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Nephrol

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195 papers 25 to 100 followers
By M KKhan Pediatric Intensivist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523958/assessment-and-management-of-fluid-overload-in-children-on-dialysis
#1
Wesley Hayes, Fabio Paglialonga
Dysregulation of intravascular fluid leads to chronic volume overload in children with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Sequelae include left ventricular hypertrophy and remodeling and impaired cardiac function. As a result, cardiovascular complications are the commonest cause of mortality in the pediatric dialysis population. The clinical need to optimize intravascular volume in children with ESKD is clear; however, its assessment and management is the most challenging aspect of the pediatric dialysis prescription...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626241/infectious-disease-risks-in-pediatric-renal-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Felicia A Scaggs Huang, Lara Danziger-Isakov
Renal transplantation is a vital treatment option in children with ESRD with more than 10,000 pediatric kidney transplants and survival rates of greater than 80% at 10 years post-transplant in the USA alone. Despite these advances, infection remains a significant cause of morbidity in pediatric recipients. Screening potential organ donors and recipients is imperative to identify and mitigate infectious risks in the transplant patient. Despite the unique risks of each patient, the timing of many infections post-transplant is predictable...
April 6, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766272/blood-pressure-is-normal-but-is-the-heart
#3
Serkan Fazlı Çelik, Cemşit Karakurt, Yılmaz Tabel, Taner Elmas, Saim Yoloğlu
BACKGROUND: There is no detailed strain analysis of cardiac functions in treated hypertensive pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardio-protective effects of different drug classes in treated pediatric hypertensive patients. METHODS: Sixty non-obese-treated hypertensive patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function and 45 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy subjects underwent clinical evaluation, including 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, standard echocardiographic examination, tissue Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517980/role-of-hypertension-in-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-children
#4
Smitha R Vidi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypertension is an independent risk factor for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. Children with early CKD develop hypertension secondary to renal disease. This review aims to highlight recent advances that help us better understand the current role of hypertension in progression of CKD in children. RECENT FINDINGS: There is increasing evidence that children with CKD who have hypertension develop early atherosclerosis and cardiac adaptive changes...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398058/neurocognitive-function-in-children-with-primary-hypertension-after-initiation-of-antihypertensive-therapy
#5
Marc B Lande, Donald L Batisky, Juan C Kupferman, Joshua Samuels, Stephen R Hooper, Bonita Falkner, Shari R Waldstein, Peter G Szilagyi, Hongyue Wang, Jennifer Staskiewicz, Heather R Adams
OBJECTIVE: To determine the change in neurocognitive test performance in children with primary hypertension after initiation of antihypertensive therapy. STUDY DESIGN: Subjects with hypertension and normotensive control subjects had neurocognitive testing at baseline and again after 1 year, during which time the subjects with hypertension received antihypertensive therapy. Subjects completed tests of general intelligence, attention, memory, executive function, and processing speed, and parents completed rating scales of executive function...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466174/-pharmacological-properties-of-loop-diuretics-and-their-clinical-effects
#6
G Sakalauskienė, G Civinskienė, A Antuševas, P Civinskas
Edematous states caused by an excessesive extracellular fluid retention are major components of cardiovascular and renal disorders including chronic kidney disease, nephrotic syndrome, and heart failure. The use of diuretic drugs from various groups including loop duiretics are important means of pharmacological correction of these clinical conditions. Moreover, diuretics used to lower bood pressure as a part of antihypertensive treatment, reduce cardiovascular events. The response of patients to the dose of a diuretic is reflected by a sigmoid dose-response curve which can be affected by changes of sodium content in the body...
