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Alberto Verrotti, Chiara Mazzocchetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Beth Leeman-Markowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: JAMA Neurology
Jennifer W McVige
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intracranial congenital malformations are anomalies of brain development caused by genetic and environmental influences. This article discusses common intracranial congenital malformations, presents the associated neuroimaging findings, and discusses how appropriate identification of intracranial anomalies can impact diagnosis and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in neuroimaging techniques and genetic research have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of many congenital malformations, adding insight into their clinical relevance and the intricate relationship between critical periods of development, genetic predisposition, and environmental insults...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Samuel Lapalme-Remis, Gregory D Cascino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses structural and functional neuroimaging findings in patients with seizures and epilepsy. The indications for neuroimaging in these patients and the potential diagnostic utility of these studies are presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients presenting with new seizures typically require urgent imaging to rule out a critical underlying cause. MRI is the structural neuroimaging procedure of choice in individuals with epilepsy. Specific epilepsy protocols should be considered to increase the diagnostic yield of neuroimaging in patients with structural lesions associated with focal or generalized seizures...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
John W Miller, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Neurology
Eliseu Paglioli, William Alves Martins, Ney Azambuja, Mirna Portuguez, Thomas More Frigeri, Larissa Pinos, Ricardo Saute, Cora Salles, João Rubião Hoefel, Ricardo Bernardi Soder, Jaderson Costa da Costa, Marta Hemb, Tom Theys, André Palmini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a novel approach to control epileptic drop attacks through a selective posterior callosotomy, sparing all prefrontal interconnectivity. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with refractory drop attacks had selective posterior callosotomy and prospective follow-up for >4 years. Falls, episodes of aggressive behavior, and IQ were quantified. Autonomy in activities of daily living, axial tonus, and speech generated a functional score ranging from 0 to 13...
November 8, 2016: Neurology
Irene Wang, Andreas Alexopoulos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advanced MRI postprocessing techniques are increasingly used to complement visual analysis and elucidate structural epileptogenic lesions. This review summarizes recent developments in MRI postprocessing in the context of epilepsy presurgical evaluation, with the focus on patients with unremarkable MRI by visual analysis (i.e. 'nonlesional' MRI). RECENT FINDINGS: Various methods of MRI postprocessing have been reported to show additional clinical values in the following areas: lesion detection on an individual level; lesion confirmation for reducing the risk of over reading the MRI; detection of sulcal/gyral morphologic changes that are particularly difficult for visual analysis; and delineation of cortical abnormalities extending beyond the visible lesion...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Iris Unterberger, Richard Bauer, Gerald Walser, Gerhard Bauer
PURPOSE: Corpus callosum (CC) is the largest forebrain commissure. This review focuses on the significance of CC for seizure disorders, the role of CC in seizure spread and the surgical disruption of callosal fibers (callosotomy) for treatment of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. METHODS: Personal experience/extensive literature review. RESULTS: Structural CC pathologies comprise developmental abnormalities, callosal involvement in identified disorders, transient imaging findings and microstructural changes...
April 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Ettore Beghi, Giorgia Giussani, Josemir W Sander
Epilepsy is a brain condition characterized by the recurrence of unprovoked seizures. Generally, prognosis refers to the probability of attaining seizure freedom on treatment and little is known about the natural history of the untreated condition. Here, we summarize aspects of the prognosis and prognostic predictors of treated and untreated epilepsy and of its different syndromes. Usually, epilepsy is a fairly benign condition. Most epilepsies have a good prognosis for full seizure control and eventual discontinuation of AEDs, but epilepsy syndromes have differing outcomes and responses to treatment...
September 2015: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Kristina Malmgren, Bertil Rydenhag, Tove Hallböök
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Corpus callosotomy is a palliative surgical treatment modality that has gone in and out of favor. The purpose of this review is to summarize the studies of callosotomy in the past years as a treatment for severe drug-resistant epilepsy with traumatizing drop attacks, mostly in children and also in some adults. The aim is also to discuss knowledge gaps and suggest how these could be addressed. RECENT FINDINGS: Lately, a number of callosotomy series, mostly retrospective and single center, have included 289 operated patients...
April 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
Ruben Kuzniecky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are increasingly recognized as causes of epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. This review summarizes recent developments in the classification, specifically focusing on how genetic and cellular pathway advances are changing our understanding of MCD and how this applies to clinical care. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that mutations can have variable impact on not only the pattern of MCD but also the location of cortical involvement...
