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Epilepsy

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38 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278550/intelligent-use-of-antiepileptic-drugs-is-beneficial-to-patients
#1
Jocelyn Y Cheng, Jacqueline A French
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the most important issues a clinician must consider whenever selecting and administering antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). There is no available algorithm that identifies how to individualize selection of AEDs. Proper selection and administration can make an enormous difference in both effectiveness and tolerability. RECENT FINDINGS: Many principles of AED selection remain unchanged. Selection of AEDs must be based on understanding of epilepsy syndrome and seizure type, comorbidities, risk of adverse events, as well as on patient characteristics such as age and sex...
December 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289175/teaching-neuroimages-a-spiritual-visual-hallucination-from-a-right-parieto-occipital-seizure-ictal-guardian-angel
#2
Victoria S S Wong, Marissa A Kellogg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295226/lacosamide-in-status-epilepticus-systematic-review-of-current-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Adam Strzelczyk, Johann Philipp Zöllner, Laurent M Willems, Julie Jost, Esther Paule, Susanne Schubert-Bast, Felix Rosenow, Sebastian Bauer
OBJECTIVE: The intravenous formulation of lacosamide (LCM) and its good overall tolerability and safety favor the use in status epilepticus (SE). The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate studies reporting on the use of LCM in SE. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search of electronic databases using a combined search strategy from 2008 until October 2016. Using a standardized assessment form, information on the study design, methodologic framework, data sources, efficacy, and adverse events attributed to LCM were extracted from each publication and systematically reported...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306558/high-dose-phenobarbitone-coma-in-pediatric-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-retrospective-case-record-analysis-a-proposed-protocol-and-review-of-literature
#4
Sheffali Gulati, Vishal Sondhi, Biswaroop Chakrabarty, Prashant Jauhari, Rakesh Lodha, Jhuma Sankar
BACKGROUND: Ongoing refractory status epilepticus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic coma induction with midazolam, thiopentone, phenobarbitone or propofol is indicated when conventional antiepileptics fail to abort seizure. Of these, the most extensively studied is midazolam. Amongst the remaining three, phenobarbitone has the most favourable pharmacological profile, but has not been studied adequately, more so in the pediatric age group. The current retrospective case records analysis is an attempt to describe use of phenobarbitone coma in pediatric refractory status epilepticus...
January 3, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330972/fatal-cerebral-edema-with-status-epilepticus-in-children-with-dravet-syndrome-report-of-5-cases
#5
Kenneth A Myers, Jacinta M McMahon, Simone A Mandelstam, Mark T Mackay, Renate M Kalnins, Richard J Leventer, Ingrid E Scheffer
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a well-recognized developmental and epileptic encephalopathy associated with SCN1A mutations and 15% mortality by 20 years. Although over half of cases succumb to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, the cause of death in the remainder is poorly defined. We describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of a cohort of children with DS and SCN1A mutations who developed fatal cerebral edema causing mass effect after fever-associated status epilepticus. Cases were identified from a review of children with DS enrolled in the Epilepsy Genetics Research Program at The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, who died after fever-associated status epilepticus...
April 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191650/cortical-language-areas-and-plasticity-in-pediatric-patients-with-epilepsy-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Naomi Chou, Sandra Serafini, Carrie R Muh
Chronic injury to the brain from seizure activity is associated with decreased language skills in pediatric patients, as measured on neuropsychological tests for language function and academic achievement. This makes the study of language in patients with epilepsy clinically necessary. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and direct electrical cortical stimulation have been used to evaluate aspects of cortical language processing in healthy adults and in adults with epilepsy or other neurological insults. Results of these studies help to locate cortical language areas that are involved with modality-specific language processing (visual naming, auditory naming, sentence-completion, and repetition) and the neuroplasticity of language areas in the setting of neurological injury and reorganization...
October 12, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20722665/doose-syndrome-myoclonic-astatic-epilepsy-40-years-of-progress
#7
REVIEW
Sarah A Kelley, Eric H Kossoff
Doose syndrome, otherwise traditionally known as myoclonic-astatic epilepsy, was first described as a unique epilepsy syndrome by Dr Hermann Doose in 1970. In 1989, the International League Against Epilepsy classified it formally as a symptomatic generalized epilepsy, and 20 years later it was renamed 'epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures'. In this review, we discuss the components of this unique disorder including its incidence, clinical features, and electroencephalographic findings. Recent evidence has suggested possible genetic links to the GEFS+ (generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus) family, and, additionally, some children with structural brain lesions can mimic the Doose syndrome phenotype...
