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M Moccia, M Quarantelli, R Lanzillo, S Cocozza, A Carotenuto, B Carotenuto, B Alfano, A Prinster, M Triassi, A Nardone, R Palladino, A Brunetti, V Brescia Morra
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) are both affected in multiple sclerosis (MS). WM is predominantly involved in inflammatory demyelination of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), whereas GM is predominantly involved in neurodegenerative processes of secondary progressive MS. Thus, we investigated the ratio between GM and WM volumes in predicting MS evolution. METHODS: The present 10-year retrospective cohort study included 149 patients with newly-diagnosed RRMS, undergoing magnetic resonance imaging for segmentation and brain volumetry...
November 1, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Kaushal S Gandhi, Fiona C McKay, Mathew Cox, Carlos Riveros, Nicola Armstrong, Robert N Heard, Steve Vucic, David W Williams, Jim Stankovich, Matthew Brown, Patrick Danoy, Graeme J Stewart, Simon Broadley, Pablo Moscato, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Rodney J Scott, David R Booth
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease with a genetic component, caused at least in part by aberrant lymphocyte activity. The whole blood mRNA transcriptome was measured for 99 untreated MS patients: 43 primary progressive MS, 20 secondary progressive MS, 36 relapsing remitting MS and 45 age-matched healthy controls. The ANZgene Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium genotyped more than 300 000 SNPs for 115 of these samples. Transcription from genes on translational regulation, oxidative phosphorylation, immune synapse and antigen presentation pathways was markedly increased in all forms of MS...
June 1, 2010: Human Molecular Genetics
Nadia Barizzone, Ilenia Zara, Melissa Sorosina, Sara Lupoli, Eleonora Porcu, Maristella Pitzalis, Magdalena Zoledziewska, Federica Esposito, Maurizio Leone, Antonella Mulas, Eleonora Cocco, Paola Ferrigno, Franca R Guerini, Paola Brambilla, Gabriele Farina, Raffaele Murru, Francesca Deidda, Sonia Sanna, Alessia Loi, Cristina Barlassina, Domizia Vecchio, Andrea Zauli, Ferdinando Clarelli, Daniele Braga, Fausto Poddie, Roberto Cantello, Vittorio Martinelli, Giancarlo Comi, Jessica Frau, Lorena Lorefice, Maura Pugliatti, Giulio Rosati, Maurizio Melis, Maria G Marrosu, Daniele Cusi, Francesco Cucca, Filippo Martinelli Boneschi, Serena Sanna, Sandra D'Alfonso
BACKGROUND: Recent studies identified > 100 non-HLA (human leukocyte antigen) multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility variants in Northern European populations, but their role in Southern Europeans is largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the cumulative impact of those variants in two Mediterranean populations: Continental Italians and Sardinians. METHODS: We calculated four weighted Genetic Risk Scores (wGRS), using up to 102 non-HLA MS risk variants and 5 HLA MS susceptibility markers in 1691 patients and 2194 controls from continental Italy; and 2861 patients and 3034 controls from Sardinia...
October 2015: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Simona Raimo, Luigi Trojano, Daniele Spitaleri, Vittorio Petretta, Dario Grossi, Gabriella Santangelo
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis (MS). Among these, apathy is relatively frequent but its relationships with cognitive dysfunctions have been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To explore cognitive correlates of apathy with or without depression ("pure apathy") in MS patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Nondemented MS patients (n = 125), consecutively referred to the Multiple Sclerosis Center of Moscati Hospital, in Avellino, Italy, underwent the Apathy Evaluation Scale Self-Rated (AES-S), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery...
September 2016: Neuropsychology
Jorge Correale, María I Gaitán, María C Ysrraelit, Marcela P Fiol
During the past decades, better understanding of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis disease mechanisms have led to the development of several disease-modifying therapies, reducing relapse rates and severity, through immune system modulation or suppression. In contrast, current therapeutic options for progressive multiple sclerosis remain comparatively disappointing and challenging. One possible explanation is a lack of understanding of pathogenic mechanisms driving progressive multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, diagnosis is usually retrospective, based on history of gradual neurological worsening with or without occasional relapses, minor remissions or plateaus...
October 29, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
A Musella, G Mandolesi, F Mori, A Gentile, D Centonze
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Nasimudeen R Jabir, Chelapram K Firoz, Saleh S Baeesa, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Suhail Akhtar, Warda Kamal, Mohammad A Kamal, Shams Tabrez
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of neuronal structure and function, which ultimately leads to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. Even after the recent significant advances in neurobiology, the above-mentioned disorders continue to haunt the global population. Several studies have suggested the role of specific environmental and genetic risk factors associated with these disorders. However, the exact mechanism associated with the progression of these disorders still needs to be elucidated...
