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Manuel A Friese, Benjamin Schattling, Lars Fugger
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequent chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS, and imposes major burdens on young lives. Great progress has been made in understanding and moderating the acute inflammatory components of MS, but the pathophysiological mechanisms of the concomitant neurodegeneration--which causes irreversible disability--are still not understood. Chronic inflammatory processes that continuously disturb neuroaxonal homeostasis drive neurodegeneration, so the clinical outcome probably depends on the balance of stressor load (inflammation) and any remaining capacity for neuronal self-protection...
April 2014: Nature Reviews. Neurology
R L Swank, A Grimsgaard
Between 1949 and 1984, 150 multiple sclerosis patients consumed low-fat diets. Fats, oils, and protein intakes; disability; and deaths were determined. On daily fat consumption of less than 20.1 g (average 17 g), 31% died and deterioration was slight. Daily intakes of greater than 20 g (average of either 25 or 41 g) were attended by serious disability and deaths of 79% and 81%, respectively. Oil intakes bore an indirect relationship to fat consumption. Treatment early and before severe disability developed improved prognosis, and females tended to do better than males...
December 1988: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
R L Swank
Between 1949 and 1984, 150 patients with multiple sclerosis consumed low-fat diets. Fat, oil, and protein intakes; disability; and deaths were determined. With a daily fat consumption less than 20.1 g/day (av 17 g/day), 31% died, and average deterioration was slight. A daily intake greater than 20 g/day (av 25 or 41 g/day) was attended by serious disability and the deaths of 79 and 81%, respectively. Oil intake bore an indirect relationship to fat consumption. Minimally disabled patients who followed diet recommendations deteriorated little if at all, and only 5% failed to survive the 34 yr of the study, whereas 80% who failed to follow diet recommendations did not survive the study period...
September 1991: Nutrition
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1956: Annals of Internal Medicine
R L Swank, B B Dugan
144 multiple sclerosis patients took a low-fat diet for 34 years. For each of three categories of neurological disability (minimum, moderate, severe) patients who adhered to the prescribed diet (less than or equal to 20 g fat/day) showed significantly less deterioration and much lower death rates than did those who consumed more fat than prescribed (greater than 20 g fat/day). The greatest benefit was seen in those with minimum disability at the start of the trial; in this group, when those who died from non-MS diseases were excluded from the analysis, 95% survived and remained physically active...
July 7, 1990: Lancet
S Jarius, P Eichhorn, D Franciotta, H F Petereit, G Akman-Demir, M Wick, B Wildemann
BACKGROUND: It has long been known that the majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) display an intrathecal, polyspecific humoral immune response to a broad panel of neurotropic viruses. This response has measles virus, rubella virus and varicella zoster virus as its most frequent constituents and is thus referred to as the MRZ reaction (MRZR). OBJECTIVE: Re-evaluation of the specificity of MRZR as a marker of MS. METHODS: Structured review of the existing English-, German- and Spanish-language literature on MRZR testing, with evaluation of MRZR in a cohort of 43 unselected patients with MS and other neurological diseases as a proof of principle...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Maria A Rocca, Marco Battaglini, Ralph H B Benedict, Nicola De Stefano, Jeroen J G Geurts, Roland G Henry, Mark A Horsfield, Mark Jenkinson, Elisabetta Pagani, Massimo Filippi
Patients with the main clinical phenotypes of multiple sclerosis (MS) manifest varying degrees of brain atrophy beyond that of normal aging. Assessment of atrophy helps to distinguish clinically and cognitively deteriorating patients and predicts those who will have a less-favorable clinical outcome over the long term. Atrophy can be measured from brain MRI scans, and many technological improvements have been made over the last few years. Several software tools, with differing requirements on technical ability and levels of operator intervention, are currently available and have already been applied in research or clinical trial settings...
January 24, 2017: Neurology
M Moccia, M Quarantelli, R Lanzillo, S Cocozza, A Carotenuto, B Carotenuto, B Alfano, A Prinster, M Triassi, A Nardone, R Palladino, A Brunetti, V Brescia Morra
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) are both affected in multiple sclerosis (MS). WM is predominantly involved in inflammatory demyelination of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), whereas GM is predominantly involved in neurodegenerative processes of secondary progressive MS. Thus, we investigated the ratio between GM and WM volumes in predicting MS evolution. METHODS: The present 10-year retrospective cohort study included 149 patients with newly-diagnosed RRMS, undergoing magnetic resonance imaging for segmentation and brain volumetry...