November 2010: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628937/the-epilepsy-aphasia-spectrum-from-landau-kleffner-syndrome-to-rolandic-epilepsy
#8
Bigna Katrin Bölsterli Heinzle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987170/neuropathology-of-epilepsy
#9
Eleonora Aronica, Angelika Mühlebner
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders, affecting about 50 million people worldwide. The disease is characterized by recurrent seizures, which are due to aberrant neuronal networks resulting in synchronous discharges. The term epilepsy encompasses a large spectrum of syndromes and diseases with different etiopathogenesis. The recent development of imaging and epilepsy surgery techniques is now enabling the identification of structural abnormalities that are part of the epileptic network, and the removal of these lesions may result in control of seizures...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880996/dravet-syndrome-and-its-mimics-beyond-scn1a
#10
REVIEW
Dora Steel, Joseph D Symonds, Sameer M Zuberi, Andreas Brunklaus
OBJECTIVE: Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy characterized by the onset of prolonged febrile and afebrile seizures in infancy, and evolving to drug-resistant epilepsy with accompanying cognitive, behavioral, and motor impairment. Most cases are now known to be caused by pathogenic variants in the sodium channel gene SCN1A, but several other genes have also been implicated. This review examines current understanding of the role of non-SCN1A genes in DS, and what is known about phenotypic similarities and differences...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884208/lacosamide-treatment-of-childhood-refractory-focal-epilepsy-the-first-reported-side-effect-in-paediatric-patients
#11
Edibe Pembegul Yildiz, Melis Ulak Ozkan, Gonca Bektas, Tuğçe Aksu Uzunhan, Nur Aydinli, Mine Caliskan, Meral Ozmen
PURPOSE: Lacosamide (LCM) is an effective antiepileptic drug (AED) approved for the treatment of focal epilepsy in both children and adults. The aim of this observational study was to review our centre's experience with LCM and to characterise its efficacy and tolerability as an adjunct therapy in children with refractory focal epilepsy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 12 paediatric patients who underwent treatment with LCM from January 2014 to December 2015...
November 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892741/effect-of-diet-with-omega-3-in-basal-brain-electrical-activity-and-during-status-epilepticus-in-rats
#12
Daniella Tavares Pessoa, Eva Luana Almeida da Silva, Edbhergue Ventura Lola Costa, Romildo Albuquerque Nogueira
Western diets are high in saturated fat and low in omega-3. Certain animals cannot produce omega-3 from their own lipids, making it necessary for it to be acquired from the diet. However, omega-3s are important components of the plasma membrane, and altering their proportions can promote physical and chemical alterations in the membranes, which may modify neuronal excitability. These alterations occur in healthy individuals, as well as in patients with epilepsy who are more sensitive to changes in brain electrical activity...
September 1, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811058/early-detection-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-an-opportunity-for-improved-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#13
Clara W T Chung, John A Lawson, Vanessa Sarkozy, Kate Riney, Orli Wargon, Antonia W Shand, Stephen Cooper, Harrison King, Sean E Kennedy, David Mowat
BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant condition associated with epilepsy, benign tumors, and variable neurodevelopmental outcomes. The diagnosis is most commonly made after epilepsy onset, although a proportion are diagnosed prenatally. Presymptomatic or early treatment with agents such as vigabatrin offers the hope of improved neurodevelopmental outcome. Therefore early diagnosis, before the onset of seizures, is important. In a cohort of children with TSC, we evaluated the age and mode of initial presentation, assessed the neurocognitive and epilepsy outcome, and analyzed whether those diagnosed before the onset of seizures have a different outcome compared with those diagnosed postseizures...
May 26, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673029/predictive-factors-of-surgical-outcome-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-explored-with-stereoelectroencephalography
#14
Francesca Bonini, Aileen McGonigal, Didier Scavarda, Romain Carron, Jean Régis, Henry Dufour, Jean-Claude Péragut, Virginie Laguitton, Nathalie Villeneuve, Patrick Chauvel, Bernard Giusiano, Agnès Trébuchon, Fabrice Bartolomei
BACKGROUND: Resective surgery established treatment for pharmacoresistant frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), but seizure outcome and prognostic indicators are poorly characterized and vary between studies. OBJECTIVE: To study long-term seizure outcome and identify prognostic factors. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 42 FLE patients having undergone surgical resection, mostly preceded by invasive recordings with stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG)...
