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Urg 2016

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19 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22528274/guidelines-for-the-evaluation-and-management-of-status-epilepticus
#1
Gretchen M Brophy, Rodney Bell, Jan Claassen, Brian Alldredge, Thomas P Bleck, Tracy Glauser, Suzette M Laroche, James J Riviello, Lori Shutter, Michael R Sperling, David M Treiman, Paul M Vespa
Status epilepticus (SE) treatment strategies vary substantially from one institution to another due to the lack of data to support one treatment over another. To provide guidance for the acute treatment of SE in critically ill patients, the Neurocritical Care Society organized a writing committee to evaluate the literature and develop an evidence-based and expert consensus practice guideline. Literature searches were conducted using PubMed and studies meeting the criteria established by the writing committee were evaluated...
August 2012: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26507493/a-rational-approach-to-fluid-therapy-in-sepsis
#2
REVIEW
P Marik, R Bellomo
Aggressive fluid resuscitation to achieve a central venous pressure (CVP) greater than 8 mm Hg has been promoted as the standard of care, in the management of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. However recent clinical trials have demonstrated that this approach does not improve the outcome of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Pathophysiologically, sepsis is characterized by vasoplegia with loss of arterial tone, venodilation with sequestration of blood in the unstressed blood compartment and changes in ventricular function with reduced compliance and reduced preload responsiveness...
March 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22596255/the-nonskeletal-effects-of-vitamin-d-an-endocrine-society-scientific-statement
#3
REVIEW
Clifford J Rosen, John S Adams, Daniel D Bikle, Dennis M Black, Marie B Demay, JoAnn E Manson, M Hassan Murad, Christopher S Kovacs
Significant controversy has emerged over the last decade concerning the effects of vitamin D on skeletal and nonskeletal tissues. The demonstration that the vitamin D receptor is expressed in virtually all cells of the body and the growing body of observational data supporting a relationship of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D to chronic metabolic, cardiovascular, and neoplastic diseases have led to widespread utilization of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention and treatment of numerous disorders. In this paper, we review both the basic and clinical aspects of vitamin D in relation to nonskeletal organ systems...
June 2012: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25688659/obesity-and-vitamin-d-deficiency-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
M Pereira-Santos, P R F Costa, A M O Assis, C A S T Santos, D B Santos
Over the past decade, there have been an increasing number of studies on the association between vitamin D deficiency and anthropometric state. However, we did not identify any meta-analyses of the relationship between obesity and vitamin D deficiency in different age groups. Thus, we evaluated the association between obesity and vitamin D deficiency. We searched for observational studies published up to April 2014 in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science and Scopus databases. We performed a meta-analysis in accordance with the random-effects model to obtain the summary measurement (prevalence ratio, PR)...
April 2015: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23349383/pulmonary-renal-syndrome-a-life-threatening-but-treatable-condition
#5
REVIEW
Stephen C West, Nishkantha Arulkumaran, Philip W Ind, Charles D Pusey
Pulmonary renal syndrome (PRS) describes the occurrence of renal failure in association with respiratory failure, characterised by autoimmune-mediated rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH), respectively. PRS is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and prompt diagnosis and treatment significantly improve outcomes. Prompt diagnosis of PRS requires a high index of suspicion, as clinical features are non-specific, and immunological testing aids the diagnosis in many cases...
May 2013: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21684732/pulmonary-renal-syndromes-an-update-for-respiratory-physicians
#6
REVIEW
Colm McCabe, Quentin Jones, Aikaterini Nikolopoulou, Chris Wathen, Raashid Luqmani
Pulmonary-renal syndromes are a group of disorders characterised by necrotising glomerulonephritis and pulmonary haemorrhage. Small vessel systemic vasculitis is the most common cause of pulmonary-renal syndromes presenting to respiratory physicians. Rarer causes include systemic lupus erythematosus and connective tissue diseases though severe pneumonia or cardiac failure may mimic their presentation. Some forms of small vessel vasculitides have a predilection for the pulmonary and renal vascular beds and if left untreated can result in fulminant organ failure...
October 2011: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17493292/bench-to-bedside-review-pulmonary-renal-syndromes-an-update-for-the-intensivist
#7
REVIEW
Spyros A Papiris, Effrosyni D Manali, Ioannis Kalomenidis, Giorgios E Kapotsis, Anna Karakatsani, Charis Roussos
The term Pulmonary-renal syndrome refers to the combination of diffuse alveolar haemorrhage and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. A variety of mechanisms such as those involving antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies or immunocomplexes and thrombotic microangiopathy are implicated in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The underlying pulmonary pathology is small-vessel vasculitis involving arterioles, venules and, frequently, alveolar capillaries. The underlying renal pathology is a form of focal proliferative glomerulonephritis...
2007: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887750/chronic-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Angela C Webster, Evi V Nagler, Rachael L Morton, Philip Masson
The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2), or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence...
March 25, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815588/the-new-sepsis-consensus-definitions-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#9
EDITORIAL
Charles L Sprung, Roland M H Schein, Robert A Balk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536694/fluid-management-for-critically-ill-patients-a-review-of-the-current-state-of-fluid-therapy-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#10
REVIEW
Erin Frazee, Kianoush Kashani
BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluids (IVF) are frequently utilized to restore intravascular volume in patients with distributive and hypovolemic shock. Although the benefits of the appropriate use of fluids in intensive care units (ICUs) and hospitals are well described, there is growing knowledge regarding the potential risks of volume overload and its impact on organ failure and mortality. To avoid volume overload and its associated complications, strategies to identify fluid responsiveness are developed and utilized more often among ICU patients...
