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Neuroimmunology

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110 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736618/leptomeningeal-form-of-immunoglobulin-g4-related-hypertrophic-meningitis-with-perivascular-spread-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Jasmina Boban, Selin Ardalı, Majda M Thurnher
PURPOSE: Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease represents a spectrum of fibro-inflammatory disorders that affects various organ systems, including the central nervous system. METHODS: Here we present the case of lgG4-related hypertrophic meningitis with exclusively leptomeningeal involvement and spread via perivascular spaces. RESULTS: A 58-year-old male patient presented with complex partial seizures. Initial computed tomography examination showed left frontal sulcal hyperdensity...
May 7, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686116/practice-guideline-recommendations-summary-disease-modifying-therapies-for-adults-with-multiple-sclerosis-report-of-the-guideline-development-dissemination-and-implementation-subcommittee-of-the-american-academy-of-neurology
#2
Alexander Rae-Grant, Gregory S Day, Ruth Ann Marrie, Alejandro Rabinstein, Bruce A C Cree, Gary S Gronseth, Michael Haboubi, June Halper, Jonathan P Hosey, David E Jones, Robert Lisak, Daniel Pelletier, Sonja Potrebic, Cynthia Sitcov, Rick Sommers, Julie Stachowiak, Thomas S D Getchius, Shannon A Merillat, Tamara Pringsheim
OBJECTIVE: To develop recommendations for disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel developed DMT recommendations, integrating findings from a systematic review; followed an Institute of Medicine-compliant process to ensure transparency and patient engagement; and developed modified Delphi consensus-based recommendations concerning starting, switching, and stopping DMTs pertinent to people with relapsing-remitting MS, secondary progressive MS, primary progressive MS, and clinically isolated syndromes of demyelination...
April 24, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545842/current-trends-in-autoimmunity-and-the-nervous-system
#3
REVIEW
Carlo Selmi, Jobert G Barin, Noel R Rose
In the broad field of autoimmunity and clinical immunology, experimental evidence over the past few years have demonstrated several connections between the immune system and the nervous system, both central and peripheral, leading to the definition of neuroimmunology and of an immune-brain axis. Indeed, the central nervous system as an immune-privileged site, thanks to the blood-brain barrier, is no longer a dogma as the barrier may be altered during chronic inflammation with disruptive changes of endothelial cells and tight junctions, largely mediated by adenosine receptors and the expression of CD39/CD73...
December 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661538/an-unusual-case-of-anti-mog-cns-demyelination-with-concomitant-mild-anti-nmdar-encephalitis
#4
Jiajia Zhou, Winwen Tan, Suyin Elaine Tan, Jing Hu, Zhongqin Chen, Kang Wang
We report the case of a patient who presented with progressive unsteadiness and narcoleptic attacks followed by behavioral change and psychosis, without visual disturbances or seizures. MRI revealed multiple areas of fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) high-intensity lesions involving the cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus and third ventricular peri-ependymal region consistent with demyelination. Both the serum myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibodies (MOG-Abs) and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) anti-N-methyl-d-as-partate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies were positive using transfected cell based assays...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623106/defining-distinct-features-of-anti-mog-antibody-associated-central-nervous-system-demyelination
#5
REVIEW
Martin S Weber, Tobias Derfuss, Imke Metz, Wolfgang Brück
Extensive research over the last decades basically failed to identify a common cause of noninfectious inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease. To a great extent, this may reflect that the group of inflammatory CNS demyelinating disorders likely contains multiple pathogenetically distinct disease entities. Indeed, the greatest success so far in deciphering the pathogenesis of a CNS demyelinating disorder resulted from the discovery of anti-aquaporin (AQP)-4 antibodies (ab), which allowed progressive delineation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), formerly considered a variant of the most common CNS demyelinating disorder, multiple sclerosis (MS), as a distinct disease...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339316/diagnosis-and-management-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Alice Bruscolini, Marta Sacchetti, Maurizio La Cava, Magda Gharbiya, Massimo Ralli, Alessandro Lambiase, Armando De Virgilio, Antonio Greco
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are a group of autoimmune conditions characterized by inflammatory involvement of the optic nerve, spinal cord and central nervous system. Novel evidence showed a key role of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4 IgG) in the pathogenesis of NMOSD and, recently, new classification and diagnostic criteria have been adopted to facilitate an earlier identification and improve the management of these conditions. Diagnosis of NMOSD is currently based on clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory features...