January 2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383444/the-role-of-macrophages-during-acute-kidney-injury-destruction-and-repair
#7
REVIEW
Hwa I Han, Lauren B Skvarca, Eugenel B Espiritu, Alan J Davidson, Neil A Hukriede
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined by a rapid decline in renal function. Regardless of the initial cause of injury, the influx of immune cells is a common theme during AKI. While an inflammatory response is critical for the initial control of injury, a prolonged response can negatively affect tissue repair. In this review, we focus on the role of macrophages, from early inflammation to resolution, during AKI. These cells serve as the innate defense system by phagocytosing cellular debris and pathogenic molecules and bridge communication with the adaptive immune system by acting as antigen-presenting cells and secreting cytokines...
January 30, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181713/genetic-testing-in-steroid-resistant-nephrotic-syndrome-why-who-when-and-how
#8
REVIEW
Rebecca Preston, Helen M Stuart, Rachel Lennon
Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is a common cause of chronic kidney disease in childhood and has a significant risk of rapid progression to end-stage renal disease. The identification of over 50 monogenic causes of SRNS has revealed dysfunction in podocyte-associated proteins in the pathogenesis of proteinuria, highlighting their essential role in glomerular function. Recent technological advances in high-throughput sequencing have enabled indication-driven genetic panel testing for patients with SRNS...
November 27, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344508/acid-base-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-patients-with-and-without-chronic-kidney-disease-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Tsering Dhondup, Qi Qian
Kidneys play a pivotal role in the maintenance and regulation of acid-base and electrolyte homeostasis, which is the prerequisite for numerous metabolic processes and organ functions in the human body. Chronic kidney diseases compromise the regulatory functions, resulting in alterations in electrolyte and acid-base balance that can be life-threatening. In this review, we discuss the renal regulations of electrolyte and acid-base balance and several common disorders including metabolic acidosis, alkalosis, dysnatremia, dyskalemia, and dysmagnesemia...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412770/anemia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
Meredith A Atkinson, Bradley A Warady
Anemia is common and associated with adverse outcomes in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many factors contribute to declining hemoglobin as CKD progresses, but impaired production of erythropoietin by failing kidneys is a central cause. Hepcidin-mediated iron restriction also contributes to anemia by downregulating both intestinal iron absorption and release of stored iron for erythropoiesis. The core components of anemia management remain erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) and iron supplementation, but despite these therapies, a substantial number of children remain anemic...
February 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248140/biomarkers-in-acute-kidney-injury-aki
#11
REVIEW
Su Hooi Teo, Zoltán Huba Endre
Acute kidney injury is common in critically ill patients and portends a significant impact on mortality, progressive chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease and mortality. Though most physicians alter therapy depending on changes in serum creatinine, this often represents delayed intervention. Various AKI biomarkers have been discovered and validated to improve timely detection, differentiation and stratification into risk groups for progressive renal decline, need for renal replacement therapy or death...
September 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220099/supportive-palliative-care-should-be-integrated-into-routine-care-for-paediatric-patients-with-life-limiting-kidney-disease
#12
REVIEW
Julia Thumfart, Tobias Reindl, Cornelia Rheinlaender, Dominik Müller
Paediatric palliative care is no longer restricted to patients with cancer and has been extended to patients with other chronic conditions, such as cystic fibrosis or neuromuscular disorders. This review focused on the current state of palliative care for children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We assessed the literature on CKD published up to August 2017. All the papers, except one from 1996, were published this century. This review discusses the role that palliative care plays in the process of decision-making and explores the possibilities of implementing palliative care into the routine therapy of affected patients and providing support for their families...
March 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255903/time-to-implement-the-kidney-failure-risk-equation-into-pediatric-practice
#13
Allison Dart, Paul Komenda, Navdeep Tangri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24327265/lipid-lowering-agents-for-nephrotic-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Xiangyu Kong, Hao Yuan, Junming Fan, Zi Li, Taixiang Wu, Lanhui Jiang
BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome is the collective name given to a group of symptoms that include proteinuria, lipiduria, hypoalbuminaemia, oedema, hypercholesterolaemia, elevated triglycerides, and hyperlipidaemia. Hyperlipidaemia is thought to aggravate glomerulosclerosis (hardening of blood vessels in the kidneys) and enhance progression of glomerular disease. Studies have established that reduction in total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is associated with reduction in risk of cardiovascular diseases...
