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Javed Mahmood, Sarthak R Zaveri, Stephanie C Murti, Allen A Alexander, Caroline Q Connors, Hem D Shukla, Zeljko Vujaskovic
PURPOSE: Caveolin-1 is a membrane protein highly expressed in many tumors and plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. This review describes the structure of the Caveolin-1 protein and its pre-clinical and clinical significance, demonstrating that Caveolin-1 is a novel biomarker for radioresistance which has the promising potential to improve the clinical outcome of cancer patients undergoing radiation treatment. SUMMARY: Targeted radiation therapy has shown immense benefits for cancer treatment...
December 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Smitha Menon, Sarah Shin, Grace Dy
Immunotherapy is heralded as one of the most important advances in oncology. Until recently, only limited immunotherapeutic options were available in selected immunogenic cancers like melanoma and renal cell carcinomas. Nowadays, there is an improved understanding that anti-tumor immunity is controlled by a delicate balance in the tumor microenvironment between immune stimulatory and immune inhibitory pathways. Either by blocking the inhibitory pathways or stimulating the activating pathways that regulate cytotoxic lymphocytes, anti-tumor immunity can be enhanced leading to durable anti-tumor responses...
November 24, 2016: Cancers
Steven M Larson, Jorge A Carrasquillo, Nai-Kong V Cheung, Oliver W Press
The eradication of cancer remains a vexing problem despite recent advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of neoplasia. One therapeutic approach that has demonstrated potential involves the selective targeting of radionuclides to cancer-associated cell surface antigens using monoclonal antibodies. Such radioimmunotherapy (RIT) permits the delivery of a high dose of therapeutic radiation to cancer cells, while minimizing the exposure of normal cells. Although this approach has been investigated for several decades, the cumulative advances in cancer biology, antibody engineering and radiochemistry in the past decade have markedly enhanced the ability of RIT to produce durable remissions of multiple cancer types...
June 2015: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Tara Spence, Jeff Bruce, Kenneth W Yip, Fei-Fei Liu
Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are a highly heterogeneous group of tumours that are associated with diverse clinical outcomes. Recent evidence has demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) is involved in up to 25% of HNCs; particularly in the oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) subtype where it can account for up to 60% of such cases. HPVs are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect epithelial cells; numerous HPV subtypes, including 16, 18, 31, 33, and 35, drive epithelial cell transformation and tumourigenesis...
August 5, 2016: Cancers
Susan M Hiniker, Sunil A Reddy, Holden T Maecker, Priyanka B Subrahmanyam, Yael Rosenberg-Hasson, Susan M Swetter, Saurabh Saha, Lei Shura, Susan J Knox
PURPOSE: Local radiation therapy (RT) combined with systemic anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 immunotherapy may enhance induction of systemic antimelanoma immune responses. The primary objective of the present trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of combining ipilimumab with RT in patients with stage IV melanoma. The secondary objectives included laboratory assessment of induction of antimelanoma immune responses. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In our prospective clinical trial, 22 patients with stage IV melanoma were treated with palliative RT and ipilimumab for 4 cycles...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jessika Contreras, Tianyu Zhao, Stephanie Perkins, Baozhou Sun, Sreekrishna Goddu, Sasa Mutic, Beth Bottani, Sharon Endicott, Jeff Michalski, Clifford Robinson, Christina Tsien, Jiayi Huang, Benjamin W Fischer-Valuck, Dennis Hallahan, Eric Klein, Jeffrey Bradley
PURPOSE: This is a review of our 2-year experience with the first single-gantry proton therapy (PT) system. METHODS AND MATERIALS: All patients were consented to participate on an institutional review board-approved prospective patient registry between December 2013 and December 2015. PT was delivered in a single-room facility using a synchrocyclotron with proton beam energy of 250 MeV. The dataset was interrogated for demographics, diagnosis, treatment modality, and clinical trial involvement...
January 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
I Zawlik, N Gablo, B Szymanska, Z Pawlowska, C Chudobinski, J Chalubinska-Fendler, Z Morawiec, H Zielinska-Blizniewska, A Morawiec-Sztandera, A Kolacinska
Immune checkpoints are molecules referred to inhibitory pathways in the immune system that play a pivotal role in prevention of autoimmunity and oncogenesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate expression levels of selected immune checkpoints- PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1), and PD-L1 (programmed cell death 1 ligand 1) in breast cancer patients, suitable for breast conservation and sentinel node biopsy and determine their associations with clinicopathological factors.Expression of the genes coding for PD-1 and PD-L1 was analyzed in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens using real-time PCR...
2016: Neoplasma
Trine Grantzau, Jens Overgaard
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiotherapy plays an essential role in early breast cancer treatment, but is also associated with an increased risk of second malignancies decades after the exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched the data-bases Medline/Pubmed, Cochrane, Embase, and Cinahl, for cohort studies estimating the risk of second non-breast cancer after primary breast cancer. Every included study was to report the standardized incidence ratio [SIR] of second cancers, comparing the risk among either irradiated or unirradiated female breast cancer patients to the risk of the general female population...
December 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Brian Yard, Eui Kyu Chie, Drew J Adams, Craig Peacock, Mohamed E Abazeed
Current predictors of radiation response are largely limited to clinical and histopathologic parameters, and extensive systematic analyses of the correlation between radiation sensitivity and genomic parameters remain lacking. In the era of precision medicine, the lack of -omic determinants of radiation response has hindered the personalization of radiation delivery to the unique characteristics of each patient׳s cancer and impeded the discovery of new therapies that can be administered concurrently with radiation therapy...
October 2015: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
C Cleary, J E Leeman, D S Higginson, N Katabi, E Sherman, L Morris, S McBride, N Lee, N Riaz
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are the sixth most common malignancy globally, and an increasing proportion of oropharyngeal HNSCCs are associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Patients with HPV-associated tumours have markedly improved overall and disease-specific survival compared with their HPV-negative counterparts when treated with chemoradiation. Although the difference in outcomes between these two groups is clearly established, the mechanism underlying these differences remains an area of investigation...
July 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Ilinca Popp, Anca Ligia Grosu, Gabriele Niedermann, Dan G Duda
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has become an attractive treatment modality and a safe, non-invasive alternative to surgery to control primary or secondary malignant tumors. While emphasis has been on the local tumor control as a treatment objective for SBRT, the rare but intriguing observations of abscopal (or out-of-field) effects have pointed to the exciting possibility of activating anti-tumor immunity by using high-dose radiation. This review summarizes the available evidence supporting immune modulation by SBRT alone, as well as its potential combination with immunotherapy...
August 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
C Bryce Johnson, Reshma Jagsi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Yasuhiro Ogawa
Most radiation biologists/radiation oncologists have long accepted the concept that the biologic effects of radiation principally involve damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is the critical target, as described in "Radiobiology for the Radiologist", by E.J. Hall and A.J. Giaccia [1]. Although the concepts of direct and indirect effects of radiation are fully applicable to low-LET (linear energy transfer) radioresistant tumor cells/normal tissues such as osteosarcoma cells and chondrocytes, it is believed that radiation-associated damage to DNA does not play a major role in the mechanism of cell death in low-LET radiosensitive tumors/normal tissues such as malignant lymphoma cells and lymphocytes...
2016: Cancers
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