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Christian Pagnoux
Antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides are small-vessel vasculitides that include granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Wegener's granulomatosis), microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome). Renal-limited ANCA-associated vasculitides can be considered the fourth entity. Despite their rarity and still unknown cause(s), research pertaining to ANCA-associated vasculitides has been very active over the past decades. The pathogenic role of antimyeloperoxidase ANCA (MPO-ANCA) has been supported using several animal models, but that of antiproteinase 3 ANCA (PR3-ANCA) has not been as strongly demonstrated...
September 2016: Eur J Rheumatol
Elena Prina, Adrian Ceccato, Antoni Torres
Despite improvements in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), morbidity and mortality are still high, especially in patients with more severe disease. Early and appropriate antibiotics remain the cornerstone in the treatment of CAP. However, two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvant treatments, such as corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects. The use of corticosteroids in patients with severe CAP and a strong inflammatory reaction can reduce the time to clinical stability, the risk of treatment failure, and the risk of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Larissa Lisnevskaia, Grainne Murphy, David Isenberg
Systemic lupus erythematosus is a remarkable and challenging disorder. Its diversity of clinical features is matched by the complexity of the factors (genetic, hormonal, and environmental) that cause it, and the array of autoantibodies with which it is associated. In this Seminar we reflect on changes in its classification criteria; consider aspects of its more serious clinical expression; and provide a brief review of its aetiopathogenesis, major complications, coping strategies, and conventional treatment...
November 22, 2014: Lancet
Jessica J Manson, Anisur Rahman
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous disease, which is autoimmune in origin and is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies directed against nuclear antigens. It is a multi-system disease, and patients can present in vastly different ways. Prevalence varies with ethnicity, but is estimated to be about 1 per 1000 overall with a female to male ratio of 10:1. The clinical heterogeneity of this disease mirrors its complex aetiopathogenesis, which highlights the importance of genetic factors and individual susceptibility to environmental factors...
2006: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Luís Inês, Cândida Silva, Maria Galindo, Francisco J López-Longo, Georgina Terroso, Vasco C Romão, Iñigo Rúa-Figueroa, Maria J Santos, José M Pego-Reigosa, Patrícia Nero, Marcos Cerqueira, Cátia Duarte, Luís C Miranda, Miguel Bernardes, Maria J Gonçalves, Coral Mouriño-Rodriguez, Filipe Araújo, Ana Raposo, Anabela Barcelos, Maura Couto, Pedro Abreu, Teresa Otón-Sanchez, Carla Macieira, Filipa Ramos, Jaime C Branco, José A P Silva, Helena Canhão, Jaime Calvo-Alén
OBJECTIVE: The new Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) 2012 classification criteria aimed to improve the performance of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) classification over the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1997 criteria. However, the SLICC 2012 criteria need further external validation. Our objective was to compare the sensitivity for SLE classification between the ACR 1997 and the SLICC 2012 criteria sets in a real-life, multicenter, international SLE population...
August 2015: Arthritis Care & Research
Sasha Bernatsky, Christine Peschken, Paul R Fortin, Christian A Pineau, Christi A Pineau, Murray B Urowitz, Dafna D Gladman, Janet E Pope, Marie Hudson, Michel Zummer, C Douglas Smith, Hector O Arbillaga, Ann E Clarke
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors affecting therapeutic approaches used in clinical practice for the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in a multicenter cohort. METHODS: We combined data from 10 clinical adult SLE cohort registries in Canada. We used multivariate generalized estimating equation methods to model dichotomized outcomes, running separate regressions where the outcome was current exposure of the patient to specific medications. Potential predictors of medication use included demographic (baseline age, sex, residence, race/ethnicity) and clinical factors (disease duration, time-dependent damage index scores, and adjusted mean SLE Disease Activity Index-2K scores)...
February 2011: Journal of Rheumatology
Sharon A Chung, Elizabeth E Brown, Adrienne H Williams, Paula S Ramos, Celine C Berthier, Tushar Bhangale, Marta E Alarcon-Riquelme, Timothy W Behrens, Lindsey A Criswell, Deborah Cunninghame Graham, F Yesim Demirci, Jeffrey C Edberg, Patrick M Gaffney, John B Harley, Chaim O Jacob, M Ilyas Kamboh, Jennifer A Kelly, Susan Manzi, Kathy L Moser-Sivils, Laurie P Russell, Michelle Petri, Betty P Tsao, Tim J Vyse, Raphael Zidovetzki, Matthias Kretzler, Robert P Kimberly, Barry I Freedman, Robert R Graham, Carl D Langefeld
Lupus nephritis is a manifestation of SLE resulting from glomerular immune complex deposition and inflammation. Lupus nephritis demonstrates familial aggregation and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. We completed a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies of SLE to identify lupus nephritis-predisposing loci. Through genotyping and imputation, >1.6 million markers were assessed in 2000 unrelated women of European descent with SLE (588 patients with lupus nephritis and 1412 patients with lupus without nephritis)...
December 2014: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Jayesh Dhanani, John F Fraser, Hak-Kim Chan, Jordi Rello, Jeremy Cohen, Jason A Roberts
Drug dosing in critically ill patients is challenging due to the altered drug pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics associated with systemic therapies. For many drug therapies, there is potential to use the respiratory system as an alternative route for drug delivery. Aerosol drug delivery can provide many advantages over conventional therapy. Given that respiratory diseases are the commonest causes of critical illness, use of aerosol therapy to provide high local drug concentrations with minimal systemic side effects makes this route an attractive option...
