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Rogerio Leone Buchaim, Jesus Carlos Andreo, Benedito Barraviera, Rui Seabra Ferreira Junior, Daniela Vieira Buchaim, Geraldo Marco Rosa Junior, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira, Antonio de Castro Rodrigues
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess whether the adhesive permits the collateral repair of axons originating from a vagus nerve to the interior of a sural nerve graft, and whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) assists in the regeneration process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study sample consisted of 32 rats randomly separated into three groups: Control Group (CG; n=8), from which the intact sural nerve was collected; Experimental Group (EG; n=12), in which one of the ends of the sural nerve graft was coapted to the vagus nerve using the fibrin glue; and Experimental Group Laser (EGL; n=12), in which the animals underwent the same procedures as those in EG with the addition of LLLT...
April 2015: Injury
Elena Herranz, Costanza Giannì, Céline Louapre, Constantina A Treaba, Sindhuja T Govindarajan, Russell Ouellette, Marco L Loggia, Jacob A Sloane, Nancy Madigan, David Izquierdo-Garcia, Noreen Ward, Gabriel Mangeat, Tobias Granberg, Eric C Klawiter, Ciprian Catana, Jacob M Hooker, Norman Taylor, Carolina Ionete, Revere P Kinkel, Caterina Mainero
Objective In multiple sclerosis (MS), using simultaneous magnetic resonance-positron emission tomography (MR-PET) imaging with (11) C-PBR28, we quantified expression of the 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of activated microglia/macrophages, in cortex, cortical lesions, deep gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) lesions and normal-appearing WM (NAWM) to investigate the in vivo pathological and clinical relevance of neuroinflammation. Methods Fifteen secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) and 12 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) cases, and 14 matched healthy controls underwent (11) C-PBR28 MR-PET...
September 30, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Daniela Pohl, Gulay Alper, Keith Van Haren, Andrew J Kornberg, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Silvia Tenembaum, Anita L Belman
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating CNS disorder with predilection to early childhood. ADEM is generally considered a monophasic disease. However, recurrent ADEM has been described and defined as multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis. ADEM often occurs postinfectiously, although a causal relationship has never been established. ADEM and multiple sclerosis are currently viewed as distinct entities, generally distinguishable even at disease onset. However, pathologic studies have demonstrated transitional cases of yet unclear significance...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Runze Yang, Jeff F Dunn
Hypoxia (low oxygen) is associated with many brain disorders as well as inflammation, but the lack of widely available technology has limited our ability to study hypoxia in human brain. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a poorly understood neurological disease with a significant inflammatory component which may cause hypoxia. We hypothesized that if hypoxia were to occur, there should be reduced microvascular hemoglobin saturation (StO2). In this study, we aimed to determine if reduced StO2 can be detected in MS using frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy (fdNIRS)...
2015: Scientific Reports
Todd A Hardy, Stephen W Reddel, Michael H Barnett, Jacqueline Palace, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Brian G Weinshenker
Atypical inflammatory demyelinating syndromes are rare disorders that differ from multiple sclerosis owing to unusual clinical or MRI findings or poor response to treatments used for multiple sclerosis. These syndromes include neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, tumefactive demyelination, Baló's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and Marburg's multiple sclerosis. The overlapping features of these syndromes with multiple sclerosis and with each other complicate diagnosis and their categorisation as distinct or related conditions...
August 2016: Lancet Neurology
Graham R Campbell, Iryna Ziabreva, Amy K Reeve, Kim J Krishnan, Richard Reynolds, Owen Howell, Hans Lassmann, Doug M Turnbull, Don J Mahad
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral atrophy is a correlate of clinical progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitochondria are now established to play a part in the pathogenesis of MS. Uniquely, mitochondria harbor their own mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), essential for maintaining a healthy central nervous system. We explored mitochondrial respiratory chain activity and mtDNA deletions in single neurons from secondary progressive MS (SPMS) cases. METHODS: Ninety-eight snap-frozen brain blocks from 13 SPMS cases together with complex IV/complex II histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, laser dissection microscopy, long-range and real-time PCR and sequencing were used to identify and analyze respiratory-deficient neurons devoid of complex IV and with complex II activity...
March 2011: Annals of Neurology
Anna Kubsik, Robert Klimkiewicz, Katarzyna Janczewska, Paulina Klimkiewicz, Agnieszka Jankowska, Marta Woldańska-Okońska
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common neurological disorders. It is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS, whose etiology is not fully understood. Application of new rehabilitation methods are essential to improve functional status. OBJECTIVE: The material studied consisted of 120 patients of both sexes (82 women and 38 men) aged 21-81 years. The study involved patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of laser radiation and other therapies on the functional status of patients with multiple sclerosis...
2016: NeuroRehabilitation
Elaine D Gonçalves, Priscila S Souza, Vicente Lieberknecht, Giulia S P Fidelis, Rafael I Barbosa, Paulo C L Silveira, Ricardo A de Pinho, Rafael C Dutra
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent episodes of T cell-mediated immune attack on central nervous system (CNS) myelin, leading to axon damage and progressive disability. The existing therapies for MS are only partially effective and are associated with undesirable side effects. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been clinically used to treat inflammation, and to induce tissue healing and repair processes. However, there are no reports about the effects and mechanisms of LLLT in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of MS...
