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Nephrol

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186 papers 25 to 100 followers
By M KKhan Pediatric Intensivist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412770/anemia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Meredith A Atkinson, Bradley A Warady
Anemia is common and associated with adverse outcomes in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many factors contribute to declining hemoglobin as CKD progresses, but impaired production of erythropoietin by failing kidneys is a central cause. Hepcidin-mediated iron restriction also contributes to anemia by downregulating both intestinal iron absorption and release of stored iron for erythropoiesis. The core components of anemia management remain erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) and iron supplementation, but despite these therapies, a substantial number of children remain anemic...
April 15, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248140/biomarkers-in-acute-kidney-injury-aki
#2
REVIEW
Su Hooi Teo, Zoltán Huba Endre
Acute kidney injury is common in critically ill patients and portends a significant impact on mortality, progressive chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease and mortality. Though most physicians alter therapy depending on changes in serum creatinine, this often represents delayed intervention. Various AKI biomarkers have been discovered and validated to improve timely detection, differentiation and stratification into risk groups for progressive renal decline, need for renal replacement therapy or death...
September 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220099/supportive-palliative-care-should-be-integrated-into-routine-care-for-paediatric-patients-with-life-limiting-kidney-disease
#3
REVIEW
Julia Thumfart, Tobias Reindl, Cornelia Rheinlaender, Dominik Müller
Paediatric palliative care is no longer restricted to patients with cancer and has been extended to patients with other chronic conditions, such as cystic fibrosis or neuromuscular disorders. This review focused on the current state of palliative care for children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed the literature on CKD published up to August 2017. All the papers, except one from 1996, were published this century. This review discusses the role that palliative care plays in the process of decision-making and explores the possibilities of implementing palliative care into the routine therapy of affected patients and providing support for their families...
December 8, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255903/time-to-implement-the-kidney-failure-risk-equation-into-pediatric-practice
#4
Allison Dart, Paul Komenda, Navdeep Tangri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 18, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24327265/lipid-lowering-agents-for-nephrotic-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Xiangyu Kong, Hao Yuan, Junming Fan, Zi Li, Taixiang Wu, Lanhui Jiang
BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome is the collective name given to a group of symptoms that include proteinuria, lipiduria, hypoalbuminaemia, oedema, hypercholesterolaemia, elevated triglycerides, and hyperlipidaemia. Hyperlipidaemia is thought to aggravate glomerulosclerosis (hardening of blood vessels in the kidneys) and enhance progression of glomerular disease. Studies have established that reduction in total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is associated with reduction in risk of cardiovascular diseases...
2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242109/haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Fadi Fakhouri, Julien Zuber, Véronique Frémeaux-Bacchi, Chantal Loirat
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy affecting predominantly the kidney and characterised by a triad of thrombocytopenia, mechanical haemolytic anaemia, and acute kidney injury. The term encompasses several disorders: shiga toxin-induced and pneumococcus-induced haemolytic uraemic syndrome, haemolytic uraemic syndrome associated with complement dysregulation or mutation of diacylglycerol kinase ɛ, haemolytic uraemic syndrome related to cobalamin C defect, and haemolytic uraemic syndrome secondary to a heterogeneous group of causes (infections, drugs, cancer, and systemic diseases)...
August 12, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236027/validation-of-the-custo-screen-pediatric-blood-pressure-monitor-according-to-the-european-society-of-hypertension-international-protocol-revision-2010
#7
Beate Beime, Cornelia Deutsch, Ralf Krüger, Andreas Wolf, Peter Müller, Gertrud Hammel, Peter Bramlage
The purpose of the study was to validate the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) device custo screen pediatric in children aged 3 to 12 years according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP revision 2010). Thirty-three children were included and systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were performed according to the ESH-IP. The protocol was modified for children considering data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KIGGS)...
May 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779238/effect-of-renal-function-on-antihypertensive-drug-safety-and-efficacy-in-children
#8
Kevin M Watt, Debbie Avant, Jennifer Sherwin, Daniel K Benjamin, Christoph Hornik, Daniel K Benjamin, Jennifer S Li, P Brian Smith
BACKGROUND: Hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are common comorbidities. Guidelines recommend treating hypertension in children with CKD because it is a modifiable risk factor for subsequent cardiovascular disease. Children with CKD are frequently excluded from antihypertensive drug trials. Consequently, safety and efficacy data for antihypertensive drugs are lacking in children with CKD. METHODS: We determined the incidence of adverse events in 10 pediatric antihypertensive trials to determine the effect of renal function on antihypertensive safety and efficacy in children...
August 4, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939921/pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
REVIEW
Nadine Khouzam, Katherine Wesseling-Perry
Life expectancy in patients with all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) falls far short of that in the general population. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in pediatric patients with CKD. In contrast to the intimal atherosclerotic lesions that characterize cardiovascular disease in the general population, vascular endothelial dysfunction, medial arterial calcification, and cardiac dysfunction contribute to cardiovascular pathological conditions in CKD. The pathogenesis of these lesions, the origins of which can be identified in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, is incompletely understood...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836059/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-children-with-kidney-disease
#10
REVIEW
Cristina Gavrilovici, Ingrith Miron, Luminiţa Voroneanu, Silvia Bădărau, Magdalena Stârcea
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been described as a neurological condition observed in a variety of clinical settings and is characterized by focal neurological deficits, seizures, headaches, altered mental status, and visual impairment, associated with transient typical lesions on neuroimaging, predominantly in the posterior part of the brain. The most common risk factors for PRES are hypertension, renal diseases, and the use of calcineurin inhibitors. The incidence of PRES in children with renal disorders varies between 4 and 9%, according to different reports...
