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Medical Education

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18 papers 0 to 25 followers
Steven Walker, Jane Gibbins, Paul Paes, Astrid Adams, Madawa Chandratilake, Faye Gishen, Philip Lodge, Bee Wee, Stephen Barclay
BACKGROUND: A proportion of newly qualified doctors report feeling unprepared to manage patients with palliative care and end-of-life needs. This may be related to barriers within their institution during undergraduate training. Information is limited regarding the current organisation of palliative care teaching across UK medical schools. AIMS: To investigate the evolution and structure of palliative care teaching at UK medical schools. DESIGN: Anonymised, web-based questionnaire...
June 2017: Palliative Medicine
H C Gooding, K Mann, E Armstrong
Findings from the science of learning have clear implications for those responsible for teaching and curricular design. However, this data has been historically siloed from educators in practice, including those in health professions education. In this article, we aim to bring practical tips from the science of learning to health professions educators. We have chosen to organize the tips into six themes, highlighting strategies for 1) improving the processing of information, 2) promoting effortful learning for greater retention of knowledge over time, 3) applying learned information to new and varied contexts, 4) promoting the development of expertise, 5) harnessing the power of emotion for learning, and 6) teaching and learning in social contexts...
January 2017: Medical Teacher
Geoffrey R Norman, Sandra D Monteiro, Jonathan Sherbino, Jonathan S Ilgen, Henk G Schmidt, Silvia Mamede
Contemporary theories of clinical reasoning espouse a dual processing model, which consists of a rapid, intuitive component (Type 1) and a slower, logical and analytical component (Type 2). Although the general consensus is that this dual processing model is a valid representation of clinical reasoning, the causes of diagnostic errors remain unclear. Cognitive theories about human memory propose that such errors may arise from both Type 1 and Type 2 reasoning. Errors in Type 1 reasoning may be a consequence of the associative nature of memory, which can lead to cognitive biases...
January 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Patrício Costa, Marco Antonio de Carvalho-Filho, Marcelo Schweller, Pia Thiemann, Ana Salgueira, John Benson, Manuel João Costa, Thelma Quince
PURPOSE: Understanding medical student empathy is important to future patient care; however, the definition and development of clinical empathy remain unclear. The authors sought to examine the underlying constructs of two of the most widely used self-report instruments-Davis's Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy version for medical students (JSE-S)-plus, the distinctions and associations between these instruments. METHOD: Between 2007 and 2014, the authors administered the IRI and JSE-S in three separate studies in five countries, (Brazil, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the United Kingdom)...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Yuya Hagiwara, Jeanette Ross, Shuko Lee, Sandra Sanchez-Reilly
BACKGROUND: Few educational interventions have been developed to teach Family Meeting (FM) communication skills at the undergraduate level. We developed an innovative curriculum to address this gap. METHODS: Fourth year medical students during 2011-2013 (n = 674) completed training for conducting a FM. To assess the effectiveness of this training, students completed a FM Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) that included 15 domains rated on a 1-5 point Likert scale...
December 2017: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Kirsty Foster, Chris Roberts
BACKGROUND: The successful development and sustaining of professional identity is critical to being a successful doctor. This study explores the enduring impact of significant early role models on the professional identity formation of senior doctors. METHODS: Personal Interview Narratives were derived from the stories told by twelve senior doctors as they recalled accounts of people and events from the past that shaped their notions of being a doctor. Narrative inquiry methodology was used to explore and analyse video recording and transcript data from interviews...
August 16, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Constance M Bowe, Elizabeth Armstrong
Viewing health care from a systems perspective-that is, "a collection of different things which, working together, produce a result not achievable by the things alone"-raises awareness of the complex interrelationships involved in meeting society's goals for accessible, cost-effective, high-quality health care. This perspective also emphasizes the far-reaching consequences of changes in one sector of a system on other components' performance. Medical education promotes this holistic view of health care in its curricula and competency requirements for graduation at the undergraduate and graduate training levels...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Elizabeth A Crabtree, Emily Brennan, Amanda Davis, Jerry E Squires
PROBLEM: Evidence-based practice (EBP) skills are crucial for delivering high-quality patient care. It is essential that medical students learn EBP concepts through a practical, in-depth research project. To date, literature on preparing students in this manner is limited. APPROACH: In academic year 2014-2015, the Medical University of South Carolina's (MUSC's) Center for Evidence-Based Practice (now known as the Value Institute) partnered with College of Medicine faculty to revitalize the undergraduate medical student EBP curriculum...
January 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
William B Cutrer, Bonnie Miller, Martin V Pusic, George Mejicano, Rajesh S Mangrulkar, Larry D Gruppen, Richard E Hawkins, Susan E Skochelak, Donald E Moore
Change is ubiquitous in health care, making continuous adaptation necessary for clinicians to provide the best possible care to their patients. The authors propose that developing the capabilities of a Master Adaptive Learner will provide future physicians with strategies for learning in the health care environment and for managing change more effectively. The concept of a Master Adaptive Learner describes a metacognitive approach to learning based on self-regulation that can foster the development and use of adaptive expertise in practice...