April 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
Francesca Pittau, Serge Vulliemoz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy is one of the most frequent chronic neurological disorders. Recent evidences strongly suggest that epilepsy is due to a dysfunction within an epileptic network, rather than due to the pathological activity of single sources. The aim of this article is to review the recent advances on functional connectivity revealed by noninvasive neuroimaging techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: Functional connectivity detected through hemodynamic [functional MRI (fMRI)] and electro-magnetic techniques (EEG/MEG) in patients with epilepsy gives an insight into the physiopathogenesis of epileptic network underlying focal epilepsies and specific epileptic syndromes...
August 2015: Current Opinion in Neurology
Sukhvir Wright, Angela Vincent
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autoimmune epileptic encephalopathy is a potentially treatable neurological syndrome characterized by the coexistence of a neuronal antibody in serum and, often, cerebrospinal fluid. Patients present with combinations of seizures, neuropsychiatric features, movement disorder, and cognitive decline, but some patients have isolated seizures either at first presentation or during their illness. This review summarizes our current understanding of the roles of specific neuronal antibodies in epilepsy-related syndromes and aims to aid the clinician in diagnosis and treatment...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Philippe Ryvlin, Sylvain Rheims
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent evidence on the seizure, safety, cognitive and psychosocial outcomes of epilepsy surgery and their predictors. RECENT FINDINGS: Risks of serious surgical complications have dramatically decreased over years to drop below 1% for temporal lobe resections. Although chances of postoperative seizure freedom largely vary between recent series, some data suggest that long-term seizure control might be achieved in over 80% of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy or neocortical epilepsy associated with type 2 focal cortical dysplasia, and in up to two-thirds of patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsy...
April 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Nicolas Gaspard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review presents recent developments in the clinical features, immunologic basis, and treatment options for autoimmune encephalitis, seizures, and epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to the expansion of our knowledge on classic paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis with onconeural antibodies, recent years have witnessed the development of the category of encephalitis associated with antibodies directed toward neuronal surface antigens. Antibodies against the voltage-gated potassium channel are, in fact, directed toward an array of targets within a large molecular complex...
February 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Kristina H Haugaa, Tommy Tveit Vestervik, Stein Andersson, Jan Peder Amlie, Ellen Jørum, Leif Gjerstad, Erik Taubøll
BACKGROUND: The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited cardiac channelopathy associated with syncope and sudden cardiac death due to ventricular arrhythmias. It is most frequently caused by potassium channel mutations. Potassium channels are also expressed in brain tissue and play an important role in idiopathic epilepsies. Recent reports have indicated that related potassium channel mutations may coexpress as concomitant epilepsy and LQTS. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore cerebral activity by means of EEG recordings in individuals with LQTS related to potassium channel mutations...
December 2013: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Leonilda Bilo, Sabina Pappatà, Roberto De Simone, Roberta Meo
The authors review the literature for cases fulfilling the criteria for the proposed idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome (IGE) of absence status epilepsy described by Genton et al. (2008). Difficulties arising in diagnosing such cases are remarked, and possible overlapping with other proposed IGE syndromes is discussed.
2014: Epilepsy Research and Treatment
Orrin Devinsky, Dale C Hesdorffer, David J Thurman, Samden Lhatoo, George Richerson
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) can affect individuals of any age, but is most common in younger adults (aged 20-45 years). Generalised tonic-clonic seizures are the greatest risk factor for SUDEP; most often, SUDEP occurs after this type of seizure in bed during sleep hours and the person is found in a prone position. SUDEP excludes other forms of seizure-related sudden death that might be mechanistically related (eg, death after single febrile, unprovoked seizures, or status epilepticus). Typically, postictal apnoea and bradycardia progress to asystole and death...
September 2016: Lancet Neurology
Ziyi Chen, Ana Lusicic, Terence J O'Brien, Dennis Velakoulis, Sophia J Adams, Patrick Kwan
Antiepileptic drug treatment can induce psychosis in some patients. However, there are no agreed definitions or diagnostic criteria for antiepileptic drug-induced psychotic disorder in the classification systems of either epileptology or psychiatry. In this study we investigated the clinical spectrum of antiepileptic drug-induced psychotic disorder in patients with epilepsy. The medical records of all patients with epilepsy who were diagnosed by a neuropsychiatrist as having a psychotic disorder at the Royal Melbourne Hospital from January 1993 to June 2015 were reviewed...
October 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Nathalie Jetté, Josemir W Sander, Mark R Keezer
Findings from randomised controlled trials, along with more than 100 case series and observational studies, support the efficacy and safety of resective surgery and, more recently, non-resective surgical interventions for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy in appropriately selected individuals. There is an argument that epilepsy surgery remains underused, but the evidence to support this assertion is at times unclear. Results from longitudinal studies show a stagnant or declining rate of epilepsy surgery over time, despite the evidence and guidelines supporting its use...
August 2016: Lancet Neurology
2016-09-10 22:46:26
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