2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242109/haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Fadi Fakhouri, Julien Zuber, Véronique Frémeaux-Bacchi, Chantal Loirat
Haemolytic uraemic syndrome is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy affecting predominantly the kidney and characterised by a triad of thrombocytopenia, mechanical haemolytic anaemia, and acute kidney injury. The term encompasses several disorders: shiga toxin-induced and pneumococcus-induced haemolytic uraemic syndrome, haemolytic uraemic syndrome associated with complement dysregulation or mutation of diacylglycerol kinase ɛ, haemolytic uraemic syndrome related to cobalamin C defect, and haemolytic uraemic syndrome secondary to a heterogeneous group of causes (infections, drugs, cancer, and systemic diseases)...
August 12, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236027/validation-of-the-custo-screen-pediatric-blood-pressure-monitor-according-to-the-european-society-of-hypertension-international-protocol-revision-2010
#16
Beate Beime, Cornelia Deutsch, Ralf Krüger, Andreas Wolf, Peter Müller, Gertrud Hammel, Peter Bramlage
The purpose of the study was to validate the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) device custo screen pediatric in children aged 3 to 12 years according to the International Protocol of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH-IP revision 2010). Thirty-three children were included and systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were performed according to the ESH-IP. The protocol was modified for children considering data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KIGGS)...
May 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779238/effect-of-renal-function-on-antihypertensive-drug-safety-and-efficacy-in-children
#17
Kevin M Watt, Debbie Avant, Jennifer Sherwin, Daniel K Benjamin, Christoph Hornik, Daniel K Benjamin, Jennifer S Li, P Brian Smith
BACKGROUND: Hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are common comorbidities. Guidelines recommend treating hypertension in children with CKD because it is a modifiable risk factor for subsequent cardiovascular disease. Children with CKD are frequently excluded from antihypertensive drug trials. Consequently, safety and efficacy data for antihypertensive drugs are lacking in children with CKD. METHODS: We determined the incidence of adverse events in 10 pediatric antihypertensive trials to determine the effect of renal function on antihypertensive safety and efficacy in children...
January 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939921/pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Nadine Khouzam, Katherine Wesseling-Perry
Life expectancy in patients with all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) falls far short of that in the general population. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in pediatric patients with CKD. In contrast to the intimal atherosclerotic lesions that characterize cardiovascular disease in the general population, vascular endothelial dysfunction, medial arterial calcification, and cardiac dysfunction contribute to cardiovascular pathological conditions in CKD. The pathogenesis of these lesions, the origins of which can be identified in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, is incompletely understood...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836059/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-children-with-kidney-disease
#19
REVIEW
Cristina Gavrilovici, Ingrith Miron, Luminiţa Voroneanu, Silvia Bădărau, Magdalena Stârcea
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has been described as a neurological condition observed in a variety of clinical settings and is characterized by focal neurological deficits, seizures, headaches, altered mental status, and visual impairment, associated with transient typical lesions on neuroimaging, predominantly in the posterior part of the brain. The most common risk factors for PRES are hypertension, renal diseases, and the use of calcineurin inhibitors. The incidence of PRES in children with renal disorders varies between 4 and 9%, according to different reports...
October 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879535/hypercalcemia-a-consultant-s-approach
#20
Ari Auron, Uri S Alon
Due to their daily involvement in mineral metabolism, nephrologists are often asked to consult on children with hypercalcemia. This might become even more pertinent when the hypercalcemia is associated with acute kidney injury and/or hypercalciuria and renal calcifications. The best way to assess the severity of hypercalcemia is by measurement of plasma ionized calcium, and if not available by adjusting serum total calcium to albumin concentration. The differential diagnosis of the possible etiologies of the disturbance in the mineral homeostasis starts with the assessment of serum parathyroid hormone concentration, followed by that of vitamin D metabolites in search of both genetic and acquired etiologies...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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