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By Manuel C. Co Jr. Informatics, Population Health, Built Environment, Data Visualization, Pedagogy, Classical Music
Yan Yu
Both obesity (body mass index ≥ 30) and educational attainment have increased dramatically in the United States since the 1970s. This study analyzed the influences of educational inequalities in obesity and population improvements in education on national obesity trends between 1970 and 2010. For non-Hispanic white and black males and females aged 25-74 years, educational differences in the probability of being obese were estimated from the 1971-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and population distributions of age and educational groups, from the 1970 Census and 2010 American Community Survey...
2016: PloS One
Danielle R Gartner, Daniel R Taber, Jana A Hirsch, Whitney R Robinson
PURPOSE: Although obesity disparities between racial and socioeconomic groups have been well characterized, those based on gender and geography have not been as thoroughly documented. This study describes obesity prevalence by state, gender, and race and/or ethnicity to (1) characterize obesity gender inequality, (2) determine if the geographic distribution of inequality is spatially clustered, and (3) contrast the spatial clustering patterns of obesity gender inequality with overall obesity prevalence...
April 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Chunming Ma, Rui Wang, Yue Liu, Qiang Lu, Na Lu, Yiming Tian, Xiaoli Liu, Fuzai Yin
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is closely related with obesity in pediatric population. Obesity indices were used for screening elevated blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents. The present study was to perform a meta-analysis to assess the performance of obesity indices, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), for identifying elevated BP in children and adolescents. METHODS: Data sources were PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane, and SCOPUS up to May 2016...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
John M Jakicic, Kelliann K Davis, Renee J Rogers, Wendy C King, Marsha D Marcus, Diane Helsel, Amy D Rickman, Abdus S Wahed, Steven H Belle
Importance: Effective long-term treatments are needed to address the obesity epidemic. Numerous wearable technologies specific to physical activity and diet are available, but it is unclear if these are effective at improving weight loss. Objective: To test the hypothesis that, compared with a standard behavioral weight loss intervention (standard intervention), a technology-enhanced weight loss intervention (enhanced intervention) would result in greater weight loss...
September 20, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Idia B Thurston, Kendrin R Sonneville, Carly E Milliren, Rebecca C Kamody, Holly C Gooding, Tracy K Richmond
This study aims to determine the association between weight misperception (considering oneself average or underweight) and depressive symptoms among youth with overweight/obesity. Linear regression models (adjusted for age, BMI, parental education, percent poverty) were used to examine cross-sectional (wave II, 1996, n = 3898, M age = 15.9, SD = 0.13) and longitudinal (from wave II to IV, 1996-2008/2009, n = 2738, M age = 28.5, SD = 0.06) associations between weight misperception and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale) in a subsample of White, Black, Asian, Hispanic, and Multi-racial male and female youth with overweight/obesity participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health...
September 28, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Lorraine N Bandelli, Heewon Lee Gray, Rachel C Paul, Isobel R Contento, Pamela A Koch
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity prevention is a pressing issue. Understanding the relationships among eating and physical activity behaviors and potential psychosocial determinants of behavior will help us design more effective interventions. This study aimed to examine such relationships in a large sample of urban elementary school children. METHODS: Fifth grade students in 20 recruited New York City public schools completed a validated questionnaire on six "do more" (fruits and vegetables and physical activity) and "do less" (sweetened beverages, processed packaged snacks, fast food and sedentary behavior) energy balance related behaviors (EBRBs) and psychosocial determinants of behavior from social cognitive and self-determination theories...
January 1, 2017: Appetite
Mark G Orr, George A Kaplan, Sandro Galea
BACKGROUND: Multiple approaches that can contribute to reducing obesity have been proposed. These policies may share overlapping pathways, and may have unanticipated consequences, creating considerable complexity. Aiming to illuminate the use of agent-based models to explore the consequences of key policies, this paper simulates the effects of increasing neighbourhood availability of good food stores, physical activity infrastructure and higher school quality on the reduction of black/white disparities in body mass index (BMI) in the USA...
September 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Alline Gouvea Martins Rodrigues, Rossana Pacheco da Costa Proença, Maria Cristina Marino Calvo, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck Fiates
The present study investigated the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its relationship with behavioral and food choice characteristics among consumers at a restaurant serving buffet-by-weight in the city of Florianopolis, southern Brazil, during lunch time. An analytical cross-sectional survey of 675 consumers aged 16-81 years was conducted. The measures included anthropometric, socio-demographic, and behavioral characteristics, as well as portion size and a photographic record of the plate chosen by the consumer...
October 2012: Appetite
David Marchiori, Esther K Papies, Olivier Klein
People consistently over-eat when served a large compared with a small (appropriate) portion of food. However, the mechanism underlying this so-called portion size effect is not well understood. We argue that the process of anchoring and adjustment naturally describes this effect, such that the size of a presented portion works as an anchor that strongly influences consumption. The classical anchoring and adjustment paradigm was applied to six hypothetical eating situations. Participants were asked to imagine being served either a small or a large portion of food (i...
October 2014: Appetite
Salwa A Albar, Nisreen A Alwan, Charlotte E L Evans, Janet E Cade
The prevalence of obesity has increased simultaneously with the increase in the consumption of large food portion sizes (FPS). Studies investigating this association among adolescents are limited; fewer have addressed energy-dense foods as a potential risk factor. In the present study, the association between the portion size of the most energy-dense foods and BMI was investigated. A representative sample of 636 British adolescents (11-18 years) was used from the 2008-2011 UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey...