January 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Kaushal S Gandhi, Fiona C McKay, Mathew Cox, Carlos Riveros, Nicola Armstrong, Robert N Heard, Steve Vucic, David W Williams, Jim Stankovich, Matthew Brown, Patrick Danoy, Graeme J Stewart, Simon Broadley, Pablo Moscato, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Rodney J Scott, David R Booth
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease with a genetic component, caused at least in part by aberrant lymphocyte activity. The whole blood mRNA transcriptome was measured for 99 untreated MS patients: 43 primary progressive MS, 20 secondary progressive MS, 36 relapsing remitting MS and 45 age-matched healthy controls. The ANZgene Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium genotyped more than 300 000 SNPs for 115 of these samples. Transcription from genes on translational regulation, oxidative phosphorylation, immune synapse and antigen presentation pathways was markedly increased in all forms of MS...
June 1, 2010: Human Molecular Genetics
Nadia Barizzone, Ilenia Zara, Melissa Sorosina, Sara Lupoli, Eleonora Porcu, Maristella Pitzalis, Magdalena Zoledziewska, Federica Esposito, Maurizio Leone, Antonella Mulas, Eleonora Cocco, Paola Ferrigno, Franca R Guerini, Paola Brambilla, Gabriele Farina, Raffaele Murru, Francesca Deidda, Sonia Sanna, Alessia Loi, Cristina Barlassina, Domizia Vecchio, Andrea Zauli, Ferdinando Clarelli, Daniele Braga, Fausto Poddie, Roberto Cantello, Vittorio Martinelli, Giancarlo Comi, Jessica Frau, Lorena Lorefice, Maura Pugliatti, Giulio Rosati, Maurizio Melis, Maria G Marrosu, Daniele Cusi, Francesco Cucca, Filippo Martinelli Boneschi, Serena Sanna, Sandra D'Alfonso
BACKGROUND: Recent studies identified > 100 non-HLA (human leukocyte antigen) multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility variants in Northern European populations, but their role in Southern Europeans is largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the cumulative impact of those variants in two Mediterranean populations: Continental Italians and Sardinians. METHODS: We calculated four weighted Genetic Risk Scores (wGRS), using up to 102 non-HLA MS risk variants and 5 HLA MS susceptibility markers in 1691 patients and 2194 controls from continental Italy; and 2861 patients and 3034 controls from Sardinia...
October 2015: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Simona Raimo, Luigi Trojano, Daniele Spitaleri, Vittorio Petretta, Dario Grossi, Gabriella Santangelo
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Among these, apathy is relatively frequent but its relationships with cognitive dysfunctions have been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To explore cognitive correlates of apathy with or without depression ("pure apathy") in MS patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Nondemented MS patients (n = 125), consecutively referred to the Multiple Sclerosis Center of Moscati Hospital, in Avellino, Italy, underwent the Apathy Evaluation Scale Self-Rated (AES-S), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery...
September 2016: Neuropsychology
Jorge Correale, María I Gaitán, María C Ysrraelit, Marcela P Fiol
During the past decades, better understanding of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis disease mechanisms have led to the development of several disease-modifying therapies, reducing relapse rates and severity, through immune system modulation or suppression. In contrast, current therapeutic options for progressive multiple sclerosis remain comparatively disappointing and challenging. One possible explanation is a lack of understanding of pathogenic mechanisms driving progressive multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, diagnosis is usually retrospective, based on history of gradual neurological worsening with or without occasional relapses, minor remissions or plateaus...
October 29, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
A Musella, G Mandolesi, F Mori, A Gentile, D Centonze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Nasimudeen R Jabir, Chelapram K Firoz, Saleh S Baeesa, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Suhail Akhtar, Warda Kamal, Mohammad A Kamal, Shams Tabrez
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of neuronal structure and function, which ultimately leads to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. Even after the recent significant advances in neurobiology, the above-mentioned disorders continue to haunt the global population. Several studies have suggested the role of specific environmental and genetic risk factors associated with these disorders. However, the exact mechanism associated with the progression of these disorders still needs to be elucidated...
