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Acid base

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By Faye Kehler Family Physician and GP Anesthetist since 1987 interested in all aspects of Medicine
Yun Kyu Oh
Metabolic acid-base disorders are comnom clinical problems in ICU patients. Arterial blood gas analysis and anion gap (AG) are important laboratory data in approaching acid-base interpretation. When measuring the AG, several factors such as albumin have influence on unmeasured anions and unmeasured cations. If a patient has hypoalbuminemia, the AG should be adjusted according to the albumin level. High AG metabolic acidoses including lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, and ingestion of toxic alcohols are common in ICU patients...
December 2010: Electrolyte & Blood Pressure: E & BP
D A Story, H Morimatsu, R Bellomo
BACKGROUND: The Fencl-Stewart approach to acid-base disorders uses five equations of varying complexity to estimate the base excess effects of the important components: the strong ion difference (sodium and chloride), the total weak acid concentration (albumin) and unmeasured ions. Although this approach is straightforward, most people would need a calculator to use the equations. We proposed four simpler equations that require only mental arithmetic and tested the hypothesis that these simpler equations would have good agreement with more complex Fencl-Stewart equations...
January 2004: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Sheldon Magder, Ali Emami
The late Peter Stewart developed an approach to the analysis of acid-base disturbances in biological systems based on basic physical-chemical principles. His key argument was that the traditional carbon dioxide/bicarbonate analysis with just the use of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation does not account for the important role in the regulation of H(+) concentration played by strong ions, weak acids and water itself. Acceptance of his analysis has been limited because it requires a complicated set of calculations to account for all the variables and it does not provide simple clinical guidance...
January 2015: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Howard E Corey
The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and the base excess have been used traditionally to describe the acid-base balance of the blood. In 1981, Stewart proposed a new model of acid-base balance based upon three variables, the "strong ion difference" (SID), the total weak acids (ATot), and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2). Over 20 years later, Stewart's physiochemical model still remains largely unknown. In this review, we will present both the traditional and the Stewart models of acid-base balance and then derive each using an "ion equilibrium method...
September 2003: Kidney International
S Matousek, J Handy, S E Rees
OBJECTIVE: Debate still exists as to whether the Stewart (modern) or traditional model of acid-base chemistry is best in assessing the acid-base status of critically ill patients. Recent studies have compared various parameters from the modern and traditional approaches, assessing the clinical usefulness of parameters such as base excess, anion gap, corrected anion gap, strong ion difference and strong ion gap. To compare the clinical usefulness of these parameters, and hence the different approaches, requires a clear understanding of their meaning; a task only possible through understanding the mathematical basis of the approaches...
February 2011: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Ira Kurtz, Jeffrey Kraut, Vahram Ornekian, Minhtri K Nguyen
When approaching the analysis of disorders of acid-base balance, physical chemists, physiologists, and clinicians, tend to focus on different aspects of the relevant phenomenology. The physical chemist focuses on a quantitative understanding of proton hydration and aqueous proton transfer reactions that alter the acidity of a given solution. The physiologist focuses on molecular, cellular, and whole organ transport processes that modulate the acidity of a given body fluid compartment. The clinician emphasizes the diagnosis, clinical causes, and most appropriate treatment of acid-base disturbances...
May 2008: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Hernando Gomez, John A Kellum
The concentration of hydrogen ions is regulated in biologic solutions. There are currently 3 recognized approaches to assess changes in acid base status. First is the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, also called the physiologic approach, which uses the relationship between HCO3(-) and Pco2; the second is the standard base excess approach based on the Van Slyke equation. The third approach is the quantitative or Stewart approach, which uses the strong ion difference and the total weak acids. This article explores the origins of the current concepts framing the existing methods to analyze acid base balance...
October 2015: Critical Care Clinics
Jens Rocktaeschel, Hiroshi Morimatsu, Shigehiko Uchino, Rinaldo Bellomo
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether base excess, base excess caused by unmeasured anions, and anion gap can predict lactate in adult critically ill patients, and also to determine whether acid-base variables can predict mortality in these patients. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Adult intensive care unit of tertiary hospital. PATIENTS: Three hundred adult critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit...
August 2003: Critical Care Medicine
Lui G Forni, William McKinnon, Philip J Hilton
In the critically ill, metabolic acidosis is a common observation and, in clinical practice, the cause of this derangement is often multi-factorial. Various measures are often employed to try and characterise the aetiology of metabolic acidosis, the most popular of which is the anion gap. The purpose of the anion gap can be perceived as a means by which the physician is alerted to the presence of unmeasured anions in plasma that contribute to the observed acidosis. In many cases, the causative ion may be easily identified, such as lactate, but often the causative ion(s) remain unidentified, even after exclusion of the 'classic' causes...
2006: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Elvira-Markela Antonogiannaki, Ioanna Mitrouska, Vassilis Amargianitakis, Dimitris Georgopoulos
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of physicochemical, base excess (BE), and plasma bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3(-)]) approaches on the assessment of acid-base status in patients presented to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Upon presentation at ED, patients whose arterial blood was deemed in need of analysis were studied. Arterial blood gases, serum electrolytes, and proteins were measured and used to derive [HCO3(-)], BE, anion gap (AG), AG adjusted for albumin (AGadj), strong ion difference, strong ion gap (SIG) and SIG corrected for water excess/deficit (SIGcor)...
March 2015: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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