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Pediatrics

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9 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848094/aminoglycoside-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Stephen J McWilliam, Daniel J Antoine, Rosalind L Smyth, Munir Pirmohamed
Aminoglycoside antibiotics, in particular gentamicin and tobramycin, are still commonly used in paediatric clinical practice. These drugs cause nephrotoxicity, which particularly affects the proximal tubule epithelial cells due to selective endocytosis and accumulation of aminoglycosides via the multi-ligand receptor megalin. Recent epidemiological studies, using more widely accepted definitions of acute kidney injury (AKI), have suggested that AKI may occur in between 20 and 33 % of children exposed to aminoglycosides...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21115585/probiotics-and-prebiotics-in-pediatrics
#2
REVIEW
Dan W Thomas, Frank R Greer
This clinical report reviews the currently known health benefits of probiotic and prebiotic products, including those added to commercially available infant formula and other food products for use in children. Probiotics are supplements or foods that contain viable microorganisms that cause alterations of the microflora of the host. Use of probiotics has been shown to be modestly effective in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in (1) treating acute viral gastroenteritis in healthy children; and (2) preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in healthy children...
December 2010: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500964/special-considerations-for-the-management-of-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#3
Joel Kian Boon Lim, Jan Hau Lee, Ira M Cheifetz
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge with significant mortality and morbidity. There are limited data to guide identification and management. AREAS COVERED: The Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference recently proposed pediatric-specific definitions for ARDS and management recommendations. In this review, we discuss aspects of pediatric ARDS that have received more attention over the past few years: high frequency oscillatory ventilation, administration of corticosteroids and functional outcomes...
October 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538800/initial-management-of-disorders-of-sex-development-in-newborns
#4
Erin R McNamara, Jonathan M Swartz, David A Diamond
Disorders of sex development (DSD) is a challenging evaluation and diagnosis in the newborn. As a pediatric urologist, the goals are 1) identify patients who should be evaluated, 2) rule out life threatening syndromes; 3) involve a multidisciplinary team for evaluation, diagnosis and gender assignment. This review briefly goes over the newborn differential diagnosis in DSD, highlights the important laboratory and imaging data needed, and discusses the multidisciplinary approach to gender assignment and care of these patients...
August 15, 2016: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532280/research-in-osteochondritis-dissecans-of-the-knee-2016-update
#5
Jeffrey J Nepple, Matthew D Milewski, Kevin G Shea
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee remains a relatively common and poorly understood pediatric and adolescent knee condition. Both conservative and surgical treatments have major impact on the lives of young active, athletic patients with knee OCD. OCD has been recently redefined as a "focal, idiopathic alteration of subchondral bone with risk for instability and disruption of adjacent articular cartilage that may result in premature osteoarthritis." The 2011 American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines found limited evidence for all aspects of the treatment of knee OCD...
October 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554756/pediatric-malignant-germ-cell-tumors-a-comparison-of-the-neuro-oncology-and-solid-tumor-experience
#6
Ashley S Plant, Susan N Chi, Lindsay Frazier
Malignant germ cell tumors (GCT) arise from abnormal migration of primordial germ cells and are histologically identical whether they occur inside or outside the central nervous system (CNS). However, the treatment strategy for GCTs varies greatly depending on the location of the tumor. These differences are in part due to the increased morbidity of surgery in the CNS but may also reflect differential sensitivity of the tumors to chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) or not-yet-understood biologic differences between these tumors...
August 24, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307414/treatment-of-pediatric-type-2-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Jennifer D Smith, Elizabeth Mills, Sara E Carlisle
OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature for the efficacy and safety of available treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the pediatric population. DATA SOURCES: A search from January 1990 to April 2016 was conducted using PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov using the search terms diabetes mellitus, type 2; adolescent; child; and pediatric Bibliographies of chosen articles were reviewed. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant articles and preliminary data from clinical trials on metformin, insulin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and α-glucosidase inhibitors for the treatment of pediatric T2DM were reviewed...
September 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27225962/management-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#8
REVIEW
J Gien, J P Kinsella
In infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), a posterolateral diaphragmatic defect results in herniation of abdominal contents into the chest and compression of the intrathoracic structures. In the most severe cases, hypoplasia of the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs, severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) and left ventricular (LV) hypoplasia/dysfunction all contribute to increased mortality. The management of PH in CDH is complicated by structural and functional changes in the heart, pulmonary vasculature, airways and lung parenchyma; consequently, determining optimal management strategies is challenging...
June 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21524031/neonatal-resuscitation-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Talkad S Raghuveer, Austin J Cox
Appropriate resuscitation must be available for each of the more than 4 million infants born annually in the United States. Ninety percent of infants transition safely, and it is up to the physician to assess risk factors, identify the nearly 10 percent of infants who need resuscitation, and respond appropriately. A team or persons trained in neonatal resuscitation should be promptly available to provide resuscitation. The Neonatal Resuscitation Program, which was initiated in 1987 to identify infants at risk of needing resuscitation and provide high-quality resuscitation, underwent major updates in 2006 and 2010...
April 15, 2011: American Family Physician
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