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Faiçal Jarraya
Hypertension remains the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. If antihypertensive drugs choice is well guided today, blood pressure (BP) target still a subject of controversies. Residual risk is matter of debate and the lower- the better dogma is come back again regarding to data reported from recent trials. The J curve, reason for European Society of Hypertension Guidelines reappraisal in 2009, is criticized by recent data. The one goal (<140/90 mmHg) fit 90 mmg 90 mmHg) fit all should be adapted as a personalized goal guided by evidence generated by randomized controlled trials...
October 9, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Massimo Allegri, Silvana Montella, Fabiana Salici, Adriana Valente, Maurizio Marchesini, Christian Compagnone, Marco Baciarello, Maria Elena Manferdini, Guido Fanelli
Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a chronic pain syndrome in the lower back region, lasting for at least 3 months. CLBP represents the second leading cause of disability worldwide being a major welfare and economic problem. The prevalence of CLBP in adults has increased more than 100% in the last decade and continues to increase dramatically in the aging population, affecting both men and women in all ethnic groups, with a significant impact on functional capacity and occupational activities. It can also be influenced by psychological factors, such as stress, depression and/or anxiety...
2016: F1000Research
Abeer Anabtawi, John M Miles
OBJECTIVE: Metformin is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because of its apparent robust effects in reducing cardiovascular risk. This review examines the current literature regarding the nonglycemic effects and potential novel indications for metformin. METHODS: Review of the literature, with a focus on metformin use in Stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD-3) and heart failure (HF). RESULTS: The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study suggests that metformin reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, and more recent retrospective studies have shown an association between metformin use and a reduction in stroke, atrial fibrillation and all-cause mortality...
August 2016: Endocrine Practice
Tom Clynes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2016: Nature
Piotr Ponikowski, Adriaan A Voors, Stefan D Anker, Héctor Bueno, John G F Cleland, Andrew J S Coats, Volkmar Falk, José Ramón González-Juanatey, Veli-Pekka Harjola, Ewa A Jankowska, Mariell Jessup, Cecilia Linde, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, John T Parissis, Burkert Pieske, Jillian P Riley, Giuseppe M C Rosano, Luis M Ruilope, Frank Ruschitzka, Frans H Rutten, Peter van der Meer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2016: European Heart Journal
Scott C Forbes, Jayna M Holroyd-Leduc, Marc J Poulin, David B Hogan
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested that various nutrients, dietary supplements, and vitamins may delay the onset of age-associated cognitive decline and dementia. We systematically reviewed recent randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of nutritional interventions on cognitive performance in older non-demented adults. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for articles published between 2003 and 2013. We included randomized trials of ≥ 3 months' duration that examined the cognitive effects of a nutritional intervention in non-demented adults > 40 years of age...
December 2015: Canadian Geriatrics Journal: CGJ
Juan Pedro-Botet, Elisenda Climent, Juan J Chillarón, Rocio Toro, David Benaiges, Juana A Flores-Le Roux
The elderly population is increasing worldwide, with subjects > 65 years of age constituting the fastest-growing age group. Furthermore, the elderly face the greatest risk and burden of cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity. Although elderly patients, particularly those older > 75, have not been well represented in randomized clinical trials evaluating lipid-lowering therapy, the available evidence supporting the use of statin therapy in primary prevention in older individuals is derived mainly from subgroup analyses and post-hoc data...
July 2015: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
Ying Ann Chiao, Peter S Rabinovitch
Aging results in progressive deteriorations in the structure and function of the heart and is a dominant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death in Western populations. Although the phenotypes of cardiac aging have been well characterized, the molecular mechanisms of cardiac aging are just beginning to be revealed. With the continuously growing elderly population, there is a great need for interventions in cardiac aging. This article will provide an overview of the phenotypic changes of cardiac aging, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes, and will present some of the recent advances in the development of interventions to delay or reverse cardiac aging...
2015: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Ahmed Hassaan Qavi, Rida Kamal, Robert W Schrier
Diuretics play significant role in pharmacology and treatment options in medicine. This paper aims to review and evaluate the clinical use of diuretics in conditions that lead to fluid overload in the body such as cardiac failure, cirrhosis, and nephrotic syndrome. To know the principles of treatment it is essential to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that cause the need of diuresis in the human body. Various classes of diuretics exist, each having a unique mode of action. A systemic approach for management is recommended based on the current guidelines, starting from thiazides and proceeding to loop diuretics...
2015: International Journal of Nephrology
Phillip A Low, Victoria A Tomalia
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) occurs when mechanisms for the regulation of orthostatic BP control fails. Such regulation depends on the baroreflexes, normal blood volume, and defenses against excessive venous pooling. OH is common in the elderly and is associated with an increase in mortality rate. There are many causes of OH. Aging coupled with diseases such as diabetes and Parkinson's disease results in a prevalence of 10-30% in the elderly. These conditions cause baroreflex failure with resulting combination of OH, supine hypertension, and loss of diurnal variation of BP...
July 2015: Journal of Clinical Neurology
Javier Gómez-Pavón, Paloma González García, Inés Francés Román, Maite Vidán Astiz, José Gutiérrez Rodríguez, Gregorio Jiménez Díaz, Nuria Pilar Montero Fernández, Baldomero Alvarez Fernández, José María Jiménez Páez
The elderly are one of the groups at greatest risk for adverse drugs reactions (ADR). The mean prevalence of these reactions in this population is 30%. Dementia is not an independent risk factor of ADR, but is the main condition that increases all risk factors (polypharmacy, comorbidity, inappropriate prescribing, drug-drug interactions, advanced age, and treatment adherence). The present article discusses revised and consensual recommendations for the prevention of ADR in the elderly, as well as recommendations specifically for dementia patients in relation to the management of comorbidity and cognitive, behavioral and psychological symptoms...
March 2010: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
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