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8 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459230/the-pathogenesis-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-the-hypothesis-of-pcos-as-functional-ovarian-hyperandrogenism-revisited
#1
Robert L Rosenfield, David A Ehrmann
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was hypothesized to result from functional ovarian hyperandrogenism (FOH) due to dysregulation of androgen secretion in 1989-1995. Subsequent studies have supported and amplified this hypothesis. When defined as otherwise unexplained hyperandrogenic oligoanovulation, two-thirds of PCOS cases have functionally typical FOH, characterized by 17-hydroxyprogesterone hyperresponsiveness to gonadotropin stimulation. Two-thirds of the remaining PCOS have FOH detectable by testosterone elevation after suppression of adrenal androgen production...
October 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623476/diverticulosis-and-diverticulitis
#2
Amy E Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592289/echocardiography-as-a-guide-for-fluid-management
#3
REVIEW
John H Boyd, Demetrios Sirounis, Julien Maizel, Michel Slama
BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients at risk for organ failure, the administration of intravenous fluids has equal chances of resulting in benefit or harm. While the intent of intravenous fluid is to increase cardiac output and oxygen delivery, unwelcome results in those patients who do not increase their cardiac output are tissue edema, hypoxemia, and excess mortality. Here we briefly review bedside methods to assess fluid responsiveness, focusing upon the strengths and pitfalls of echocardiography in spontaneously breathing mechanically ventilated patients as a means to guide fluid management...
September 4, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613721/primary-hyperparathyroidism-review-and-recommendations-on-evaluation-diagnosis-and-management-a-canadian-and-international-consensus
#4
A A Khan, D A Hanley, R Rizzoli, J Bollerslev, J E M Young, L Rejnmark, R Thakker, P D'Amour, T Paul, S Van Uum, M Zakaria Shrayyef, D Goltzman, S Kaiser, N E Cusano, R Bouillon, L Mosekilde, A W Kung, S D Rao, S K Bhadada, B L Clarke, J Liu, Q Duh, E Michael Lewiecki, F Bandeira, R Eastell, C Marcocci, S J Silverberg, R Udelsman, K Shawn Davison, J T Potts, M L Brandi, J P Bilezikian
The purpose of this review is to assess the most recent evidence in the management of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and provide updated recommendations for its evaluation, diagnosis and treatment. A Medline search of "Hyperparathyroidism. Primary" was conducted and the literature with the highest levels of evidence were reviewed and used to formulate recommendations. PHPT is a common endocrine disorder usually discovered by routine biochemical screening. PHPT is defined as hypercalcemia with increased or inappropriately normal plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH)...
September 9, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23918113/management-of-hyponatremia-in-the-icu
#5
REVIEW
Richard H Sterns, John K Hix, Stephen M Silver
Hyponatremia is common in critical care units. Avoidance of neurologic injury requires a clear understanding of why the serum sodium (Na) concentration falls and why it rises, how the brain responds to a changing serum Na concentration, and what the goals of therapy should be. A 4 to 6 mEq/L increase in serum Na concentration is sufficient to treat life-threatening cerebral edema caused by acute hyponatremia. In chronic (> 48 h), severe (< 120 mEq/L) hyponatremia, correction by > 8 to 10 mEq/L/d risks iatrogenic osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS); therefore, a 4 to 6 mEq/L daily increase in serum Na concentration should be the goal in most patients...
August 2013: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26913635/association-between-hyponatremia-osteoporosis-and-fracture-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Sikarin Upala, Anawin Sanguankeo
A meta-analysis was performed on twelve studies to test an association between hyponatremia and osteoporosis or fracture risk. The analysis found a statistically significant association, and the findings' significance to clinicians are discussed.
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26376860/chronic-hyponatremia-causes-neurologic-and-psychologic-impairments
#7
Haruki Fujisawa, Yoshihisa Sugimura, Hiroshi Takagi, Hiroyuki Mizoguchi, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Hisakazu Izumida, Kohtaro Nakashima, Hiroshi Ochiai, Seiji Takeuchi, Atsushi Kiyota, Kazuya Fukumoto, Shintaro Iwama, Yoshiko Takagishi, Yoshitaka Hayashi, Hiroshi Arima, Yukio Komatsu, Yoshiharu Murata, Yutaka Oiso
Hyponatremia is the most common clinical electrolyte disorder. Once thought to be asymptomatic in response to adaptation by the brain, recent evidence suggests that chronic hyponatremia may be linked to attention deficits, gait disturbances, risk of falls, and cognitive impairments. Such neurologic defects are associated with a reduction in quality of life and may be a significant cause of mortality. However, because underlying diseases such as adrenal insufficiency, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and cancer may also affect brain function, the contribution of hyponatremia alone to neurologic manifestations and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
March 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585833/the-role-of-diagnosis-in-delirium
#8
Ravi S Bhat, Kenneth Rockwood
Delirium is common and is commonly misdiagnosed, chiefly in being missed (Bhat and Rockwood, 2007). The consequences of misdiagnosis are often severe and wide ranging, affecting patients, caregivers, health professionals, and hospitals (Inouye et al., 2014). Many an older hospitalized person with delirium is trapped in the interface between psychiatry and the rest of medicine, and can too easily be caught in the tendentious battles between treating teams. Both researchers and policymakers have sought to improve this unacceptable state of affairs (Young et al...
October 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
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