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Jasna Jancic, Blazo Nikolic, Nikola Ivancevic, Vesna Djuric, Ivan Zaletel, Dejan Stevanovic, Sasa Peric, John N van den Anker, Janko Samardzic
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. MS is increasingly recognized in the pediatric population, and it is usually diagnosed around 15 years of age. The exact etiology of MS is still not known, although autoimmune, genetic, and environmental factors play important roles in its development, making it a multifactorial disease. The disease in children almost always presents in the relapsing-remittent form. The therapy involves treatment of relapses, and immunomodulatory and symptomatic treatment...
September 17, 2016: Neurology and Therapy
Hugh J Willison, Bart C Jacobs, Pieter A van Doorn
Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common and most severe acute paralytic neuropathy, with about 100,000 people developing the disorder every year worldwide. Under the umbrella term of Guillain-Barré syndrome are several recognisable variants with distinct clinical and pathological features. The severe, generalised manifestation of Guillain-Barré syndrome with respiratory failure affects 20-30% of cases. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange is the optimal management approach, alongside supportive care...
August 13, 2016: Lancet
Anusha K Yeshokumar, Lisa R Sun, Jessica L Klein, Kristin W Baranano, Carlos A Pardo
This case series demonstrates a novel clinical phenotype of gait disturbance as an initial symptom in children <3 years old with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is one of the most common causes of encephalitis in children, more common than any of the viral encephalitides and the second most common autoimmune cause after acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis in children often presents with disrupted speech and sleep patterns followed by progression to motor dysfunction, dyskinesias, and seizures...
September 2016: Pediatrics
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