September 14, 2014: British Journal of Nutrition
B J Rolls
Systematic studies have shown that providing individuals with larger portions of foods and beverages leads to substantial increases in energy intake. The effect is sustained over weeks, supporting the possibility that large portions have a role in the development of obesity. The challenge is to find strategies to effectively manage the effects of portion size. One approach involves teaching people to select appropriate portions and to use tools that facilitate portion control. Although tools such as portion-control plates have been shown in several randomized trials to improve weight loss, limited data are available on whether education and tools lead to long-term changes in eating behavior and body weight...
July 2014: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Carmen Piernas, Barry M Popkin
BACKGROUND: Larger portion sizes of foods and beverages could affect overall energy intake at meals and promote overeating. OBJECTIVE: We investigated trends in portion sizes of energy-dense foods and energy intakes at eating occasions in US children and adolescents. DESIGN: Four US nationally representative surveys from 1977 to 2006 were analyzed (n = 31,337). We measured trends in portion sizes (kcal, g, and mL) of selected foods [sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, and Mexican fast foods] and energy intake (kcal) at eating occasions during which selected foods were consumed...
November 2011: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Lisa R Young, Marion Nestle
The greater energy content of larger food portions could be contributing to the increasing prevalence of overweight. Prevention guidelines recommend "sensible" portion sizes but do not define them. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) defines standard serving sizes for dietary guidance, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines standard servings for food labels. To use these standards in counseling, nutritionists must know the sizes of portions available in the marketplace. We determined marketplace portion sizes, identified changes in these sizes with time, and compared current marketplace portions with federal standards...
February 2003: Journal of the American Dietetic Association
Natalie M Reily, Lenny R Vartanian
Larger portion sizes have consistently been shown to lead to greater food intake. However, studies of the portion size effect typically provided participants with a single portion of food at a time without any objective information about the size of the portion, and hence failed to consider the potential significance of contextual size information. In order to investigate whether contextual size information moderates the portion size effect, participants were served small or large portions of pasta for lunch in the presence or absence of contextual size information...
October 1, 2016: Appetite
David R Just, Brian Wansink
Labels such as 'Large' or 'Super-size' are often used to describe portion sizes. How do these normative labels influence consumer choice and how much they ultimately either consume or waste? Although one might believe that firms use normative labels to impact choice behavior through loss aversion, a field experiment shows consumer's willingness to pay is inconsistent with a loss aversion explanation. Although portions were clearly visible, individuals appeared to use the labels as objective information about their size...
July 2014: Health Economics
Wendy E Barrington, Shirley A A Beresford, Thomas D Koepsell, Glen E Duncan, Anne Vernez Moudon
BACKGROUND: Understanding mechanisms linking neighborhood context to health behaviors may provide targets for increasing lifestyle intervention effectiveness. Although associations between home neighborhood and obesogenic behaviors have been studied, less is known about the role of worksite neighborhood. PURPOSE: To evaluate associations between worksite neighborhood context at baseline (2006) and change in obesogenic behaviors of adult employees at follow-up (2007-2009) in a worksite randomized trial to prevent weight gain...
January 2015: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
James F Sallis, Karen Glanz
CONTEXT: Environmental, policy, and societal changes are important contributors to the rapid rise in obesity over the past few decades, and there has been substantial progress toward identifying environmental and policy factors related to eating and physical activity that can point toward solutions. This article is a status report on research on physical activity and food environments, and it suggests how these findings can be used to improve diet and physical activity and to control or reduce obesity...
March 2009: Milbank Quarterly
Mark S Kaplan, Nathalie Huguet, Jason T Newsom, Bentson H McFarland
BACKGROUND: Newly arrived Hispanic immigrants are generally healthier than the U.S.-born population, but this distinction tends to diminish over time as immigrants adapt to a new and different sociocultural environment. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether length of residence in the United States was associated with obesity (body mass index [BMI]>30 kg/m(2)) among Hispanic immigrants. METHODS: Data for 2420 foreign-born Hispanic adults aged > or =18 years were obtained from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey...
November 2004: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Julie Park, Dowell Myers, Dennis Kao, SeongHee Min
We re-examine the pace of rising obesity among Hispanic immigrants and the effects associated with longer duration in the US, or what is referred to as unhealthy assimilation, the convergence of immigrant health to a less healthy native-born standard. Consistent with previous research, we find that across all race-ethnic groups, immigrants tend to be less obese than native-born persons. Second, obesity is clearly on the rise, with obesity rates increasing for both immigrant and native-born populations between 1995 and 2005...
December 2009: Social Science & Medicine
C Peter Herman, Janet Polivy, Lenny R Vartanian, Patricia Pliner
Large portion sizes are frequently blamed for the obesity epidemic. In this paper, we examine the culpability of large portion sizes. It is true that portion sizes have increased during the obesity epidemic, but there is as yet little evidence that exposure to large portions produces significant weight gain. Furthermore, some evidence argues against the role of large portions in the obesity epidemic. For instance, the epidemic is largely a matter of weight gain among the upper half of the population weight distribution, whereas large portions appear to have an indiscriminate effect on food intake...
March 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
2016-10-01 21:43:59
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