis or preemptive therapy, a significant number of invasive fungal infections occur after lung transplant. Risk factors for fungal infections include single lung transplant, pretransplant Aspergillus colonization, environmental risks, structural lung disease such as cystic fibrosis, augmented immunosuppression, sinus disease, and use of indwelling airway stents...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797493/allergic-and-noninvasive-infectious-pulmonary-aspergillosis-syndromes
#14
REVIEW
Eavan G Muldoon, Mary E Strek, Karen C Patterson
Aspergillus spp are ubiquitous in the environment, and inhalation of Aspergillus spores is unavoidable. An intact immune system, with normal airway function, protects most people from disease. Globally, however, the toll from aspergillosis is high. The literature has largely focused on invasive aspergillosis, yet the burden in terms of chronicity and prevalence is higher for noninvasive Aspergillus conditions. This article discusses allergic aspergilloses and provides an update on the diagnosis and management of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, including in patients with cystic fibrosis, and an update on severe asthma with fungal sensitization...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797494/laboratory-diagnostics-for-fungal-infections-a-review-of-current-and-future-diagnostic-assays
#15
REVIEW
Poornima Ramanan, Nancy L Wengenack, Elitza S Theel
This article reviews the current diagnostic approaches, both serologic and molecular, for the detection of fungi associated with pulmonary disease. Classic serologic techniques, including immunodiffusion and complement fixation, both of which remain a cornerstone for fungal diagnostic testing, are reviewed and their performance characteristics presented. More recent advances in this field, including novel lateral-flow assays for fungal antigen detection, are also described. Molecular techniques for fungal identification both from culture and directly from patient specimens, including nucleic acid probes, mass spectrometry-based methods, nucleic acid amplification testing, and traditional and broad-range sequencing, are discussed and their performance evaluated...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797495/emergence-of-the-molds-other-than-aspergillus-in-immunocompromised-patients
#16
REVIEW
Sana Arif, John R Perfect
Immunocompromised patients are at high risk for invasive fungal infections (IFIs); although Aspergillus remains the most common IFI caused by molds, other fungi, such as Mucorales, dematiaceous molds, and Fusarium spp, are being seen with increasing frequency. Presentations can vary, but sinopulmonary and disseminated infections are common. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of these infections is rudimentary. Fungal cultures and histopathology remain the backbone of diagnostics, as no good serologic markers are available...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734514/malaria-in-children
#17
REVIEW
Lauren M Cohee, Miriam K Laufer
Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, leading to an estimated 438,000 deaths in 2015. Malaria is also an important health threat to travelers to endemic countries and should be considered in evaluation of any traveler returning from a malaria-endemic area who develops fever. Considering the diagnosis of malaria in patients with potential exposure is critical. Prompt provision of effective treatment limits the complications of malaria and can be life-saving. Understanding Plasmodium species variation, epidemiology, and drug-resistance patterns in the geographic area where infection was acquired is important for determining treatment choices...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734517/tuberculosis-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Tania A Thomas
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death worldwide from a single bacterial pathogen. The World Health Organization estimates that annually 1 million children have tuberculosis (TB) disease and many more harbor a latent form. Accurate estimates are hindered by under-recognition and challenges in diagnosis. To date, an accurate diagnostic test to confirm TB in children does not exist. Treatment is lengthy but outcomes are generally favorable with timely initiation. With the End TB Strategy, there is an urgent need for improved diagnostics and treatment to prevent the unnecessary morbidity and mortality from TB in children...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787295/critically-ill-patients-with-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Yaseen M Arabi, Awad Al-Omari, Yasser Mandourah, Fahad Al-Hameed, Anees A Sindi, Basem Alraddadi, Sarah Shalhoub, Abdullah Almotairi, Kasim Al Khatib, Ahmed Abdulmomen, Ismael Qushmaq, Ahmed Mady, Othman Solaiman, Abdulsalam M Al-Aithan, Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Ahmed Ragab, Ghaleb A Al Mekhlafi, Abdulrahman Al Harthy, Ayman Kharaba, Mashael Al Ahmadi, Musharaf Sadat, Hanan Al Mutairi, Eman Al Qasim, Jesna Jose, Maliha Nasim, Abdulaziz Al-Dawood, Laura Merson, Robert Fowler, Frederick G Hayden, Hanan H Balkhy
OBJECTIVES: To describe patient characteristics, clinical manifestations, disease course including viral replication patterns, and outcomes of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory infection from the Middle East respiratory syndrome and to compare these features with patients with severe acute respiratory infection due to other etiologies. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Patients admitted to ICUs in 14 Saudi Arabian hospitals...
October 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807042/incidence-prevalence-and-management-of-mrsa-bacteremia-across-patient-populations-a-review-of-recent-developments-in-mrsa-management-and-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Ali Hassoun, Peter K Linden, Bruce Friedman
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is still a major global healthcare problem. Of concern is S. aureus bacteremia, which exhibits high rates of morbidity and mortality and can cause metastatic or complicated infections such as infective endocarditis or sepsis. MRSA is responsible for most global S. aureus bacteremia cases, and compared with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, MRSA infection is associated with poorer clinical outcomes. S. aureus virulence is affected by the unique combination of toxin and immune-modulatory gene products, which may differ by geographic location and healthcare- or community-associated acquisition...
August 14, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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