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RADIOBiología

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58 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295986/macrophages-orchestrate-breast-cancer-early-dissemination-and-metastasis
#1
Nina Linde, Maria Casanova-Acebes, Maria Soledad Sosa, Arthur Mortha, Adeeb Rahman, Eduardo Farias, Kathryn Harper, Ethan Tardio, Ivan Reyes Torres, Joan Jones, John Condeelis, Miriam Merad, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso
Cancer cell dissemination during very early stages of breast cancer proceeds through poorly understood mechanisms. Here we show, in a mouse model of HER2+ breast cancer, that a previously described sub-population of early-evolved cancer cells requires macrophages for early dissemination. Depletion of macrophages specifically during pre-malignant stages reduces early dissemination and also results in reduced metastatic burden at end stages of cancer progression. Mechanistically, we show that, in pre-malignant lesions, CCL2 produced by cancer cells and myeloid cells attracts CD206+ /Tie2+ macrophages and induces Wnt-1 upregulation that in turn downregulates E-cadherin junctions in the HER2+ early cancer cells...
January 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534901/abscopal-effects-with-hypofractionated-schedules-extending-into-the-effector-phase-of-the-tumor-specific-t-cell-response
#2
Xuanwei Zhang, Gabriele Niedermann
PURPOSE: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (hRT) combined with immune checkpoint blockade can induce T-cell-mediated local and abscopal antitumor effects. We had previously observed peak levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) between days 5 and 8 after hRT. Because TILs are regarded as radiosensitive, hRT schedules extending into this period might be less immunogenic, prompting us to compare clinically relevant, short and extended schedules with equivalent biologically effective doses combined with anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD1) antibody treatment...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033164/uk-consensus-on-normal-tissue-dose-constraints-for-stereotactic-radiotherapy
#3
G G Hanna, L Murray, R Patel, S Jain, K L Aitken, K N Franks, N van As, A Tree, P Hatfield, S Harrow, F McDonald, M Ahmed, F H Saran, G J Webster, V Khoo, D Landau, D J Eaton, M A Hawkins
Six UK studies investigating stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) are currently open. Many of these involve the treatment of oligometastatic disease at different locations in the body. Members of all the trial management groups collaborated to generate a consensus document on appropriate organ at risk dose constraints. Values from existing but older reviews were updated using data from current studies. It is hoped that this unified approach will facilitate standardised implementation of SABR across the UK and will allow meaningful toxicity comparisons between SABR studies and internationally...
January 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246585/exposure-of-the-lungs-in-breast-cancer-radiotherapy-a-systematic-review-of-lung-doses-published-2010-2015
#4
Marianne C Aznar, Frances K Duane, Sarah C Darby, Zhe Wang, Carolyn W Taylor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We report a systematic review of lung radiation doses from breast cancer radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Studies describing breast cancer radiotherapy regimens published during 2010-2015 and reporting lung dose were included. Doses were compared between different countries, anatomical regions irradiated, techniques and use of breathing adaptation. RESULTS: 471 regimens from 32 countries were identified. The average mean ipsilateral lung dose (MLDipsi ) was 9...
January 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24764719/lack-of-toxicity-in-a-patient-with-germline-tp53-mutation-treated-with-radiotherapy
#5
P Wong, K Han
Li-Fraumeni syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by germline TP53 mutation and increased susceptibility to cancer. Despite certain in vitro findings and a theoretical rationale for patients with TP53 mutation to be more radiosensitive and more prone to developing radiotherapy (rt)-induced secondary malignancies, corresponding clinical data remain elusive. Here, we report the case of a woman with TP53 mutation who was treated with adjuvant pelvic rt for stage ib uterine leiomyosarcoma in 2000, with radioactive iodine for papillary thyroid cancer in 2001, and with palliative rt to the humerus in 2010 for metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma...
April 2014: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103987/special-radiobiological-features-of-second-cancer-risk-after-particle-radiotherapy
#6
Klaus-Rüdiger Trott
In absolute terms: second cancer risks from radiotherapy of first cancers in adults are small compared to the benefits from radiotherapy but this is not so for radiotherapy of childhood cancers. Moreover, the radiation dose dependence of cancer induction differs between organs and tissues. The organ-specific dose dependence of second cancer risks may indicate the existence of different radiobiological mechanisms. As an inevitable consequence of the age dependence of organ sensitivity to second cancer induction, the organ/tissue weighting factors which have been proposed by ICRP for calculating effective dose (the dose unit Sv) and for risk estimation in the general population should not be used in medical radiation exposures...
