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Insulin resistence

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By Marcia Tancredi Nephrology and geriátrics skills
Wang Zhao, Shui-Ping Zhao
BACKGROUND: To determine the effect of different statins on the induction of diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four statins (atorvastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and pitavastatin) were used. Cytotoxicity, insulin secretion, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest were investigated in human pancreas islet β cells, and glucose uptake and signaling were studied in human skeletal muscle cells (HSkMCs). RESULTS: Human pancreas islet β cells treated with 100 nM atorvastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and pitavastatin had reduced cell viability (32...
2015: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Aris P Agouridis, Michael S Kostapanos, Moses S Elisaf
INTRODUCTION: Statins are evidence-based drugs to prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease. However, their benefits have been disputed by a statin-related increased risk of new onset diabetes (NOD) in randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an update based on recent outstanding evidence on the statin effect on the risk of diabetes. It also describes mechanisms potentially explaining adverse effects of statins on glucose homeostasis...
2015: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Hye Jin Wang, Jae Yeo Park, Obin Kwon, Eun Yeong Choe, Chul Hoon Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Myung-Shik Lee, Mijin Yun, Bong Soo Cha, Young-Bum Kim, Hyangkyu Lee, Eun Seok Kang
Statins (HMGCR/HMG-CoA reductase [3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase] inhibitors) are widely used to lower blood cholesterol levels but have been shown to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the molecular mechanism underlying diabetogenic effects remains to be elucidated. Here we show that statins significantly increase the expression of key gluconeogenic enzymes (such as G6PC [glucose-6-phosphatase] and PCK1 (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 [soluble]) in vitro and in vivo and promote hepatic glucose output...
November 2, 2015: Autophagy
Vasundhara Kain, Bandish Kapadia, Parimal Misra, Uday Saxena
Statins are a class of oral drugs that are widely used for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Recent clinical data suggest that chronic use of these drugs increases the frequency of new onset diabetes. Studies to define the risks of statin-induced diabetes and its underlying mechanisms are clearly necessary. We explored the possible mechanism of statin induced insulin resistance using a well-established cell based model and simvastatin as a prototype statin. Our data show that simvastatin induces insulin resistance in a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibition independent fashion but does so by a fatty acid mediated effect on insulin signaling pathway...
2015: Scientific Reports
Anton P van de Woestijne, Yolanda van der Graaf, Jan Westerink, Hendrik M Nathoe, Frank L J Visseren
Several trials and cohort studies have shown an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients using statins. Whether this only applies to patients at already high risk for the development of T2DM or for all patients is still a matter of debate. In the present prospective cohort study of 4,645 patients with established vascular disease without DM at baseline, 3,057 patients used statins at baseline, of whom 1,608 used intensive statin therapy, defined as statin therapy theoretically lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with ≥40%...
February 15, 2015: American Journal of Cardiology
Soo Lim, Pyung Chun Oh, Ichiro Sakuma, Kwang Kon Koh
Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are important for preventing adverse cardiovascular events not only in patients with a high risk of vascular disease but also in those with a low risk, by reducing the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Statin is associated with deteriorating glucose homeostasis and an increased risk of diabetes mellitus. Moreover, these off-target effects are dose-dependent; it has also been suggested that renal insult can be caused dose-dependently by statin treatment, in contrast to previous studies showing a renoprotective effect...
August 2014: Atherosclerosis
Barak Zafrir, Mohit Jain
Lipid-lowering therapies constitute an essential part in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases and are consistently shown to reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes in wide-scale populations. Recently, there is increased awareness of the possibility that lipid-lowering drugs may affect glucose control and insulin resistance. This phenomenon is reported in all classes of lipid-modifying agents, with differential effects of distinct drugs. Since the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes is rising, and lipid-modifying therapies are widely used to reduce the cardiovascular burden in these populations, it is of importance to examine the relationship between lipid-lowering drugs, glycemic control and incident diabetes...
August 2014: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Aman Goyal, Surender Singh, Nikhil Tandon, Nandita Gupta, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
OBJECTIVE: Statins are commonly used for the management of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. We hypothesized that atorvastatin could modulate the beta-cell function by altering the levels of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic lipoproteins and could also have an effect on insulin resistance. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of atorvastatin 10 mg on pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin resistance in patients with hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes by using the homeostasis model assessment-2 (HOMA2) index...
December 2014: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Zoon H Park, Alicia Juska, Detelin Dyakov, Ramesh V Patel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate available evidence for incident diabetes associated with statin use and offer some practical management considerations. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE from 2000 to October 2013. The following MESH terms and text key words alone or in combination were included: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, statins, incident diabetes, new-onset diabetes, insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, meta-analysis, cohort study, and observational study...
2014: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Marilyne Brault, Jessica Ray, Yessica-Haydee Gomez, Christos S Mantzoros, Stella S Daskalopoulou
New-onset diabetes has been observed in clinical trials and meta-analyses involving statin therapy. To explain this association, three major mechanisms have been proposed and discussed in the literature. First, certain statins affect insulin secretion through direct, indirect or combined effects on calcium channels in pancreatic β-cells. Second, reduced translocation of glucose transporter 4 in response to treatment results in hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Third, statin therapy decreases other important downstream products, such as coenzyme Q10, farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, and dolichol; their depletion leads to reduced intracellular signaling...
June 2014: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Ji Sung Yoon, Hyoung Woo Lee
Statins are widely prescribed cholesterol-lowering agents, which have been demonstrated to significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, recent trials have reported that statins cause worsening of hyperglycemia and increase the risk of new-onset diabetes. The association between the diabetogenic effect of statins with intensive dose and accompanying major risk factors for diabetes has been demonstrated. However, statins do not appear to have a class effect on insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic patients...
December 2013: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Umer Saleem, Thomas H Mosley, Iftikhar J Kullo
OBJECTIVE: Osteocalcin has been reported to influence insulin secretion in experimental animals. We investigated whether serum osteocalcin was associated with measures of insulin resistance, circulating adipokine levels, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum osteocalcin was measured by solid-phase sandwich immunoassay in 1284 blacks (64+/-9 years; 71% women) and 1209 non-Hispanic whites (59+/-10 years; 57% women) belonging to hypertensive sibships...
July 2010: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Brian T VanFossen, G Stennis Watson, Laura D Baker, Kristoffer W Rhoads, Brenna A Cholerton, Mark A Reger, Stephen R Plymate, Gerald Schellenberg, Suzanne Craft
The present study examined the relationships among statin use, APOE genotype, and insulin resistance as measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in healthy older adults. APOE epsilon4- (i.e., not having an epsilon4 allele) statin users had higher HOMA-IR values compared with epsilon4+/statin users (p=0.0169), and with non-users who were epsilon4- (p=0.0003) or epsilon4+ (p=0.0006). These results suggest that statin use may modulate insulin levels for individuals without an APOE epsilon4 allele...
2010: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Babak Razani, Manu V Chakravarthy, Clay F Semenkovich
Insulin resistance characterizes type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, disorders associated with an increased risk of death due to macrovascular disease. In the past few decades, research from both the basic science and clinical arenas has enabled evidence-based use of therapeutic modalities such as statins and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors to reduce cardiovascular (CV) mortality in insulin-resistant patients. Recently, promising drugs such as the thiazolidinediones have come under scrutiny for possible deleterious CV effects...
September 2008: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
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