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RADIOBiología

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48 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721903/clinical-advances-of-hypoxia-activated-prodrugs-in-combination-with-radiation-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Ishna N Mistry, Matthew Thomas, Ewen D D Calder, Stuart J Conway, Ester M Hammond
With the increasing incidence of cancer worldwide, the need for specific, effective therapies is ever more urgent. One example of targeted cancer therapeutics is hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs), also known as bioreductive prodrugs. These prodrugs are inactive in cells with normal oxygen levels but in hypoxic cells (with low oxygen levels) undergo chemical reduction to the active compound. Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with a more aggressive phenotype and resistance to all modes of therapy...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463142/breast-and-prostate-cancer-lessons-to-be-shared
#2
EDITORIAL
Daniel E Spratt, Reshma Jagsi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577836/radiation-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-from-bench-to-clinic
#3
REVIEW
Jacob E Shabason, Andy J Minn
Immune escape of malignant cells is an important hallmark of cancer, necessary for tumor formation and progression. Accordingly, in recent years, therapies that enhance the immune system have had remarkable success in treating a myriad of malignancies. Particularly successful has been immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), which is a therapy that targets T-cell inhibitory receptors, or immune checkpoints. Despite these encouraging clinical results, most patients do not respond to such agents. Therefore, determining methods to better target and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ICB is of paramount importance...
July 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346025/guidance-on-radiation-dose-limits-for-the-lens-of-the-eye-overview-of-the-recommendations-in-ncrp-commentary-no-26
#4
Lawrence T Dauer, Elizabeth A Ainsbury, Joseph Dynlacht, David Hoel, Barbara E K Klein, Donald Mayer, Christina R Prescott, Raymond H Thornton, Eliseo Vano, Gayle E Woloschak, Cynthia M Flannery, Lee E Goldstein, Nobuyuki Hamada, Phung K Tran, Michael P Grissom, Eleanor A Blakely
PURPOSE: This review summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of the new National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Commentary No. 26 guidance on radiation dose limits for the lens of the eye. The NCRP addressed radiation protection principles in respect to the lens of the eye, discussed the current understanding of eye biology and lens effects, reviewed and evaluated epidemiology, and assessed exposed populations with the potential for significant radiation exposures to the lens while suggesting monitoring and protection practices...
April 3, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259287/the-synergistic-effect-of-radiotherapy-and-immunotherapy-a-promising-but-not-simple-partnership
#5
REVIEW
Enrique Chajon, Joël Castelli, Hugo Marsiglia, Renaud De Crevoisier
Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the main components in the treatment of cancer. The better understanding of the immune mechanisms associated with tumor establishment and how RT affects inflammation and immunity has led to the development of novel treatment strategies. Several preclinical studies support the use of RT in combination with immunotherapy obtaining better local and systemic tumor control. Current ongoing studies will provide information about the optimal RT approach, but the development of reliable predictors of the response from the preclinical and the early phases of clinical studies is necessary to avoid discarding treatment strategies with significant clinical benefit...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325250/radiotherapy-in-the-age-of-cancer-immunology-current-concepts-and-future-developments
#6
REVIEW
Mauro Loi, Isacco Desideri, Daniela Greto, Monica Mangoni, Mariangela Sottili, Icro Meattini, Carlotta Becherini, Francesca Terziani, Camilla Delli Paoli, Emanuela Olmetto, Pierluigi Bonomo, Lorenzo Livi
Major advances in the knowledge of cancer biology and its interactions with tumor immune environment led to the emergence, in the last five years of new immunotherapy-based treatment strategies in cancer patients. At the same time, improvement in radiation technique and progress in radiobiology allowed in the last decade to expand the applications of radiotherapy in a growing number of settings. At present, there are strong theoretical basis to propose immune-enhanced radiation therapy that may represent in the future a new paradigm of treatment, combining the intrinsic power of radiotherapy to elicit a specific, systemic, tumor-directed immune response with modern highly conformal and precise dose delivery, in order to maximize response at the major site of disease and obtain durable disease control...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034487/does-the-time-of-radiotherapy-affect-treatment-outcomes-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
S Chan, L Rowbottom, R McDonald, G A Bjarnason, M Tsao, C Danjoux, E Barnes, M Popovic, H Lam, C DeAngelis, E Chow
Circadian rhythm-dependent cell cycle progression produces daily variations in radiosensitivity. This literature review aims to summarise the data on whether radiotherapy outcomes differ depending on administration time. A literature search was conducted on Ovid Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed using key words such as 'radiotherapy', 'circadian rhythm', 'treatment outcome' and 'survival'. Articles evaluating the correlation between radiotherapy time and outcomes in cancer patients were included and relevant information was extracted...
