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Andrew G Herzog, Hannah B Mandle, Kaitlyn E Cahill, Kristen M Fowler, W Allen Hauser
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether rates of unintended pregnancy in women with epilepsy (WWE) vary by contraceptive category and when stratified by antiepileptic drug (AED) category. METHODS: These retrospective data come from the Epilepsy Birth Control Registry (EBCR) web-based survey of 1,144 WWE in the community, 18-47 years of age, who provided demographic, epilepsy, AED, contraceptive, and pregnancy data. Participants indicated whether pregnancies were intended or unintended, as well as the type of contraceptive and AED used at conception...
January 25, 2017: Neurology
Silvia Paola Russo, Barbara Fossati, Mauro Toffetti, Jacopo Lanzone, Rosanna Cardani, Giovanni Meola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Neurology
Paolo Tinuper, Francesca Bisulli
Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a focal epilepsy with seizures arising mainly during sleep and characterized by complex, often bizarre, motor behavior or sustained dystonic posturing. First described in 1981, it was initially considered a motor disorder of sleep and was named nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia (NPD). The unusual seizure semiology, onset during sleep, and often uninformative scalp EEG and brain MRI make it difficult to distinguish NPD attacks from other non-epileptic nocturnal paroxysmal events, namely parasomnias...
December 15, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Rūta Mameniškienė, Peter Wolf
Epilepsia partialis contina (EPC) in a narrow definition is a variant of simple focal motor status epilepticus in which frequent repetitive muscle jerks, usually arrhythmic, continue over prolonged periods of time. In a broader definition (used in this review) it also includes non-motor manifestations otherwise known as aura continua. EPC may occur as a single episode, repetitive episodes, it may be chronic progressive or non-progressive. It appears as an unusual manifestation of epilepsy in which more typical paroxysmal events are partly or entirely replaced by the sustained repetition of seizure fragments in rapid succession...
October 18, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Özdem Ertürk Çetin, Cihan İşler, Mustafa Uzan, Çiğdem Özkara
Seizures are among the most common presentations of brain tumors. Several tumor types can cause seizures in varying rates; neuroglial tumors and the gliomas are the most common ones. Brain tumors are the second most common cause of focal intractable epilepsy in epilepsy surgery series, with the highest frequency being dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors and gangliogliomas. Seizure management is an important part of the treatment of patients with brain tumors. This review discusses clinical features and management of seizures in patients with brain tumors, including, neuroglial tumors, gliomas, meningioma and metastases; with the help of recent literature data...
January 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Juri-Alexander Witt, Christoph Helmstaedter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an update and summary of recent neuropsychological findings in epilepsy focusing on three major clinical topics among the many developments in the field. We will critically outline the current state with regard to cognition in new-onset epilepsies, social cognition in epilepsy, and the long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery and the cognitive outcomes of superselective surgical procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: Current studies indicate that neuropsychological impairments are prevalent already at the onset of epilepsy and even before, social cognition (i...
January 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
Alberto Verrotti, Chiara Mazzocchetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Beth Leeman-Markowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Jennifer W McVige
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intracranial congenital malformations are anomalies of brain development caused by genetic and environmental influences. This article discusses common intracranial congenital malformations, presents the associated neuroimaging findings, and discusses how appropriate identification of intracranial anomalies can impact diagnosis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in neuroimaging techniques and genetic research have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of many congenital malformations, adding insight into their clinical relevance and the intricate relationship between critical periods of development, genetic predisposition, and environmental insults...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Samuel Lapalme-Remis, Gregory D Cascino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses structural and functional neuroimaging findings in patients with seizures and epilepsy. The indications for neuroimaging in these patients and the potential diagnostic utility of these studies are presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients presenting with new seizures typically require urgent imaging to rule out a critical underlying cause. MRI is the structural neuroimaging procedure of choice in individuals with epilepsy. Specific epilepsy protocols should be considered to increase the diagnostic yield of neuroimaging in patients with structural lesions associated with focal or generalized seizures...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
John W Miller, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Neurology
Eliseu Paglioli, William Alves Martins, Ney Azambuja, Mirna Portuguez, Thomas More Frigeri, Larissa Pinos, Ricardo Saute, Cora Salles, João Rubião Hoefel, Ricardo Bernardi Soder, Jaderson Costa da Costa, Marta Hemb, Tom Theys, André Palmini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a novel approach to control epileptic drop attacks through a selective posterior callosotomy, sparing all prefrontal interconnectivity. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with refractory drop attacks had selective posterior callosotomy and prospective follow-up for >4 years. Falls, episodes of aggressive behavior, and IQ were quantified. Autonomy in activities of daily living, axial tonus, and speech generated a functional score ranging from 0 to 13...