January 2015: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Rogerio Leone Buchaim, Jesus Carlos Andreo, Benedito Barraviera, Rui Seabra Ferreira Junior, Daniela Vieira Buchaim, Geraldo Marco Rosa Junior, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira, Antonio de Castro Rodrigues
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess whether the adhesive permits the collateral repair of axons originating from a vagus nerve to the interior of a sural nerve graft, and whether low-level laser therapy (LLLT) assists in the regeneration process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study sample consisted of 32 rats randomly separated into three groups: Control Group (CG; n=8), from which the intact sural nerve was collected; Experimental Group (EG; n=12), in which one of the ends of the sural nerve graft was coapted to the vagus nerve using the fibrin glue; and Experimental Group Laser (EGL; n=12), in which the animals underwent the same procedures as those in EG with the addition of LLLT...
April 2015: Injury
Elena Herranz, Costanza Giannì, Céline Louapre, Constantina A Treaba, Sindhuja T Govindarajan, Russell Ouellette, Marco L Loggia, Jacob A Sloane, Nancy Madigan, David Izquierdo-Garcia, Noreen Ward, Gabriel Mangeat, Tobias Granberg, Eric C Klawiter, Ciprian Catana, Jacob M Hooker, Norman Taylor, Carolina Ionete, Revere P Kinkel, Caterina Mainero
OBJECTIVE: In multiple sclerosis (MS), using simultaneous magnetic resonance-positron emission tomography (MR-PET) imaging with (11) C-PBR28, we quantified expression of the 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of activated microglia/macrophages, in cortex, cortical lesions, deep gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) lesions, and normal-appearing WM (NAWM) to investigate the in vivo pathological and clinical relevance of neuroinflammation. METHODS: Fifteen secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) patients, 12 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients, and 14 matched healthy controls underwent (11) C-PBR28 MR-PET...
November 2016: Annals of Neurology
Daniela Pohl, Gulay Alper, Keith Van Haren, Andrew J Kornberg, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Silvia Tenembaum, Anita L Belman
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating CNS disorder with predilection to early childhood. ADEM is generally considered a monophasic disease. However, recurrent ADEM has been described and defined as multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis. ADEM often occurs postinfectiously, although a causal relationship has never been established. ADEM and multiple sclerosis are currently viewed as distinct entities, generally distinguishable even at disease onset. However, pathologic studies have demonstrated transitional cases of yet unclear significance...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Runze Yang, Jeff F Dunn
Hypoxia (low oxygen) is associated with many brain disorders as well as inflammation, but the lack of widely available technology has limited our ability to study hypoxia in human brain. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a poorly understood neurological disease with a significant inflammatory component which may cause hypoxia. We hypothesized that if hypoxia were to occur, there should be reduced microvascular hemoglobin saturation (StO2). In this study, we aimed to determine if reduced StO2 can be detected in MS using frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy (fdNIRS)...
November 13, 2015: Scientific Reports
Todd A Hardy, Stephen W Reddel, Michael H Barnett, Jacqueline Palace, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Brian G Weinshenker
Atypical inflammatory demyelinating syndromes are rare disorders that differ from multiple sclerosis owing to unusual clinical or MRI findings or poor response to treatments used for multiple sclerosis. These syndromes include neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, tumefactive demyelination, Baló's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and Marburg's multiple sclerosis. The overlapping features of these syndromes with multiple sclerosis and with each other complicate diagnosis and their categorisation as distinct or related conditions...
August 2016: Lancet Neurology
Graham R Campbell, Iryna Ziabreva, Amy K Reeve, Kim J Krishnan, Richard Reynolds, Owen Howell, Hans Lassmann, Doug M Turnbull, Don J Mahad
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral atrophy is a correlate of clinical progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitochondria are now established to play a part in the pathogenesis of MS. Uniquely, mitochondria harbor their own mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), essential for maintaining a healthy central nervous system. We explored mitochondrial respiratory chain activity and mtDNA deletions in single neurons from secondary progressive MS (SPMS) cases. METHODS: Ninety-eight snap-frozen brain blocks from 13 SPMS cases together with complex IV/complex II histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, laser dissection microscopy, long-range and real-time PCR and sequencing were used to identify and analyze respiratory-deficient neurons devoid of complex IV and with complex II activity...