June 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716262/new-aspects-in-the-management-of-pneumonia
#11
REVIEW
Elena Prina, Adrian Ceccato, Antoni Torres
Despite improvements in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), morbidity and mortality are still high, especially in patients with more severe disease. Early and appropriate antibiotics remain the cornerstone in the treatment of CAP. However, two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvant treatments, such as corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects. The use of corticosteroids in patients with severe CAP and a strong inflammatory reaction can reduce the time to clinical stability, the risk of treatment failure, and the risk of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790273/clinical-practice-guideline-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Young-Jae Cho, Jae Young Moon, Ein-Soon Shin, Je Hyeong Kim, Hoon Jung, So Young Park, Ho Cheol Kim, Yun Su Sim, Chin Kook Rhee, Jaemin Lim, Seok Jeong Lee, Won-Yeon Lee, Hyun Jeong Lee, Sang Hyun Kwak, Eun Kyeong Kang, Kyung Soo Chung, Won-Il Choi
There is no well-stated practical guideline for mechanically ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We generate strong (1) and weak (2) grade of recommendations based on high (A), moderate (B) and low (C) grade in the quality of evidence. In patients with ARDS, we recommend low tidal volume ventilation (1A) and prone position if it is not contraindicated (1B) to reduce their mortality. However, we did not support high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (1B) and inhaled nitric oxide (1A) as a standard treatment...
October 2016: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23984731/severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#13
REVIEW
Derek C Angus, Tom van der Poll
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 369, Issue 9, Page 840-851, August 2013.
August 29, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26316210/early-goal-directed-resuscitation-of-patients-with-septic-shock-current-evidence-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
Ravi G Gupta, Sarah M Hartigan, Markos G Kashiouris, Curtis N Sessler, Gonzalo M L Bearman
Severe sepsis and septic shock are among the leading causes of mortality in the intensive care unit. Over a decade ago, early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) emerged as a novel approach for reducing sepsis mortality and was incorporated into guidelines published by the international Surviving Sepsis Campaign. In addition to requiring early detection of sepsis and prompt initiation of antibiotics, the EGDT protocol requires invasive patient monitoring to guide resuscitation with intravenous fluids, vasopressors, red cell transfusions, and inotropes...
August 28, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26237037/vasopressors-for-the-treatment-of-septic-shock-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Tomer Avni, Adi Lador, Shaul Lev, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul, Alon Grossman
OBJECTIVE: International guidelines recommend dopamine or norepinephrine as first-line vasopressor agents in septic shock. Phenylephrine, epinephrine, vasopressin and terlipressin are considered second-line agents. Our objective was to assess the evidence for the efficiency and safety of all vasopressors in septic shock. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched electronic database of MEDLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS and conference proceedings up to June 2014...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20363528/emergency-department-management-of-the-airway-in-obese-adults
#16
REVIEW
James Dargin, Ron Medzon
Airway management in obese adults can be challenging, and much of the literature on this subject focuses on elective surgical cases, rather than acutely ill patients. In this article, we review the emergency department evaluation of the airway in obesity, discussing anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology. In addition, we describe techniques and devices used to improve intubating conditions in the obese patient. After our review of the relevant literature, we conclude that research in this particular area of acute care remains in its infancy...
August 2010: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26014437/ventilator-strategies-and-rescue-therapies-for-management-of-acute-respiratory-failure-in-the-emergency-department
#17
REVIEW
Jarrod M Mosier, Cameron Hypes, Raj Joshi, Sage Whitmore, Sairam Parthasarathy, Charles B Cairns
Acute respiratory failure is commonly encountered in the emergency department (ED), and early treatment can have effects on long-term outcome. Noninvasive ventilation is commonly used for patients with respiratory failure and has been demonstrated to improve outcomes in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive lung disease and congestive heart failure, but should be used carefully, if at all, in the management of asthma, pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lung-protective tidal volumes should be used for all patients receiving mechanical ventilation, and FiO2 should be reduced after intubation to achieve a goal of less than 60%...
November 2015: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670788/acute-kidney-injury-2016-diagnosis-and-diagnostic-workup
#18
REVIEW
Marlies Ostermann, Michael Joannidis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with serious short- and long-term complications. Early diagnosis and identification of the underlying aetiology are essential to guide management. In this review, we outline the current definition of AKI and the potential pitfalls, and summarise the existing and future tools to investigate AKI in critically ill patients.
September 27, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543523/fluid-resuscitation-management-in-patients-with-burns-update
#19
REVIEW
P Guilabert, G Usúa, N Martín, L Abarca, J P Barret, M J Colomina
Since 1968, when Baxter and Shires developed the Parkland formula, little progress has been made in the field of fluid therapy for burn resuscitation, despite advances in haemodynamic monitoring, establishment of the 'goal-directed therapy' concept, and the development of new colloid and crystalloid solutions. Burn patients receive a larger amount of fluids in the first hours than any other trauma patients. Initial resuscitation is based on crystalloids because of the increased capillary permeability occurring during the first 24 h...
September 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
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