January 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Anand Lakhani, Elliot Lass, William K Silverstein, Karen B Born, Wendy Levinson, Brian M Wong
PROBLEM: Physician behaviors that promote overuse of health care resources develop early in training, and the medical education environment helps foster such behaviors. The authors describe the development of a Choosing Wisely list for medical students aimed at helping to curb overuse. APPROACH: The list was developed in 2015 by Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) in partnership with the Canadian Federation of Medical Students and the Fédération médicale étudiante du Québec, which together represent all medical students in Canada...
October 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Masami Tagawa
BACKGROUND: The use of role models (RMs) is a successful educational strategy. In formal training and other settings during undergraduate education, students have the opportunity to recognize numerous traits and behaviors of their RMs, such as teaching skills, professionalism in the clinical setting, and personal qualities. Encountering both positive and negative RMs allows medical students to learn a variety of professional norms and values. This learning process is likely influenced by a student's developmental status, which itself is related to that student's personal attributes and experiences...
June 23, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Javier Avila, Kai Sostmann, Jan Breckwoldt, Harm Peters
BACKGROUND: Electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) are used to document and support learning activities. E-portfolios with mobile capabilities allow even more flexibility. However, the development or acquisition of ePortfolio software is often costly, and at the same time, commercially available systems may not sufficiently fit the institution's needs. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate an ePortfolio system with mobile capabilities using a commercially free and open source software solution...
June 3, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Kristin E Remus, Michael Honigberg, Sri Lekha Tummalapalli, Laura P Cohen, Sara Fazio, Amy R Weinstein
PROBLEM: In the current transformative health care landscape, it is imperative that clinician educators inspire future clinicians to practice primary care in a dynamic environment. A focus on patient-centered, goal-oriented care for patients with chronic conditions is critical. APPROACH: In 2009, Harvard Medical School founded the Crimson Care Collaborative, a student-faculty collaborative practice (SFCP) network. With the aim of expanding clinical and educational opportunities for medical students and improving patient control of chronic disease (i...
July 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Yan Xu, Philip S Wells
In past decades, stark differences in practice pattern, cost, and outcomes of care across regions with similar health demographics have prompted calls for reform. As health systems answer the growing call for accountability in the form of quality indices, while responding to increased scrutiny on practice variation in the form of pay for performance (P4P), a rift is widening between the system and individual patients. Currently, three areas are inadequately considered by P4P structures based largely on physician adherence to guidelines: diversity of patient values and preferences; time and financial burden of therapy in the context of multimorbidity; and narrow focus on quantitative measures that distract clinicians from providing optimal care...
July 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Sarah Catherine Walpole, David Pearson, Jonathan Coad, Stefi Barna
BACKGROUND: Human health is fundamentally determined by the health of ecosystems. Guidance is lacking about how to address the topic of ecosystems within medical education. AIMS: To determine the nature of discussions around ecosystems in the educational, medical and medical education literature. To identify learning needs of tomorrow's doctors. METHODS: A narrative synthesis approach was used. Systematic searches were completed in 14 databases...
2016: Medical Teacher
Justin C De Biasio, Valerie Parkas, Rainier P Soriano
Delivering adequate care to older people requires an increasing number of physicians competent in the treatment of this expanding subpopulation. Attitudes toward older adults are important as predictors of the quality of care of older people and of medical trainee likelihood to enter the geriatrics field. This study assessed the attitudes of 404 US medical students (MS) from the start of medical school to graduation using the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Geriatrics Attitude Scale. It is the first study to utilize a longitudinal design to assess attitudes among students in a medical school with a longitudinal geriatrics clinical experience in the first two years and a required geriatrics clerkship in the third year...
August 2016: Medical Teacher
Jocelyn M Lockyer, Carol S Hodgson, Tzu Lee, Sonia Faremo, Bruce Fisher, William Dafoe, Verna Yiu, Claudio Violato
INTRODUCTION: Physicians identify teaching as a factor that enhances performance, although existing data to support this relationship is limited. PURPOSE: To determine whether there were differences in clinical performance scores as assessed through multisource feedback (MSF) data based on clinical teaching. METHODS: MSF data for 1831 family physicians, 1510 medical specialists, and 542 surgeons were collected from physicians' medical colleagues, co-workers (e...
August 2016: Medical Teacher
Eliot L Rees, Patrick J Quinn, Benjamin Davies, Victoria Fotheringham
PURPOSE: In undergraduate medical education, peer-teaching has become an established and common method to enhance student learning. Evidence suggests that peer-teaching provides learning benefits for both learners and tutors. We aimed to describe the outcomes for medical students taught by peers through systematic review and meta-analysis of existing literature. METHODS: Seven databases were searched through 21 terms and their Boolean combinations. Studies reporting knowledge or skills outcomes of students taught by peers compared to those taught by faculty or qualified clinicians were included...
August 2016: Medical Teacher
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