March 2011: Annals of Neurology
Anna Kubsik, Robert Klimkiewicz, Katarzyna Janczewska, Paulina Klimkiewicz, Agnieszka Jankowska, Marta Woldańska-Okońska
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common neurological disorders. It is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS, whose etiology is not fully understood. Application of new rehabilitation methods are essential to improve functional status. OBJECTIVE: The material studied consisted of 120 patients of both sexes (82 women and 38 men) aged 21-81 years. The study involved patients with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of laser radiation and other therapies on the functional status of patients with multiple sclerosis...
2016: NeuroRehabilitation
Elaine D Gonçalves, Priscila S Souza, Vicente Lieberknecht, Giulia S P Fidelis, Rafael I Barbosa, Paulo C L Silveira, Ricardo A de Pinho, Rafael C Dutra
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent episodes of T cell-mediated immune attack on central nervous system (CNS) myelin, leading to axon damage and progressive disability. The existing therapies for MS are only partially effective and are associated with undesirable side effects. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been clinically used to treat inflammation, and to induce tissue healing and repair processes. However, there are no reports about the effects and mechanisms of LLLT in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of MS...
2016: Autoimmunity
Roshni A Desai, Andrew L Davies, Mohamed Tachrount, Marianne Kasti, Frida Laulund, Xavier Golay, Kenneth J Smith
OBJECTIVE: Demyelination is a cardinal feature of multiple sclerosis, but it remains unclear why new lesions form, and whether they can be prevented. Neuropathological evidence suggests that demyelination can occur in the relative absence of lymphocytes, and with distinctive characteristics suggestive of a tissue energy deficit. The objective was to examine an experimental model of the early multiple sclerosis lesion and identify pathogenic mechanisms and opportunities for therapy. METHODS: Demyelinating lesions were induced in the rat spinal dorsal column by microinjection of lipopolysaccharide, and examined immunohistochemically at different stages of development...
April 2016: Annals of Neurology
Markus Kipp, Tanja Hochstrasser, Christoph Schmitz, Cordian Beyer
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease that shows a female-to-male gender prevalence and alleviation of disease activity during late stage pregnancy. In MS-related animal models, sex steroids ameliorate symptoms and protect from demyelination and neuronal damage. Underlying mechanisms of these protective avenues are continuously discovered, in part by using novel transgenic animal models. In this review article, we highlight the regulation of glia cell function by female sex steroids...
August 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Khaled Abdel-Aziz, Torben Schneider, Bhavana S Solanky, Marios C Yiannakas, Dan R Altmann, Claudia A M Wheeler-Kingshott, Amy L Peters, Brian L Day, Alan J Thompson, Olga Ciccarelli
Spinal neurodegeneration is an important determinant of disability progression in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Advanced imaging techniques, such as single-voxel (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging, have increased pathological specificity for neurodegeneration, but are challenging to implement in the spinal cord and have yet to be applied in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis. By combining these imaging techniques with new clinical measures, which reflect spinal cord pathology more closely than conventional clinical tests, we explored the potential for spinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging to detect early spinal neurodegeneration that may be responsible for clinical disability...
June 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Giulia Mallucci, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Joshua D Bernstock, Stefano Pluchino
Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common causes of chronic neurological disability beginning in early to middle adult life. Multiple sclerosis is idiopathic in nature, yet increasing correlative evidence supports a strong association between one's genetic predisposition, the environment and the immune system. Symptoms of multiple sclerosis have primarily been shown to result from a disruption in the integrity of myelinated tracts within the white matter of the central nervous system. However, recent research has also highlighted the hitherto underappreciated involvement of gray matter in multiple sclerosis disease pathophysiology, which may be especially relevant when considering the accumulation of irreversible damage and progressive disability...
April 2015: Progress in Neurobiology
Yong Wang, Peng Sun, Qing Wang, Kathryn Trinkaus, Robert E Schmidt, Robert T Naismith, Anne H Cross, Sheng-Kwei Song
Axon injury/loss, demyelination and inflammation are the primary pathologies in multiple sclerosis lesions. Despite the prevailing notion that axon/neuron loss is the substrate of clinical progression of multiple sclerosis, the roles that these individual pathological processes play in multiple sclerosis progression remain to be defined. An imaging modality capable to effectively detect, differentiate and individually quantify axon injury/loss, demyelination and inflammation, would not only facilitate the understanding of the pathophysiology underlying multiple sclerosis progression, but also the assessment of treatments at the clinical trial and individual patient levels...
May 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
2016-09-22 22:48:26
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