October 7, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
B Escudier, C Porta, M Schmidinger, N Rioux-Leclercq, A Bex, V Khoo, V Gruenvald, A Horwich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Subramanian Senthilkumaran, M P Senthilraj, Namasivayam Balamurugan, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Peter A McCullough, James P Choi, Georges A Feghali, Jeffrey M Schussler, Robert M Stoler, Ravi C Vallabahn, Ankit Mehta
Coronary angiography and percutaneous intervention rely on the use of iodinated intravascular contrast for vessel and chamber imaging. Despite advancements in imaging and interventional techniques, iodinated contrast continues to pose a risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) for a subgroup of patients at risk for this complication. There has been a consistent and graded signal of risk for associated outcomes including need for renal replacement therapy, rehospitalization, and death, according to the incidence and severity of CI-AKI...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Marlies Ostermann, Michael Joannidis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with serious short- and long-term complications. Early diagnosis and identification of the underlying aetiology are essential to guide management. In this review, we outline the current definition of AKI and the potential pitfalls, and summarise the existing and future tools to investigate AKI in critically ill patients.
September 27, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Jean-Francois Timsit, Elie Azoulay, Carole Schwebel, Pierre Emmanuel Charles, Muriel Cornet, Bertrand Souweine, Kada Klouche, Samir Jaber, Jean-Louis Trouillet, Fabrice Bruneel, Laurent Argaud, Joel Cousson, Ferhat Meziani, Didier Gruson, Adeline Paris, Michael Darmon, Maité Garrouste-Orgeas, Jean-Christophe Navellou, Arnaud Foucrier, Bernard Allaouchiche, Vincent Das, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Stéphane Ruckly, Daniele Maubon, Vincent Jullien, Michel Wolff
Importance: Although frequently used in treating intensive care unit (ICU) patients with sepsis, empirical antifungal therapy, initiated for suspected fungal infection, has not been shown to improve outcome. Objective: To determine whether empirical micafungin reduces invasive fungal infection (IFI)-free survival at day 28. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study of 260 nonneutropenic, nontransplanted, critically ill patients with ICU-acquired sepsis, multiple Candida colonization, multiple organ failure, exposed to broad-spectrum antibacterial agents, and enrolled between July 2012 and February 2015 in 19 French ICUs...
October 5, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Xabier García-Albéniz, John Hsu, Michael Bretthauer, Miguel A Hernán
Background: No randomized, controlled trials of screening colonoscopy have been completed, and ongoing trials exclude persons aged 75 years or older. The Medicare program, however, reimburses screening colonoscopy without an upper age limit. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of screening colonoscopy to prevent colorectal cancer (CRC) in persons aged 70 to 74 and those aged 75 to 79 years. Design: Large-scale, population-based, prospective study...
September 27, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Musa Fares Alzahrani, Mansoor Radwi, Heather A Leitch
Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder that is most commonly present in multicentric (MCD) form in association with HIV infection. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) play major roles in MCD pathogenesis. Important treatment options have recently become available, particularly with the introduction of IL-6 and IL-6 receptor inhibitors for the treatment of HIV-negative patients with MCD. Though advances in therapy may improve outcomes in some patients, the prognosis remains guarded, and a stratified approach to the management of MCD is needed...
2016: Acta Haematologica
Jeffrey A Kraut, Nicolaos E Madias
The kidney has the principal role in the maintenance of acid-base balance. Therefore, a decrease in renal ammonium excretion and a positive acid balance often leading to a reduction in serum bicarbonate concentration are observed in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The decrease in serum bicarbonate concentration is usually absent until glomerular filtration rate decreases to <20 to 25mL/min/1.73 m(2), although it can develop with lesser degrees of decreased kidney function. Non-anion gap acidosis, high-anion gap acidosis, or both can be found at all stages of CKD...
February 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Clyde W Yancy, Mariell Jessup, Biykem Bozkurt, Javed Butler, Donald E Casey, Monica M Colvin, Mark H Drazner, Gerasimos Filippatos, Gregg C Fonarow, Michael M Givertz, Steven M Hollenberg, JoAnn Lindenfeld, Frederick A Masoudi, Patrick E McBride, Pamela N Peterson, Lynne Warner Stevenson, Cheryl Westlake
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Fatima Rodriguez, Kenneth W Mahaffey
Non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease worldwide. The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology and the European Society of Cardiology periodically release practice guidelines to guide clinicians in the management of NSTE-ACS, most recently in in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The present review compares and contrasts the 2 guidelines, with a focus on the strength of recommendation and level of evidence in the approach to initial presentation and diagnosis of NSTE-ACS, risk assessment, treatments, and systems of care...
July 19, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Héctor Bueno, Stuart Pocock, Nicolas Danchin, Lieven Annemans, John Gregson, Jesús Medina, Frans Van de Werf
OBJECTIVE: To describe international patterns of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration after acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and explore its determinants and correlation with clinical events. METHODS: EPICOR (long-tErm follow-uP of anti-thrombotic management patterns In acute CORonary syndrome patients) is a prospective, international, observational study of 10 568 ACS hospital survivors enrolled in 555 centres from 20 countries across Europe and Latin America between 2010 and 2011, with telephone follow-up at quarterly intervals up to 24 months to assess treatment continuation and clinical events...
August 8, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Cecilia C Low Wang, Connie N Hess, William R Hiatt, Allison B Goldfine
Cardiovascular disease remains the principal cause of death and disability among patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus exacerbates mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis and heart failure. Unfortunately, these mechanisms are not adequately modulated by therapeutic strategies focusing solely on optimal glycemic control with currently available drugs or approaches. In the setting of multifactorial risk reduction with statins and other lipid-lowering agents, antihypertensive therapies, and antihyperglycemic treatment strategies, cardiovascular complication rates are falling, yet remain higher for patients with diabetes mellitus than for those without...
June 14, 2016: Circulation
2016-10-01 21:44:18
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