March 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515425/dystonic-seizures-and-intense-hyperperfusion-of-the-basal-ganglia-in-a-patient-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#7
Hideyuki Matsumoto, Hideji Hashida, Yukitoshi Takahashi
This report describes a rare case presenting with dystonic seizures due to anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis. The patient was an 18-year-old woman with repeated right-dominant dystonic seizures even under sedation. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed intense hyperperfusion of the caudate nuclei, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and insula on the left side, suggesting encephalitis. Antibodies against NMDA receptors were detected in the sera and cerebrospinal fluids...
September 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226117/pediatric-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-a-review-with-pooled-analysis-and-critical-care-emphasis
#8
REVIEW
Kenneth E Remy, Jason W Custer, Joshua Cappell, Cortney B Foster, Nan A Garber, L Kyle Walker, Liliana Simon, Dayanand Bagdure
Purpose: Anti- N -methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is being recognized with increasing frequency among children. Given the paucity of evidence to guide the critical care management of these complex patients, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature with pooled analysis of published case reports and case series. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science for relevant published studies...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177548/pediatric-bickerstaff-brainstem-encephalitis-a-systematic-review-of-literature-and-case-series
#9
Jonathan Douglas Santoro, Daniel V Lazzareschi, Cynthia Jane Campen, Keith P Van Haren
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the phenotype of pediatric Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) and evaluate prognostic features in the clinical course, diagnostic studies, and treatment exposures. METHODS: We systematically reviewed PubMed, Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases as well as medical records at the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital to identify cases of pediatric BBE. Inclusion required all of the following criteria: age ≤ 20 years, presence of somnolence or alterations in mental status at the time of presentation or developed within 7 days of presentation, ataxia, and ophthalmoplegia...
January 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549763/disease-modifying-therapies-for-relapsing-multiple-sclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Dean M Wingerchuk, Brian G Weinshenker
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common, disabling, putatively autoimmune neurological disease with worldwide distribution. It typically begins as a relapsing disorder that later evolves to a secondary progressive phase. Inflammatory and neurodegenerative mechanisms seem to operate in both phases, but their relative contributions and interactions are incompletely understood. Disease modifying therapies (DMTs) approved for relapsing multiple sclerosis interfere with a variety of immunological mechanisms to reduce rates of relapse, accumulation of disease burden measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and decline in neurological function over the two to three year duration of typical randomized controlled trials...
August 22, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183838/autoimmune-encephalitis-pathophysiology-and-imaging-review-of-an-overlooked-diagnosis
#11
REVIEW
B P Kelley, S C Patel, H L Marin, J J Corrigan, P D Mitsias, B Griffith
Autoimmune encephalitis is a relatively new category of immune-mediated disease involving the central nervous system that demonstrates a widely variable spectrum of clinical presentations, ranging from the relatively mild or insidious onset of cognitive impairment to more complex forms of encephalopathy with refractory seizure. Due to its diverse clinical features, which can mimic a variety of other pathologic processes, autoimmune encephalitis presents a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Imaging findings in patients with these disorders can also be quite variable, but recognizing characteristic findings within limbic structures suggestive of autoimmune encephalitis can be a key step in alerting clinicians to the potential diagnosis and ensuring a prompt and appropriate clinical work-up...
June 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306572/neuromyelitis-optica-and-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Romain Marignier, Alvaro Cobo Calvo, Sandra Vukusic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The discovery of highly specific auto-antibodies directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 was a quantum leap in the definition, classification and management of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Herein, we propose an update on epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic advances in the field, underlining unmet needs. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale epidemiological studies have recently provided a more precise evaluation of NMO prevalence and a better stratification regarding ethnicity and sex...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857121/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-a-century-of-progress
#13
REVIEW
John A Goodfellow, Hugh J Willison
In 1916, Guillain, Barré and Strohl reported on two cases of acute flaccid paralysis with high cerebrospinal fluid protein levels and normal cell counts - novel findings that identified the disease we now know as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). 100 years on, we have made great progress with the clinical and pathological characterization of GBS. Early clinicopathological and animal studies indicated that GBS was an immune-mediated demyelinating disorder, and that severe GBS could result in secondary axonal injury; the current treatments of plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin, which were developed in the 1980s, are based on this premise...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778930/the-useless-hand-of-oppenheim
#14
EDITORIAL
Louise Wiblin, Joe Guadagno
Hermann Oppenheim described the 'Useless Hand' in 1911 as a classical but uncommon presentation of multiple sclerosis, in which a hand loses useful function due to proprioceptive loss, with relatively preserved motor function. Light touch perception may be subjectively altered or can be relatively intact. The lesion is (usually) a demyelinating plaque in the posterior columns of the cervical spinal cord. Depending on its location, it may affect one limb, or if more central, may produce a bilateral (if asymmetrical) picture...
