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Peter D Crompton, Susan K Pierce
How early interactions between innate and adaptive immune cells influence outcomes of acute infections is incompletely understood. In this issue of Immunity, Karunarathne et al. (2016) show that dendritic cells help CD4(+) T helper 1 cell immunity against malaria through PD-L2's competition with PD-L1.
August 16, 2016: Immunity
Deshapriya S Karunarathne, Joshua M Horne-Debets, Johnny X Huang, Rebecca Faleiro, Chiuan Yee Leow, Fiona Amante, Thomas S Watkins, John J Miles, Patrick J Dwyer, Katryn J Stacey, Michael Yarski, Chek Meng Poh, Jason S Lee, Matthew A Cooper, Laurent Rénia, Derek Richard, James S McCarthy, Arlene H Sharpe, Michelle N Wykes
Many pathogens, including Plasmodium spp., exploit the interaction of programmed death-1 (PD-1) with PD-1-ligand-1 (PD-L1) to "deactivate" T cell functions, but the role of PD-L2 remains unclear. We studied malarial infections to understand the contribution of PD-L2 to immunity. Here we have shown that higher PD-L2 expression on blood dendritic cells, from Plasmodium falciparum-infected individuals, correlated with lower parasitemia. Mechanistic studies in mice showed that PD-L2 was indispensable for establishing effective CD4(+) T cell immunity against malaria, because it not only inhibited PD-L1 to PD-1 activity but also increased CD3 and inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) expression on T cells...
August 16, 2016: Immunity
Martin Reck, Delvys Rodríguez-Abreu, Andrew G Robinson, Rina Hui, Tibor Csőszi, Andrea Fülöp, Maya Gottfried, Nir Peled, Ali Tafreshi, Sinead Cuffe, Mary O'Brien, Suman Rao, Katsuyuki Hotta, Melanie A Leiby, Gregory M Lubiniecki, Yue Shentu, Reshma Rangwala, Julie R Brahmer
Background Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death 1 (PD-1) that has antitumor activity in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with increased activity in tumors that express programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Methods In this open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 305 patients who had previously untreated advanced NSCLC with PD-L1 expression on at least 50% of tumor cells and no sensitizing mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene or translocation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene to receive either pembrolizumab (at a fixed dose of 200 mg every 3 weeks) or the investigator's choice of platinum-based chemotherapy...
October 8, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Se Jin Im, Masao Hashimoto, Michael Y Gerner, Junghwa Lee, Haydn T Kissick, Matheus C Burger, Qiang Shan, J Scott Hale, Judong Lee, Tahseen H Nasti, Arlene H Sharpe, Gordon J Freeman, Ronald N Germain, Helder I Nakaya, Hai-Hui Xue, Rafi Ahmed
Chronic viral infections are characterized by a state of CD8(+) T-cell dysfunction that is associated with expression of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitory receptor. A better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate CD8(+) T-cell responses during chronic infection is required to improve immunotherapies that restore function in exhausted CD8(+) T cells. Here we identify a population of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells that proliferate after blockade of the PD-1 inhibitory pathway in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)...
August 2, 2016: Nature
Stephen V Liu, Giuseppe Giaccone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Gheath Alatrash, Naval Daver, Elizabeth A Mittendorf
The use of antibodies that target immune checkpoint molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes and/or tumor cells has revolutionized our approach to cancer therapy. Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) are the two most commonly targeted immune checkpoint molecules. Although the role of antibodies that target CTLA-4 and PD-1 has been established in solid tumor malignancies and Food and Drug Administration approved for melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, there remains a desperate need to incorporate immune checkpoint inhibition in hematologic malignancies...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
Monika Joshi, Sumanta K Pal, Joseph J Drabick
After decades of disappointments, the use of immunotherapy in cancer has finally come of age and resulted in a real paradigm shift in cancer treatment across many tumor types. With the advent of novel immunotherapies based on increasing understanding of the human immune system, cure has become a real possibility for many patients. The development of cancer vaccines, immune checkpoint inhibitors, chimeric antigen receptor T cell, oncolytic virus based immunotherapy to name a few have given hope to patients. One of the most exciting developments in the era of immunotherapy has been the discovery of checkpoint inhibitors causing blockade of two important immune pathways -- cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), resulting in empowerment of anti-tumor immunity...
June 2016: Discovery Medicine
Julie A Jacob
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Mitch Leslie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2016: Science
Diana Romero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Marie Vétizou, Jonathan M Pitt, Romain Daillère, Patricia Lepage, Nadine Waldschmitt, Caroline Flament, Sylvie Rusakiewicz, Bertrand Routy, Maria P Roberti, Connie P M Duong, Vichnou Poirier-Colame, Antoine Roux, Sonia Becharef, Silvia Formenti, Encouse Golden, Sascha Cording, Gerard Eberl, Andreas Schlitzer, Florent Ginhoux, Sridhar Mani, Takahiro Yamazaki, Nicolas Jacquelot, David P Enot, Marion Bérard, Jérôme Nigou, Paule Opolon, Alexander Eggermont, Paul-Louis Woerther, Elisabeth Chachaty, Nathalie Chaput, Caroline Robert, Christina Mateus, Guido Kroemer, Didier Raoult, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, Franck Carbonnel, Mathias Chamaillard, Laurence Zitvogel
Antibodies targeting CTLA-4 have been successfully used as cancer immunotherapy. We find that the antitumor effects of CTLA-4 blockade depend on distinct Bacteroides species. In mice and patients, T cell responses specific for B. thetaiotaomicron or B. fragilis were associated with the efficacy of CTLA-4 blockade. Tumors in antibiotic-treated or germ-free mice did not respond to CTLA blockade. This defect was overcome by gavage with B. fragilis, by immunization with B. fragilis polysaccharides, or by adoptive transfer of B...
November 27, 2015: Science
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