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Johannes Hebebrand, Özgür Albayrak, Roger Adan, Jochen Antel, Carlos Dieguez, Johannes de Jong, Gareth Leng, John Menzies, Julian G Mercer, Michelle Murphy, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Suzanne L Dickson
"Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage...
November 2014: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Paul D Thomas, Huaiyu Mi, Gary E Swan, Caryn Lerman, Neal Benowitz, Rachel F Tyndale, Andrew W Bergen, David V Conti
OBJECTIVE: Interpreting genome-scale genetic association data, particularly for complex diseases and phenotypes, requires extensive use of prior knowledge across a broad range of potential biological and environmental influences, spanning many scientific subdisciplines. We suggest that known or hypothesized disease risk factors, and causal mechanisms, can be represented using an ontology, a computational specification of a set of concepts and the relations between them. METHODS: We have integrated the expertise of multiple investigators in nicotine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, nicotine dependence, and clinical smoking cessation outcomes, and represented this knowledge in an ontology-based network model...
July 2009: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
Mark Olfson, Melanie Wall, Shuai Wang, Stephen Crystal, Shang-Min Liu, Tobias Gerhard, Carlos Blanco
Importance: Although psychiatric inpatients are recognized to be at increased risk for suicide immediately after hospital discharge, little is known about the extent to which their short-term suicide risk varies across groups with major psychiatric disorders. Objective: To describe the risk for suicide during the 90 days after hospital discharge for adults with first-listed diagnoses of depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, substance use disorder, and other mental disorders in relation to inpatients with diagnoses of nonmental disorders and the general population...
September 21, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
W J Peyrot, S H Lee, Y Milaneschi, A Abdellaoui, E M Byrne, T Esko, E J C de Geus, G Hemani, J J Hottenga, S Kloiber, D F Levinson, S Lucae, N G Martin, S E Medland, A Metspalu, L Milani, M M Noethen, J B Potash, M Rietschel, C A Rietveld, S Ripke, J Shi, G Willemsen, Z Zhu, D I Boomsma, N R Wray, B W J H Penninx
An association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases and 14,949 controls (with no lifetime MDD diagnosis) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with additional Dutch and Estonian data. The association of EA and MDD was assessed with logistic regression in 15,138 individuals indicating a significantly negative association in our sample with an odds ratio for MDD 0...
June 2015: Molecular Psychiatry
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