October 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100700/prognostic-impact-of-hpv-associated-p16-expression-and-smoking-status-on-outcomes-following-radiotherapy-for-oropharyngeal-cancer-the-march-hpv-project
#7
Pernille Lassen, Benjamin Lacas, Jean-Pierre Pignon, Andy Trotti, Bjorn Zackrisson, Qiang Zhang, Jens Overgaard, Pierre Blanchard
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evaluate the prognostic and predictive impact of HPV-associated p16-expression and assess the combined prognostic impact of p16 and smoking on altered fractionated radiotherapy (AFRT) for oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) within the frames of the update of the Meta-Analysis of Radiotherapy in Carcinomas of Head and neck (MARCH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with OPC, known tumor p16-status and smoking history were identified from the MARCH update, resulting in a dataset of 815 patients from four randomized trials (RTOG9003, DAHANCA6&7, RTOG0129, ARTSCAN)...
January 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102264/radiation-toxicity-in-patients-with-collagen-vascular-disease-and-intrathoracic-malignancy-treated-with-modern-radiation-techniques
#8
Kevin Diao, Yu-Hui Chen, Paul J Catalano, Stephanie Lee, Nastaran Milani, Joseph H Killoran, Elizabeth H Baldini, Aileen B Chen, David E Kozono, Raymond H Mak
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is concern that patients with collagen vascular disease (CVD) are at higher risk of developing radiation toxicity. We analyzed radiation toxicities in patients with intrathoracic malignancy and CVD treated using modern radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-institution retrospective study included 31 patients with CVD and 825 patients without CVD treated from 1998 to 2014. Radiation esophagitis (RE) and radiation pneumonitis (RP) were scored by RTOG scales...
November 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126306/the-future-of-radiobiology
#9
David G Kirsch, Max Diehn, Aparna H Kesarwala, Amit Maity, Meredith A Morgan, Julie K Schwarz, Robert Bristow, Sandra Demaria, Iris Eke, Robert J Griffin, Daphne Haas-Kogan, Geoff S Higgins, Alec C Kimmelman, Randall J Kimple, Isabelle M Lombaert, Li Ma, Brian Marples, Frank Pajonk, Catherine C Park, Dörthe Schaue, Phuoc T Tran, Henning Willers, Brad G Wouters, Eric J Bernhard
Innovation and progress in radiation oncology depend on discovery and insights realized through research in radiation biology. Radiobiology research has led to fundamental scientific insights, from the discovery of stem/progenitor cells to the definition of signal transduction pathways activated by ionizing radiation that are now recognized as integral to the DNA damage response (DDR). Radiobiological discoveries are guiding clinical trials that test radiation therapy combined with inhibitors of the DDR kinases DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia telangiectasia related (ATR), and immune or cell cycle checkpoint inhibitors...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708929/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-unresected-pancreatic-cancer-a-nationwide-review
#10
REVIEW
Susanna W L de Geus, Mariam F Eskander, Gyulnara G Kasumova, Sing Chau Ng, Tara S Kent, Joseph D Mancias, Mark P Callery, Anand Mahadevan, Jennifer F Tseng
BACKGROUND: The role of conventional radiotherapy in the management of pancreatic cancer has yet to be elucidated. Over the past decade, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as a novel therapeutic option in pancreatic cancer care. This study evaluated the survival impact of SBRT on patients with unresected pancreatic cancer. METHODS: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for unresected patients who received chemotherapy for nonmetastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 2004 and 2012...
November 1, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721903/clinical-advances-of-hypoxia-activated-prodrugs-in-combination-with-radiation-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Ishna N Mistry, Matthew Thomas, Ewen D D Calder, Stuart J Conway, Ester M Hammond
With the increasing incidence of cancer worldwide, the need for specific, effective therapies is ever more urgent. One example of targeted cancer therapeutics is hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs), also known as bioreductive prodrugs. These prodrugs are inactive in cells with normal oxygen levels but in hypoxic cells (with low oxygen levels) undergo chemical reduction to the active compound. Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with a more aggressive phenotype and resistance to all modes of therapy...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463142/breast-and-prostate-cancer-lessons-to-be-shared
#12
Daniel E Spratt, Reshma Jagsi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577836/radiation-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-from-bench-to-clinic
#13
REVIEW
Jacob E Shabason, Andy J Minn
Immune escape of malignant cells is an important hallmark of cancer, necessary for tumor formation and progression. Accordingly, in recent years, therapies that enhance the immune system have had remarkable success in treating a myriad of malignancies. Particularly successful has been immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), which is a therapy that targets T-cell inhibitory receptors, or immune checkpoints. Despite these encouraging clinical results, most patients do not respond to such agents. Therefore, determining methods to better target and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ICB is of paramount importance...