December 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940162/infections-in-patients-receiving-multiple-sclerosis-disease-modifying-therapies
#15
REVIEW
Elena Grebenciucova, Amy Pruitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper will systemically review the risk of infections associated with current disease-modifying treatments and will discuss pre-treatment testing recommendations, infection monitoring strategies, and patient education. RECENT FINDINGS: Aside from glatiramer acetate and interferon-beta therapies, all other multiple sclerosis treatments to various degrees impair immune surveillance and may predispose patients to the development of both community-acquired and opportunistic infections...
September 22, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203057/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-with-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-revealing-autoimmune-encephalitis-due-to-gaba-a-r-antibodies
#16
D Caputo, R Iorio, F Vigevano, L Fusco
BACKGROUND: Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) has been described as an epileptic encephalopathy of unknown etiology affecting previously healthy children following febrile illness. Despite large investigations on autoimmune pathogenesis no membrane antibodies has been associated since now. CASE STUDY: We report a 13 years-old girl with negative history for neurological or autoimmune disease that developed at the sixth day of high fever a super-refractory status epilepticus...
January 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310908/an-infant-born-to-a-mother-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#17
Nitish Chourasia, Michael W Watkins, Jeremy E Lankford, Joseph S Kass, Ankur Kamdar
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder that often affects women of childbearing age, and maternal-fetal transfer of anti-NMDAR antibodies during pregnancy has been documented in both symptomatic and asymptomatic women. The effects of these antibodies on the fetus, however, are incompletely understood. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: This term infant exhibited depressed respiratory effort, poor feeding, and abnormal movements after birth...
February 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275977/diagnosis-of-multiple-sclerosis-2017-revisions-of-the-mcdonald-criteria
#18
REVIEW
Alan J Thompson, Brenda L Banwell, Frederik Barkhof, William M Carroll, Timothy Coetzee, Giancarlo Comi, Jorge Correale, Franz Fazekas, Massimo Filippi, Mark S Freedman, Kazuo Fujihara, Steven L Galetta, Hans Peter Hartung, Ludwig Kappos, Fred D Lublin, Ruth Ann Marrie, Aaron E Miller, David H Miller, Xavier Montalban, Ellen M Mowry, Per Soelberg Sorensen, Mar Tintoré, Anthony L Traboulsee, Maria Trojano, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Sandra Vukusic, Emmanuelle Waubant, Brian G Weinshenker, Stephen C Reingold, Jeffrey A Cohen
The 2010 McDonald criteria for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis are widely used in research and clinical practice. Scientific advances in the past 7 years suggest that they might no longer provide the most up-to-date guidance for clinicians and researchers. The International Panel on Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis reviewed the 2010 McDonald criteria and recommended revisions. The 2017 McDonald criteria continue to apply primarily to patients experiencing a typical clinically isolated syndrome, define what is needed to fulfil dissemination in time and space of lesions in the CNS, and stress the need for no better explanation for the presentation...
February 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469537/rituximab-for-treatment-of-refractory-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-in-a-pediatric-patient
#19
Sarah Hallowell, Esli Tebedge, Margaret Oates, Elizabeth Hand
Anti-N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a devastating disease that is increasingly being identified in both children and adults with psychosis, language disturbances, behavioral changes, and motor deficits. Currently no consensus guidelines exist for the optimal management of patients with this disease, although intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) therapy is often considered first-line pharmacotherapy. We present a case of an otherwise healthy 4 year-old-child who presented with seizures, loss of age-appropriate language skills, and behavioral changes, in whom anti-NMDAR was subsequently diagnosed...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209636/neurofilament-light-chain-predicts-disease-activity-in-relapsing-remitting-ms
#20
Kristin N Varhaug, Christian Barro, Kjetil Bjørnevik, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Øivind Torkildsen, Stig Wergeland, Laurence A Bindoff, Jens Kuhle, Christian Vedeler
Objective: To investigate whether serum neurofilament light chain (NF-L) and chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) predict disease activity in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Methods: A cohort of 85 patients with RRMS were followed for 2 years (6 months without disease-modifying treatment and 18 months with interferon-beta 1a [IFNB-1a]). Expanded Disability Status Scale was scored at baseline and every 6 months thereafter. MRI was performed at baseline and monthly for 9 months and then at months 12 and 24...
January 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
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