2016: Autoimmunity
Roshni A Desai, Andrew L Davies, Mohamed Tachrount, Marianne Kasti, Frida Laulund, Xavier Golay, Kenneth J Smith
OBJECTIVE: Demyelination is a cardinal feature of multiple sclerosis, but it remains unclear why new lesions form, and whether they can be prevented. Neuropathological evidence suggests that demyelination can occur in the relative absence of lymphocytes, and with distinctive characteristics suggestive of a tissue energy deficit. The objective was to examine an experimental model of the early multiple sclerosis lesion and identify pathogenic mechanisms and opportunities for therapy. METHODS: Demyelinating lesions were induced in the rat spinal dorsal column by microinjection of lipopolysaccharide, and examined immunohistochemically at different stages of development...
April 2016: Annals of Neurology
Markus Kipp, Tanja Hochstrasser, Christoph Schmitz, Cordian Beyer
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease that shows a female-to-male gender prevalence and alleviation of disease activity during late stage pregnancy. In MS-related animal models, sex steroids ameliorate symptoms and protect from demyelination and neuronal damage. Underlying mechanisms of these protective avenues are continuously discovered, in part by using novel transgenic animal models. In this review article, we highlight the regulation of glia cell function by female sex steroids...
August 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Khaled Abdel-Aziz, Torben Schneider, Bhavana S Solanky, Marios C Yiannakas, Dan R Altmann, Claudia A M Wheeler-Kingshott, Amy L Peters, Brian L Day, Alan J Thompson, Olga Ciccarelli
Spinal neurodegeneration is an important determinant of disability progression in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Advanced imaging techniques, such as single-voxel (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging, have increased pathological specificity for neurodegeneration, but are challenging to implement in the spinal cord and have yet to be applied in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis. By combining these imaging techniques with new clinical measures, which reflect spinal cord pathology more closely than conventional clinical tests, we explored the potential for spinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging to detect early spinal neurodegeneration that may be responsible for clinical disability...
June 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Giulia Mallucci, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Joshua D Bernstock, Stefano Pluchino
Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common causes of chronic neurological disability beginning in early to middle adult life. Multiple sclerosis is idiopathic in nature, yet increasing correlative evidence supports a strong association between one's genetic predisposition, the environment and the immune system. Symptoms of multiple sclerosis have primarily been shown to result from a disruption in the integrity of myelinated tracts within the white matter of the central nervous system. However, recent research has also highlighted the hitherto underappreciated involvement of gray matter in multiple sclerosis disease pathophysiology, which may be especially relevant when considering the accumulation of irreversible damage and progressive disability...
April 2015: Progress in Neurobiology
Yong Wang, Peng Sun, Qing Wang, Kathryn Trinkaus, Robert E Schmidt, Robert T Naismith, Anne H Cross, Sheng-Kwei Song
Axon injury/loss, demyelination and inflammation are the primary pathologies in multiple sclerosis lesions. Despite the prevailing notion that axon/neuron loss is the substrate of clinical progression of multiple sclerosis, the roles that these individual pathological processes play in multiple sclerosis progression remain to be defined. An imaging modality capable to effectively detect, differentiate and individually quantify axon injury/loss, demyelination and inflammation, would not only facilitate the understanding of the pathophysiology underlying multiple sclerosis progression, but also the assessment of treatments at the clinical trial and individual patient levels...
May 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Ida Rishal, Mike Fainzilber
The extensive lengths of neuronal processes necessitate efficient mechanisms for communication with the cell body. Neuronal regeneration after nerve injury requires new transcription; thus, long-distance retrograde signalling from axonal lesion sites to the soma and nucleus is required. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in elucidating the mechanistic basis of this system. This has included the discovery of a priming role for early calcium waves; confirmation of central roles for mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling effectors, the importin family of nucleocytoplasmic transport factors and molecular motors such as dynein; and demonstration of the importance of local translation as a key regulatory mechanism...
January 2014: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Kamaldeen A Muili, Sandeep Gopalakrishnan, Janis T Eells, Jeri-Anne Lyons
BACKGROUND: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly studied animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive therapies currently approved for the treatment of MS slow disease progression, but do not prevent it. A growing body of evidence suggests additional mechanisms contribute to disease progression. We previously demonstrated the amelioration of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice by 670 nm light-induced photobiomodulation, mediated in part by immune modulation...
2013: PloS One
Ramona E von Leden, Sean J Cooney, Teresa M Ferrara, Yujia Zhao, Clifton L Dalgard, Juanita J Anders, Kimberly R Byrnes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite the success of using photobiomodulation (PBM), also known as low level light therapy, in promoting recovery after central nervous system (CNS) injury, the effect of PBM on microglia, the primary mediators of immune and inflammatory response in the CNS, remains unclear. Microglia exhibit a spectrum of responses to injury, with partial or full polarization into pro- and anti-inflammatory phenotypes. Pro-inflammatory (M1 or classically activated) microglia contribute to chronic inflammation and neuronal toxicity, while anti-inflammatory (M2 or alternatively activated) microglia play a role in wound healing and tissue repair; microglia can fall anywhere along this spectrum in response to stimulation...
April 2013: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Kamaldeen A Muili, Sandeep Gopalakrishnan, Stacy L Meyer, Janis T Eells, Jeri-Anne Lyons
BACKGROUND: The approved immunomodulatory agents for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) are only partially effective. It is thought that the combination of immunomodulatory and neuroprotective strategies is necessary to prevent or reverse disease progression. Irradiation with far red/near infrared light, termed photobiomodulation, is a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Data suggests that near-infrared light functions through neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory mechanisms...
2012: PloS One
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