November 8, 2016: Neurology
Irene Wang, Andreas Alexopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advanced MRI postprocessing techniques are increasingly used to complement visual analysis and elucidate structural epileptogenic lesions. This review summarizes recent developments in MRI postprocessing in the context of epilepsy presurgical evaluation, with the focus on patients with unremarkable MRI by visual analysis (i.e. 'nonlesional' MRI). RECENT FINDINGS: Various methods of MRI postprocessing have been reported to show additional clinical values in the following areas: lesion detection on an individual level; lesion confirmation for reducing the risk of over reading the MRI; detection of sulcal/gyral morphologic changes that are particularly difficult for visual analysis; and delineation of cortical abnormalities extending beyond the visible lesion...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Iris Unterberger, Richard Bauer, Gerald Walser, Gerhard Bauer
PURPOSE: Corpus callosum (CC) is the largest forebrain commissure. This review focuses on the significance of CC for seizure disorders, the role of CC in seizure spread and the surgical disruption of callosal fibers (callosotomy) for treatment of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. METHODS: Personal experience/extensive literature review. RESULTS: Structural CC pathologies comprise developmental abnormalities, callosal involvement in identified disorders, transient imaging findings and microstructural changes...
April 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Ettore Beghi, Giorgia Giussani, Josemir W Sander
Epilepsy is a brain condition characterized by the recurrence of unprovoked seizures. Generally, prognosis refers to the probability of attaining seizure freedom on treatment and little is known about the natural history of the untreated condition. Here, we summarize aspects of the prognosis and prognostic predictors of treated and untreated epilepsy and of its different syndromes. Usually, epilepsy is a fairly benign condition. Most epilepsies have a good prognosis for full seizure control and eventual discontinuation of AEDs, but epilepsy syndromes have differing outcomes and responses to treatment...
September 2015: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Kristina Malmgren, Bertil Rydenhag, Tove Hallböök
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Corpus callosotomy is a palliative surgical treatment modality that has gone in and out of favor. The purpose of this review is to summarize the studies of callosotomy in the past years as a treatment for severe drug-resistant epilepsy with traumatizing drop attacks, mostly in children and also in some adults. The aim is also to discuss knowledge gaps and suggest how these could be addressed. RECENT FINDINGS: Lately, a number of callosotomy series, mostly retrospective and single center, have included 289 operated patients...
April 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
Ruben Kuzniecky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are increasingly recognized as causes of epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. This review summarizes recent developments in the classification, specifically focusing on how genetic and cellular pathway advances are changing our understanding of MCD and how this applies to clinical care. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that mutations can have variable impact on not only the pattern of MCD but also the location of cortical involvement...
April 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
Francesca Pittau, Serge Vulliemoz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy is one of the most frequent chronic neurological disorders. Recent evidences strongly suggest that epilepsy is due to a dysfunction within an epileptic network, rather than due to the pathological activity of single sources. The aim of this article is to review the recent advances on functional connectivity revealed by noninvasive neuroimaging techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: Functional connectivity detected through hemodynamic [functional MRI (fMRI)] and electro-magnetic techniques (EEG/MEG) in patients with epilepsy gives an insight into the physiopathogenesis of epileptic network underlying focal epilepsies and specific epileptic syndromes...
August 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
Sukhvir Wright, Angela Vincent
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autoimmune epileptic encephalopathy is a potentially treatable neurological syndrome characterized by the coexistence of a neuronal antibody in serum and, often, cerebrospinal fluid. Patients present with combinations of seizures, neuropsychiatric features, movement disorder, and cognitive decline, but some patients have isolated seizures either at first presentation or during their illness. This review summarizes our current understanding of the roles of specific neuronal antibodies in epilepsy-related syndromes and aims to aid the clinician in diagnosis and treatment...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Philippe Ryvlin, Sylvain Rheims
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent evidence on the seizure, safety, cognitive and psychosocial outcomes of epilepsy surgery and their predictors. RECENT FINDINGS: Risks of serious surgical complications have dramatically decreased over years to drop below 1% for temporal lobe resections. Although chances of postoperative seizure freedom largely vary between recent series, some data suggest that long-term seizure control might be achieved in over 80% of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy or neocortical epilepsy associated with type 2 focal cortical dysplasia, and in up to two-thirds of patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsy...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
2016-09-14 05:14:22
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