October 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879535/hypercalcemia-a-consultant-s-approach
#11
Ari Auron, Uri S Alon
Due to their daily involvement in mineral metabolism, nephrologists are often asked to consult on children with hypercalcemia. This might become even more pertinent when the hypercalcemia is associated with acute kidney injury and/or hypercalciuria and renal calcifications. The best way to assess the severity of hypercalcemia is by measurement of plasma ionized calcium, and if not available by adjusting serum total calcium to albumin concentration. The differential diagnosis of the possible etiologies of the disturbance in the mineral homeostasis starts with the assessment of serum parathyroid hormone concentration, followed by that of vitamin D metabolites in search of both genetic and acquired etiologies...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879428/difficult-to-treat-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome-established-drugs-open-questions-and-future-options
#12
REVIEW
Markus J Kemper, Lisa Valentin, Michael van Husen
The idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in childhood can be classified according to the International Study of Kidney Disease in Children (ISKDC) based on the response to steroids. Typically, steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) is characterised by minimal changes in disease (MCD) histology, whereas in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most prevalent lesion. Patients with SSNS may develop frequent relapses and/or steroid dependency, which can be difficult to treat...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896442/regional-citrate-anticoagulation-for-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-in-children
#13
Mayerly Prada Rico, Jaime Fernández Sarmiento, Ana María Rojas Velasquez, Luz Stella González Chaparro, Ricardo Gastelbondo Amaya, Hernando Mulett Hoyos, Daniel Tibaduiza, Ana Maria Quintero Gómez
BACKGROUND: Anticoagulation of the continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) circuit is an important technical aspect of this medical procedure. Most studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of citrate use have been carried out in adults, and little evidence is available for the pediatric patient population. The aim of this study was to compare regional citrate anticoagulation versus systemic heparin anticoagulation in terms of the lifetime of hemofilters in a pediatric population receiving CRRT at a pediatric center in Bogota, Colombia...
April 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884355/influenza-associated-thrombotic-microangiopathies
#14
REVIEW
Martin Bitzan, Jakub Zieg
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) refers to phenotypically similar disorders, including hemolytic uremic syndromes (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This review explores the role of the influenza virus as trigger of HUS or TTP. We conducted a literature survey in PubMed and Google Scholar using HUS, TTP, TMA, and influenza as keywords, and extracted and analyzed reported epidemiological and clinical data. We identified 25 cases of influenza-associated TMA. Five additional cases were linked to influenza vaccination and analyzed separately...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809621/cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-mortality-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Abdullahi Mudi, Caroline Dickens, Cecil Levy, Daynia Ballot
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins early in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and its progression is determined by the presence of single or multiple cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of CVRFs in children with CKD and their association with mortality in children on chronic dialysis. METHODS: This comparative cross-sectional study recruited children aged 5 - 18 years with all stages of CKD...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828529/clinical-management-of-nocturnal-enuresis
#16
Eberhard Kuwertz-Bröking, Alexander von Gontard
Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is a common health problem. Approximately 10% of 7-year-old children wet the bed regularly during sleep. Enuresis can be categorized into monosymptomatic (MEN) and nonmonosymptomatic (NMEN) forms. MEN occurs without any other symptoms of bladder dysfunction. NMEN is associated with dysfunction of the lower urinary tract with or without daytime incontinence. The rate of comorbid gastrointestinal, behavioral, and emotional disorders is elevated depending upon the subtype of NE. A careful clinical history is fundamental to the evaluation of enuresis...
August 21, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820041/a-report-of-7-year-experience-on-pediatric-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#17
Ayse Filiz Yetimakman, Selman Kesici, Murat Tanyildiz, Umut Selda Bayrakci, Benan Bayrakci
BACKGROUND: Continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRTs) either as continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) or hemodiafiltration (CVVHD) are used frequently in critically ill children. Many clinical variables and technical issues are known to affect the result. The factors that could be modified to increase the survival of renal replacement are sought. As a contribution, we present the data on 104 patients who underwent CRRT within a 7-year period. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A total of 104 patients admitted between 2009 and 2016 were included in the study...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711074/hereditary-renal-diseases
#18
Lakshmi Mehta, Belinda Jim
Hereditary kidney disease comprises approximately 10% of adults and nearly all children who require renal replacement therapy. Technologic advances have improved our ability to perform genetic diagnosis and enhanced our understanding of renal and syndromic diseases. In this article, we review the genetics of renal diseases, including common monogenic diseases such as polycystic kidney disease, Alport syndrome, and Fabry disease, as well as complex disorders such as congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract...
July 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749627/acute-kidney-injury-in-pediatric-patients-diagnosis-and-management-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#19
Daniel Mohrer, Melissa Langhan, Pradip Chaudhari
Pediatric acute kidney injury is a condition that is underdiagnosed among children seen in the emergency department, and it has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including increased risk for chronic kidney disease. The most common etiologies in pediatric patients are now known to be due to hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, and cardiac dysfunction. This issue compares 3 classification systems for the diagnosis and staging of acute kidney injury and reviews the etiologies that lead to kidney injury in children...
May 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681079/urinary-tract-infection-in-small-children-the-evolution-of-renal-damage-over-time
#20
Svante Swerkersson, Ulf Jodal, Rune Sixt, Eira Stokland, Sverker Hansson
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to analyze the evolution of kidney damage over time in small children with urinary tract infection (UTI) and factors associated with progression of renal damage. METHODS: From a cohort of 1003 children <2 years of age with first-time UTI, a retrospective analysis of 103 children was done. Children were selected because of renal damage at index 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy at least 3 months after UTI, and a late DMSA scan was performed after at least 2 years...
July 5, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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