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Shamsuddin Akhtar
Fat embolism refers to the presence of fat droplets within the peripheral and lung microcirculation with or without clinical sequelae. The pathologic consequences of fat embolism are well recognized. Fat embolism is most often associated with trauma and orthopedic injuries. Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a serious manifestation of fat embolism that involves a cascade of clinical signs such as petechial rash, deteriorating mental status, and progressive respiratory insufficiency, usually occurring within 24 hours of injury...
September 2009: Anesthesiology Clinics
A Mellor, N Soni
Fat embolism syndrome is a collection of respiratory, haematological, neurological and cutaneous symptoms and signs associated with trauma and other disparate surgical and medical conditions. The incidence of the clinical syndrome is low (< 1% in retrospective reviews) whilst the embolisation of marrow fat appears to be an almost inevitable consequence of long bone fractures. There is debate over the pathogenesis of fat embolism syndrome and it seems a variety of factors interact to produce a spectrum of end organ damage...
February 2001: Anaesthesia
H Haljamäe
The surgery and trauma-induced modulation of the coagulation system includes a considerable risk of perioperative thromboembolic complications unless effective thromboprophylactic treatment is given. In the present survey the patient at risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is characterized and the documented efficacy of different currently used thromboprophylactic regimens is summarized. Systemic thromboprophylactic treatment may include a risk of an increased bleeding tendency which may lead to haemorrhagic complications...
September 1996: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Jerrold H Levy, Richard P Dutton, J Claude Hemphill, Aryeh Shander, David Cooper, Michael J Paidas, Craig M Kessler, John B Holcomb, Jeffrey H Lawson
A multidisciplinary panel consisting of experts chosen by the 2 chairs of the group representing experts in anesthesiology, blood banking, hematology, critical care medicine, and various surgical disciplines (trauma, cardiac, pediatric, neurologic, obstetrics, and vascular) convened in January 2008 to discuss hemostasis and management of the bleeding patient across different clinical settings, with a focus on perioperative considerations. Although there are many ways to define hemostasis, one clinical definition would be control of bleeding without the occurrence of pathologic thrombotic events (i...
February 1, 2010: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Fabien Lemoel, Julie Contenti, Didier Giolito, Mathieu Boiffier, Jocelyn Rapp, Jacques Istria, Marc Fournier, François-Xavier Ageron, Jacques Levraut
OBJECTIVES: The goal of our study was to compare the frequency and severity of recovery reactions between ketamine and ketamine-propofol 1:1 admixture ("ketofol"). METHODS: We performed a multicentric, randomized, double-blinded trial in which adult patients received emergency procedural sedations with ketamine or ketofol. Our primary outcome was the proportion of unpleasant recovery reactions. Other outcomes were frequency of interventions required by these recovery reactions, rates of respiratory or hemodynamic events, emesis, and satisfaction of patients as well as providers...
May 11, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Matthew W Semler, David R Janz, Derek W Russell, Jonathan D Casey, Robert J Lentz, Aline N Zouk, Bennett P deBoisblanc, Jairo I Santanilla, Yasin A Khan, Aaron M Joffe, William S Stigler, Todd W Rice
BACKGROUND: Hypoxemia is the most common complication during endotracheal intubation of critically ill adults. Intubation in the ramped position has been hypothesized to prevent hypoxemia by increasing functional residual capacity and decreasing the duration of intubation, but has never been studied outside of the operating room. METHODS: Multicenter, randomized trial comparing ramped position (head of the bed elevated to 25 degrees) to sniffing position (torso supine, neck flexed, head extended) among 260 adults undergoing endotracheal intubation by Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine fellows in four intensive care units between July 22, 2015 and July 19, 2016...
May 6, 2017: Chest
P A Hudgins, A J Fountain, P R Chapman, L M Shah
Lumbar puncture has, for many years, been the responsibility of the internal medicine physician or the neurologist. As more patients have undergone spine surgery and with the current increase in body mass index of the general population, the radiologist has been consulted with increasing frequency to perform lumbar puncture with fluoroscopic guidance. Radiology, in fact, is now the dominant overall provider of lumbar puncture procedures. The procedure is more difficult when the needle length increases, and if fluoroscopy is used, landmarks are more difficult to visualize with increasing subcutaneous fat...
March 16, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Jason R West, Anthony Scoccimarro, Cody Kramer, Nicholas D Caputo
OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine the physiological impact the apneic period has on the respiratory physiology of patients undergoing intubation in the emergency department and whether DAO, the delivery of 15L oxygen by nasal cannula during apnea, can affect the development of respiratory acidosis. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study conducted at an urban academic level 1 trauma center. A convenience sample of 100 patients was taken. Timed data collection forms were completed during the periintubation period...
