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By Manuel C. Co Jr. Informatics, Population Health, Built Environment, Data Visualization, Pedagogy, Classical Music
Dianna M Smith, Steven Cummins, Mathew Taylor, John Dawson, David Marshall, Leigh Sparks, Annie S Anderson
BACKGROUND: The 'deprivation amplification' hypothesis suggests that residents of deprived neighbourhoods have universally poorer access to high-quality food environments, which in turn contributes to the development of spatial inequalities in diet and diet-related chronic disease. This paper presents results from a study that quantified access to grocery stores selling fresh fruit and vegetables in four environmental settings in Scotland, UK. METHODS: Spatial accessibility, as measured by network travel times, to 457 grocery stores located in 205 neighbourhoods in four environmental settings (island, rural, small town and urban) in Scotland was calculated using Geographical Information Systems...
February 2010: International Journal of Epidemiology
Sean C Lucan, Andrew R Maroko, Omar Sanon, Rafael Frias, Clyde B Schechter
Most food-environment research has focused narrowly on select stores and restaurants. There has been comparatively less attention to non-storefront food sources like farmers' markets (FMs), particularly in urban communities. The objective of the present study was to assess FMs' potential contribution to an urban food environment in terms of specific foods offered, and compare FM accessibility as well as produce variety, quality, and price to that of nearby stores. Investigators conducted a detailed cross-sectional assessment of all FMs in Bronx County, NY, and of the nearest store(s) selling produce within a half-mile walking distance (up to two stores per FM)...
July 2015: Appetite
James J DiNicolantonio, Sean C Lucan
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of premature mortality in the developed world, and hypertension is its most important risk factor. Controlling hypertension is a major focus of public health initiatives, and dietary approaches have historically focused on sodium. While the potential benefits of sodium-reduction strategies are debatable, one fact about which there is little debate is that the predominant sources of sodium in the diet are industrially processed foods. Processed foods also happen to be generally high in added sugars, the consumption of which might be more strongly and directly associated with hypertension and cardiometabolic risk...
2014: Open Heart
Sean C Lucan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2015: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Sean C Lucan, James J DiNicolantonio
Prevailing thinking about obesity and related diseases holds that quantifying calories should be a principal concern and target for intervention. Part of this thinking is that consumed calories - regardless of their sources - are equivalent; i.e. 'a calorie is a calorie'. The present commentary discusses various problems with the idea that 'a calorie is a calorie' and with a primarily quantitative focus on food calories. Instead, the authors argue for a greater qualitative focus on the sources of calories consumed (i...
March 2015: Public Health Nutrition
Sean C Lucan, Andrew R Maroko, Joel Bumol, Monica Varona, Luis Torrens, Clyde B Schechter
This study describes mobile food vendors (street vendors) in Bronx, NY, considering neighborhood-level correlations with demographic, diet, and diet-related health measures from City data. Vendors offering exclusively "less-healthy" foods (e.g., chips, processed meats, sweets) outnumbered vendors offering exclusively "healthier" foods (e.g., produce, whole grains, nuts). Wet days and winter months reduced all vending on streets, but exclusively "less-healthy" vending most. In summer, exclusively "less-healthy" vending per capita inversely correlated with neighborhood-mean fruit-and-vegetable consumption and directly correlated with neighborhood-mean BMI and prevalences of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia (Spearman correlations 0...
May 2014: Health & Place
Rhoda N Ndanuko, Linda C Tapsell, Karen E Charlton, Elizabeth P Neale, Marijka J Batterham
BACKGROUND: Dietary pattern analysis provides important evidence revealing diet-disease relationships. It may be especially useful in areas less well researched, such as diet and hypertension in clinical populations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure (BP) in a sample of overweight adults volunteering for a clinical trial for weight loss. DESIGN: This cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the HealthTrack study, a 12-month randomized controlled trial...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Erin M Caldwell, M Miller Kobayashi, W M DuBow, S M Wytinck
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between fruit and vegetable access in the community and change in fruit and vegetable consumption among participants in community-based health promotion programmes. DESIGN: Fruit and vegetable consumption and perceived access to fresh fruit and vegetables were measured by self-administered questionnaires at programme start, end and 1-year follow-up. Community produce availability was determined by grocery store assessments measuring the display space devoted to fruit and vegetable offerings, as well as price, variety and freshness...
October 2009: Public Health Nutrition
Sean C Lucan, Amy Hillier, Clyde B Schechter, Karen Glanz
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have assessed how people's perceptions of their neighborhood environment compare with objective measures or how self-reported and objective neighborhood measures relate to consumption of fruits and vegetables. METHODS: A telephone survey of 4,399 residents of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, provided data on individuals, their households, their neighborhoods (self-defined), their food-environment perceptions, and their fruit-and-vegetable consumption...
March 27, 2014: Preventing Chronic Disease
Xiaoguang Ma, Timothy L Barnes, Darcy A Freedman, Bethany A Bell, Natalie Colabianchi, Angela D Liese
There is a lack of validated and reliable instruments on perception of the food environment, in particular for rural environments. We estimated the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire assessing perceptions of the food environment. A total of 101 primary food shoppers in South Carolina were interviewed by phone to assess their perceptions of the food environment and presence of different food outlet types in their neighborhood. The survey was repeated approximately one month after the initial administration...
