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Graeme J Hankey
In the past decade, the definition of stroke has been revised and major advances have been made for its treatment and prevention. For acute ischaemic stroke, the addition of endovascular thrombectomy of proximal large artery occlusion to intravenous alteplase increases functional independence for a further fifth of patients. The benefits of aspirin in preventing early recurrent ischaemic stroke are greater than previously recognised. Other strategies to prevent recurrent stroke now include direct oral anticoagulants as an alternative to warfarin for atrial fibrillation, and carotid stenting as an alternative to endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis...
September 13, 2016: Lancet
William D Phillips, Angela Vincent
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) caused by antibodies that attack components of the postsynaptic membrane, impair neuromuscular transmission, and lead to weakness and fatigue of skeletal muscle. This can be generalised or localised to certain muscle groups, and involvement of the bulbar and respiratory muscles can be life threatening. The pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis depends upon the target and isotype of the autoantibodies. Most cases are caused by immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and IgG3 antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR)...
2016: F1000Research
Konrad Rejdak, Samuel Jackson, Gavin Giovannoni
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest disabling neurological condition to afflict young adults and therefore has a high social burden. Over several decades, there has been a considerable progress in the understanding of the disease pathogenesis as well as in the clinical management of MS patients. The emphasis in managing MS patients has shifted to multidisciplinary teams working in specialist groups. A review of the literature was conducted using MedLine to identify recent advances in MS. The current consensus is that MS is an autoimmune disease triggered by environmental agents acting in genetically susceptible people...
2010: British Medical Bulletin
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