April 2, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
C A Hagberg, R T Connis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Laura F Cavallone, Andrea Vannucci
Respiratory complications after tracheal extubation are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, suggesting that process improvements in this clinical area are needed. The decreased rate of respiratory adverse events occurring during tracheal intubation since the implementation of guidelines for difficult airway management supports the value of education and guidelines in advancing clinical practice. Accurate use of terms in defining concepts and describing distinct clinical conditions is paramount to facilitating understanding and fostering education in the treatment of tracheal extubation-related complications...
February 2013: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Jeffrey L Apfelbaum, Carin A Hagberg, Robert A Caplan, Casey D Blitt, Richard T Connis, David G Nickinovich, Carin A Hagberg, Robert A Caplan, Jonathan L Benumof, Frederic A Berry, Casey D Blitt, Robert H Bode, Frederick W Cheney, Richard T Connis, Orin F Guidry, David G Nickinovich, Andranik Ovassapian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2013: Anesthesiology
M C Mushambi, S M Kinsella, M Popat, H Swales, K K Ramaswamy, A L Winton, A C Quinn
The Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association and Difficult Airway Society have developed the first national obstetric guidelines for the safe management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation during general anaesthesia. They comprise four algorithms and two tables. A master algorithm provides an overview. Algorithm 1 gives a framework on how to optimise a safe general anaesthetic technique in the obstetric patient, and emphasises: planning and multidisciplinary communication; how to prevent the rapid oxygen desaturation seen in pregnant women by advocating nasal oxygenation and mask ventilation immediately after induction; limiting intubation attempts to two; and consideration of early release of cricoid pressure if difficulties are encountered...
November 2015: Anaesthesia
M Popat, V Mitchell, R Dravid, A Patel, C Swampillai, A Higgs
Tracheal extubation is a high-risk phase of anaesthesia. The majority of problems that occur during extubation and emergence are of a minor nature, but a small and significant number may result in injury or death. The need for a strategy incorporating extubation is mentioned in several international airway management guidelines, but the subject is not discussed in detail, and the emphasis has been on extubation of the patient with a difficult airway. The Difficult Airway Society has developed guidelines for the safe management of tracheal extubation in adult peri-operative practice...
March 2012: Anaesthesia
Carlos A Artime, Carin A Hagberg
Numerous practice guidelines have been developed to assist clinicians in the management of the difficult airway. The nature of difficult airway management, however, does not provide a practical way of comparing different guidelines or algorithms; no evidence supports one set of guidelines over another. Nevertheless they play an important role in patient safety as dissemination of such guidelines encourages airway practitioners to consider their strategies and formulate specific plans for the management of a predicted or unexpected difficult airway...
June 2015: Anesthesiology Clinics
Joe Nemeth, Nisreen Maghraby, Sara Kazim
Patients requiring airway management in the emergency department present an enormous challenge. It requires not only a firm concept of techniques for securing the airway but also of dealing with the potential difficult airway (DA) in which establishing a definite airway is not possible with techniques routinely used. This article highlights the importance of recognition and management of the DA in emergent situations. Both awake and nonawake intubation are discussed, and indications and guidelines are given for the use of nonsurgical and surgical airway interventions...
May 2012: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
N Jagannathan, L Sohn, J E Fiadjoe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
A Pourmand, M Mazer-Amirshahi, C Royall, R Alhawas, R Shesser
There is a need for alternative non-opioid analgesics for the treatment of acute, chronic, and refractory pain in the emergency department (ED). Ketamine is a fast acting N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that provides safe and effective analgesia. The use of low dose ketamine (LDK) (<1mg/kg) provides sub-dissociative levels of analgesia and has been studied as an alternative and/or adjunct to opioid analgesics. We reviewed 11 studies using LDK either alone or in combination with opioid analgesics in the ED...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Takashi Asai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
Jeff Riddell, Alexander Tran, Rimon Bengiamin, Gregory W Hendey, Patil Armenian
OBJECTIVE: Emergency physicians often need to control agitated patients who present a danger to themselves and hospital personnel. Commonly used medications have limitations. Our primary objective was to compare the time to a defined reduction in agitation scores for ketamine versus benzodiazepines and haloperidol, alone or in combination. Our secondary objectives were to compare rates of medication redosing, vital sign changes, and adverse events in the different treatment groups. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, prospective, observational study examining agitation levels in acutely agitated emergency department patients between the ages of 18 and 65 who required sedation medication for acute agitation...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kevin James Tierney, Tiffany Murano, Brenda Natal
BACKGROUND: Local anesthetics are commonly used in the emergency department (ED). Overdoses can lead to disastrous complications including cardiac toxicity and arrest. Recognition of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) is important; however, prevention is even more critical. Knowledge of proper lidocaine dosage can prevent LAST. LAST may be effectively treated with lipid emulsion therapy. Although the mechanism is not well understood, its use may have a profound impact on morbidity and mortality...
January 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
2017-02-21 01:27:25
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