May 2013: Health & Place
Zhixian Sui, Weng Kei Wong, Jimmy Chun Yu Louie, Anna Rangan
OBJECTIVE: Excessive consumption of discretionary foods/beverages in the Australian population has been identified, increasing the risk of obesity and chronic disease. The present study aimed to examine the associations between demographic, anthropometric and dietary factors and the consumption of discretionary foods, discretionary beverages and discretionary foods/beverages combined. DESIGN: Discretionary food/beverage consumption reported in two 24 h recalls was analysed, stratified by gender, age, socio-economic status, country of birth, BMI, waist circumference, and fruit and vegetable intakes...
August 30, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
James F Sallis, Karen Glanz
CONTEXT: Environmental, policy, and societal changes are important contributors to the rapid rise in obesity over the past few decades, and there has been substantial progress toward identifying environmental and policy factors related to eating and physical activity that can point toward solutions. This article is a status report on research on physical activity and food environments, and it suggests how these findings can be used to improve diet and physical activity and to control or reduce obesity...
March 2009: Milbank Quarterly
Andrea S Richardson, Katie A Meyer, Annie Green Howard, Janne Boone-Heinonen, Barry M Popkin, Kelly R Evenson, Catarina I Kiefe, Cora E Lewis, Penny Gordon-Larsen
Cross-sectional studies suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the U.S.-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low)...
November 2014: Health & Place
David R Brown, Luther G Brewster
The lack of demonstrated impact of the South LA fast food ban suggests that the policy was too narrowly crafted. Healthy food deserts like South LA are simultaneously unhealthy food swamps; and face myriad interrelated social, economic, and environmental challenges. The food environment is a complex social network impacted by social, economic and political factors at the neighborhood, regional, national, and international levels. Banning one subtype of unhealthy food venue is not likely to limit the availability of unhealthy processed and packaged foods nor result in increased access to affordable healthy foods...
May 2015: Social Science & Medicine
Mark G Orr, Sandro Galea, Matt Riddle, George A Kaplan
PURPOSE: Understanding how to mitigate the present black-white obesity disparity in the United States is a complex issue, stemming from a multitude of intertwined causes. An appropriate but underused approach to guiding policy approaches to this problem is to account for this complexity using simulation modeling. METHODS: We explored the efficacy of a policy that improved the quality of neighborhood schools in reducing racial disparities in obesity-related behavior and the dependence of this effect on social network influence and norms...
August 2014: Annals of Epidemiology
Laura Tach, Mariana Amorim
Residents of poor and minority neighborhoods have less access to healthy, affordable food than their counterparts in more advantaged neighborhoods, and these disparities translate into population-level health disparities by race and socioeconomic status. Current research debates the extent of these disparities and how they translate into unequal health outcomes, but it has paid less attention to the micro-level decision-making processes and strategies residents employ to access food in the context of constrained personal and neighborhood resources...
October 2015: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Dharma E Cortés, Andreina Millán-Ferro, Karen Schneider, Rodolfo R Vega, A Enrique Caballero
BACKGROUND: In the U.S., poverty has been linked to both obesity and disease burden. Latinos in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by poverty, and over the past 10 years, the percentage of overweight U.S. Latino youth has approximately doubled. Buying low-cost food that is calorie-dense and filling has been linked to obesity. Low-income individuals tend to favor energy-dense foods because of their low cost, and economic decisions made during food purchasing have physiologic repercussions...
March 2013: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Yan Kestens, Mark Daniel
BACKGROUND: The obesity epidemic among children and youth, and the social gradient in this relationship, could be related to differential exposure to food sources in primary environments. Although the positive association between area-level deprivation and fast-food outlets offering high-calorie foods has been well documented, few studies have evaluated food sources around school settings. PURPOSE: This study evaluated the relationships among food sources around schools, neighborhood income, and commercial density...
July 2010: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Vanessa Allom, Barbara Mullan
The aim of this study is to examine the determinants of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption with the application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the additional variables of self-schema, habit and self-regulation. While it has been shown that those with a healthy-eater self-schema are more likely to carry out their healthy dietary intentions, the underlying processes that influence this relationship have received limited empirical attention. Recent findings on dietary behaviour suggest that self-regulatory ability and habit strength may have dissimilar effects on the intention-behaviour relationship within schematics and non-schematics...
October 2012: Psychology & Health
L E Thornton, K E Lamb, M Tseng, D A Crawford, K Ball
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Existing theoretical frameworks suggest that healthy eating is facilitated by an individual's ability, motivation and environmental opportunities. It is plausible, although largely untested, that the importance of factors related to ability and motivation differ under varied environmental conditions. This study aimed to determine whether the magnitude of associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and intrapersonal factors (ability and motivation) were modified by differences in access to stores selling these items (environmental opportunities)...
August 2015: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
2016-09-29 15:23:54
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