January 2015: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Rogerio Leone Buchaim, Jesus Carlos Andreo, Benedito Barraviera, Rui Seabra Ferreira Junior, Daniela Vieira Buchaim, Geraldo Marco Rosa Junior, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira, Antonio de Castro Rodrigues
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess whether the adhesive permits the collateral repair of axons originating from a vagus nerve to the interior of a sural nerve graft, and whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) assists in the regeneration process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study sample consisted of 32 rats randomly separated into three groups: Control Group (CG; n=8), from which the intact sural nerve was collected; Experimental Group (EG; n=12), in which one of the ends of the sural nerve graft was coapted to the vagus nerve using the fibrin glue; and Experimental Group Laser (EGL; n=12), in which the animals underwent the same procedures as those in EG with the addition of LLLT...
April 2015: Injury
Elena Herranz, Costanza Giannì, Céline Louapre, Constantina A Treaba, Sindhuja T Govindarajan, Russell Ouellette, Marco L Loggia, Jacob A Sloane, Nancy Madigan, David Izquierdo-Garcia, Noreen Ward, Gabriel Mangeat, Tobias Granberg, Eric C Klawiter, Ciprian Catana, Jacob M Hooker, Norman Taylor, Carolina Ionete, Revere P Kinkel, Caterina Mainero
OBJECTIVE: In multiple sclerosis (MS), using simultaneous magnetic resonance-positron emission tomography (MR-PET) imaging with (11) C-PBR28, we quantified expression of the 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of activated microglia/macrophages, in cortex, cortical lesions, deep gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) lesions, and normal-appearing WM (NAWM) to investigate the in vivo pathological and clinical relevance of neuroinflammation. METHODS: Fifteen secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) patients, 12 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients, and 14 matched healthy controls underwent (11) C-PBR28 MR-PET...
November 2016: Annals of Neurology
Daniela Pohl, Gulay Alper, Keith Van Haren, Andrew J Kornberg, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Silvia Tenembaum, Anita L Belman
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating CNS disorder with predilection to early childhood. ADEM is generally considered a monophasic disease. However, recurrent ADEM has been described and defined as multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis. ADEM often occurs postinfectiously, although a causal relationship has never been established. ADEM and multiple sclerosis are currently viewed as distinct entities, generally distinguishable even at disease onset. However, pathologic studies have demonstrated transitional cases of yet unclear significance...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Runze Yang, Jeff F Dunn
Hypoxia (low oxygen) is associated with many brain disorders as well as inflammation, but the lack of widely available technology has limited our ability to study hypoxia in human brain. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a poorly understood neurological disease with a significant inflammatory component which may cause hypoxia. We hypothesized that if hypoxia were to occur, there should be reduced microvascular hemoglobin saturation (StO2). In this study, we aimed to determine if reduced StO2 can be detected in MS using frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy (fdNIRS)...
November 13, 2015: Scientific Reports
Todd A Hardy, Stephen W Reddel, Michael H Barnett, Jacqueline Palace, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Brian G Weinshenker
Atypical inflammatory demyelinating syndromes are rare disorders that differ from multiple sclerosis owing to unusual clinical or MRI findings or poor response to treatments used for multiple sclerosis. These syndromes include neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, tumefactive demyelination, Baló's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and Marburg's multiple sclerosis. The overlapping features of these syndromes with multiple sclerosis and with each other complicate diagnosis and their categorisation as distinct or related conditions...
August 2016: Lancet Neurology
Graham R Campbell, Iryna Ziabreva, Amy K Reeve, Kim J Krishnan, Richard Reynolds, Owen Howell, Hans Lassmann, Doug M Turnbull, Don J Mahad
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral atrophy is a correlate of clinical progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitochondria are now established to play a part in the pathogenesis of MS. Uniquely, mitochondria harbor their own mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), essential for maintaining a healthy central nervous system. We explored mitochondrial respiratory chain activity and mtDNA deletions in single neurons from secondary progressive MS (SPMS) cases. METHODS: Ninety-eight snap-frozen brain blocks from 13 SPMS cases together with complex IV/complex II histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, laser dissection microscopy, long-range and real-time PCR and sequencing were used to identify and analyze respiratory-deficient neurons devoid of complex IV and with complex II activity...
March 2011: Annals of Neurology
2016-09-23 02:15:33
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