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346025/guidance-on-radiation-dose-limits-for-the-lens-of-the-eye-overview-of-the-recommendations-in-ncrp-commentary-no-26
#14
REVIEW
Lawrence T Dauer, Elizabeth A Ainsbury, Joseph Dynlacht, David Hoel, Barbara E K Klein, Donald Mayer, Christina R Prescott, Raymond H Thornton, Eliseo Vano, Gayle E Woloschak, Cynthia M Flannery, Lee E Goldstein, Nobuyuki Hamada, Phung K Tran, Michael P Grissom, Eleanor A Blakely
PURPOSE: This review summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of the new National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Commentary No. 26 guidance on radiation dose limits for the lens of the eye. The NCRP addressed radiation protection principles in respect to the lens of the eye, discussed the current understanding of eye biology and lens effects, reviewed and evaluated epidemiology, and assessed exposed populations with the potential for significant radiation exposures to the lens while suggesting monitoring and protection practices...
October 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259287/the-synergistic-effect-of-radiotherapy-and-immunotherapy-a-promising-but-not-simple-partnership
#15
REVIEW
Enrique Chajon, Joël Castelli, Hugo Marsiglia, Renaud De Crevoisier
Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the main components in the treatment of cancer. The better understanding of the immune mechanisms associated with tumor establishment and how RT affects inflammation and immunity has led to the development of novel treatment strategies. Several preclinical studies support the use of RT in combination with immunotherapy obtaining better local and systemic tumor control. Current ongoing studies will provide information about the optimal RT approach, but the development of reliable predictors of the response from the preclinical and the early phases of clinical studies is necessary to avoid discarding treatment strategies with significant clinical benefit...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325250/radiotherapy-in-the-age-of-cancer-immunology-current-concepts-and-future-developments
#16
REVIEW
Mauro Loi, Isacco Desideri, Daniela Greto, Monica Mangoni, Mariangela Sottili, Icro Meattini, Carlotta Becherini, Francesca Terziani, Camilla Delli Paoli, Emanuela Olmetto, Pierluigi Bonomo, Lorenzo Livi
Major advances in the knowledge of cancer biology and its interactions with tumor immune environment led to the emergence, in the last five years of new immunotherapy-based treatment strategies in cancer patients. At the same time, improvement in radiation technique and progress in radiobiology allowed in the last decade to expand the applications of radiotherapy in a growing number of settings. At present, there are strong theoretical basis to propose immune-enhanced radiation therapy that may represent in the future a new paradigm of treatment, combining the intrinsic power of radiotherapy to elicit a specific, systemic, tumor-directed immune response with modern highly conformal and precise dose delivery, in order to maximize response at the major site of disease and obtain durable disease control...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034487/does-the-time-of-radiotherapy-affect-treatment-outcomes-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
S Chan, L Rowbottom, R McDonald, G A Bjarnason, M Tsao, C Danjoux, E Barnes, M Popovic, H Lam, C DeAngelis, E Chow
Circadian rhythm-dependent cell cycle progression produces daily variations in radiosensitivity. This literature review aims to summarise the data on whether radiotherapy outcomes differ depending on administration time. A literature search was conducted on Ovid Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed using key words such as 'radiotherapy', 'circadian rhythm', 'treatment outcome' and 'survival'. Articles evaluating the correlation between radiotherapy time and outcomes in cancer patients were included and relevant information was extracted...
April 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25481260/radiation-and-inflammation
#18
REVIEW
Dörthe Schaue, Ewa D Micewicz, Josephine A Ratikan, Michael W Xie, Genhong Cheng, William H McBride
The immune system has the power to modulate the expression of radiation-induced normal and tumor tissue damage. On the one hand, it can contribute to cancer cure, and on the other hand, it can influence acute and late radiation side effects, which in many ways resemble acute and chronic inflammatory disease states. The way radiation-induced inflammation feeds into adaptive antigen-specific immune responses adds another dimension to the tumor-host cross talk during radiation therapy and to possible radiation-driven autoimmune responses...
January 2015: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25481261/radiotherapy-and-immunogenic-cell-death
#19
REVIEW
Encouse B Golden, Lionel Apetoh
Advances in understanding the mechanisms that underlie the interplay between radiation-invoked immune responses and tumor regression are underway. Emerging applications of local radiotherapy as an immunologic adjuvant have provided radiation oncologists with a method for converting malignant cells into endogenous anticancer vaccines. The dispersion of radiotherapy-induced immune-stimulating tumor antigens released from dying tumor cells into the surrounding milieu (known as immunogenic cell death, Fig. 1), is one such exploitable process that contributes to the propagation of antitumor immunity...
January 2015: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25481263/combination-of-radiotherapy-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#20
REVIEW
Karsten A Pilones, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Sandra Demaria
The ability of ionizing radiation to cause cell death and inflammatory reactions has been known since the beginning of its therapeutic use in oncology. However, only recently this property of radiation has attracted the attention of immunologists seeking to induce or improve antitumor immunity. As immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming mainstream cancer treatments, radiation oncologists have begun to observe unexpected out-of-the-field (abscopal) responses in patients receiving radiation therapy during immunotherapy...
January 2015: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
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