June 29, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025397/lingual-epilepsia-partialis-continua-in-neurocysticercosis
#15
Sachin Sureshbabu, Dinesh Nayak, Gaurav Mittal, Sudhir Peter, Chindripu Sobhana, Vikash Aggarwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284393/epilepsy-in-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-with-therapeutic-options
#16
REVIEW
Jaume Campistol
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are rare conditions that represent more than 1000 diseases, with a global prevalence of approximately 1:2000 individuals. Approximately, 40%-60% of IEM may present with epilepsy as one of the main neurologic signs. Epilepsy in IEM may appear at any age (fetal, newborn, infant, adolescent, or even adult). Different pathophysiological mechanisms may be responsible for the clinical phenotype, such as disturbances in energy metabolism (mitochondrial and fatty oxidation disorders, GLUT-1, and cerebral creatine deficiency), accumulation of complex molecules (lysosomal storage disorders), toxic mechanisms (organic acidurias and urea cycle disorders), or impairment of neurotransmission...
November 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434238/the-characteristics-and-long-term-course-of-epilepsy-in-lipoid-proteinosis-a-spectrum-from-mild-to-severe-seizures-in-relation-to-ecm1-mutations
#17
Emel Oguz Akarsu, Firdevs Dinçsoy Bir, Can Baykal, Volkan Taşdemir, Bülent Kara, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Oya Uyguner, Betül Baykan
Lipoid proteinosis (LP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by deposition of hyaline material in skin and mucosae. Epilepsy, as an extracutaneous manifestation associated with typical mesial temporal calcifications, has already been identified, but its characteristics and long-term prognosis have not been thoroughly investigated. We included 7 consecutive patients with LP with typical intracranial calcifications out of 16 patients with ECM1 mutations and investigated the semiologic features, ictal and interictal EEG findings, and long-term prognosis of epilepsy in this genodermatosis...
April 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238390/electro-clinical-etiological-associations-of-epilepsia-partialis-continua-in-57-chinese-children
#18
Hui Li, Jiao Xue, Ping Qian, Yuehua Zhang, Xinhua Bao, Xiaoyan Liu, Zhixian Yang
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) was one type of focal status epilepticus. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics, and outcome of 57 child-onset patients with EPC according to different etiologies, and further explore the electro-clinical-etiological associations. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 57 children diagnosed with EPC in our department over last ten years. Etiology, clinical and EEG data, and outcome were categorized and analyzed...
June 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292732/alternating-hemiplegia-and-epilepsia-partialis-continua-a-new-phenotype-for-a-novel-compound-tbc1d24-mutation
#19
Francesca Ragona, Barbara Castellotti, Barbara Salis, Stefania Magri, Jacopo C DiFrancesco, Nardo Nardocci, Silvana Franceschetti, Cinzia Gellera, Tiziana Granata
Mutations in the TBC1D24 gene (MIM 613577) cause familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy (FIME; 605021) and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-16 (EIEE16; 615338), both inherited with an autosomal recessive trait. The TBC1D24 gene encodes a member of the TBC family domain proteins, involved in cell signaling and oxidative stress resistance. We studied, by a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) target re-sequencing gene approach, the DNA of a 5 year-old girl, affected by recurrent attacks of Alternating Hemiplegia (AH) and by recurrent episodes of Epilepsia Partialis Continua (EPC)...
April 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282553/challenges-in-the-treatment-of-convulsive-status-epilepticus
#20
REVIEW
Gaetano Zaccara, Gianfranco Giannasi, Roberto Oggioni, Eleonora Rosati, Luciana Tramacere, Pasquale Palumbo
Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a medical emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. The most recent definition of CSE is a convulsive seizure lasting more than 5min or consecutive seizures without recovery of consciousness. In adults, for the treatment of the early stages of CSE, diazepam, lorazepam or midazolam are the most common treatments, although the choice of agent seems less important than rapid treatment. Midazolam, when administered intramuscularly (best evidence), buccally, or nasally, is effective and safe in the pre-hospital setting...
April 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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