April 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25481260/radiation-and-inflammation
#8
REVIEW
Dörthe Schaue, Ewa D Micewicz, Josephine A Ratikan, Michael W Xie, Genhong Cheng, William H McBride
The immune system has the power to modulate the expression of radiation-induced normal and tumor tissue damage. On the one hand, it can contribute to cancer cure, and on the other hand, it can influence acute and late radiation side effects, which in many ways resemble acute and chronic inflammatory disease states. The way radiation-induced inflammation feeds into adaptive antigen-specific immune responses adds another dimension to the tumor-host cross talk during radiation therapy and to possible radiation-driven autoimmune responses...
January 2015: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25481261/radiotherapy-and-immunogenic-cell-death
#9
REVIEW
Encouse B Golden, Lionel Apetoh
Advances in understanding the mechanisms that underlie the interplay between radiation-invoked immune responses and tumor regression are underway. Emerging applications of local radiotherapy as an immunologic adjuvant have provided radiation oncologists with a method for converting malignant cells into endogenous anticancer vaccines. The dispersion of radiotherapy-induced immune-stimulating tumor antigens released from dying tumor cells into the surrounding milieu (known as immunogenic cell death, Fig. 1), is one such exploitable process that contributes to the propagation of antitumor immunity...
January 2015: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25481263/combination-of-radiotherapy-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#10
REVIEW
Karsten A Pilones, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Sandra Demaria
The ability of ionizing radiation to cause cell death and inflammatory reactions has been known since the beginning of its therapeutic use in oncology. However, only recently this property of radiation has attracted the attention of immunologists seeking to induce or improve antitumor immunity. As immune checkpoint inhibitors are becoming mainstream cancer treatments, radiation oncologists have begun to observe unexpected out-of-the-field (abscopal) responses in patients receiving radiation therapy during immunotherapy...
January 2015: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25481264/radiotherapy-and-toll-like-receptor-agonists
#11
REVIEW
Aurelien Marabelle, Alex Filatenkov, Idit Sagiv-Barfi, Holbrook Kohrt
The clinical successes of CTLA4 and PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade in aggressive malignancies such as metastatic melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma inaugurate a new era in oncology. Indeed, as opposed to tumor-targeted therapies, it is now clear that immune-targeted therapies designed to enhance the antitumor immune response are a relevant strategy to obtain long-term tumor responses. Interestingly, the study of tumor cell death biology has recently revealed that part of radiotherapy efficacy relies on its ability to trigger an immune response against tumor cells...
January 2015: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25481265/the-immunology-of-ablative-radiation
#12
REVIEW
Byron Burnette, Ralph R Weichselbaum
Radiation has been a staple of cancer therapy since the early 20th century and is implemented in nearly half of current cancer treatment plans. Originally, the genotoxic function of radiation led to a focus on damage and repair pathways associated with deoxyribonucleic acid as important therapeutic targets to augment radiation efficacy. However, in recent decades, the participation of endogenous immune responses in modifying radiation effects have been widely documented and exploited in both preclinical and clinical settings...
January 2015: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25481267/current-clinical-trials-testing-combinations-of-immunotherapy-and-radiation
#13
REVIEW
Marka Crittenden, Holbrook Kohrt, Ronald Levy, Jennifer Jones, Kevin Camphausen, Adam Dicker, Sandra Demaria, Silvia Formenti
Preclinical evidence of successful combinations of ionizing radiation with immunotherapy has inspired testing the translation of these results to the clinic. Interestingly, the preclinical work has consistently predicted the responses encountered in clinical trials. The first example came from a proof-of-principle trial started in 2001 that tested the concept that growth factors acting on antigen-presenting cells improve presentation of tumor antigens released by radiation and induce an abscopal effect. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was administered during radiotherapy to a metastatic site in patients with metastatic solid tumors to translate evidence obtained in a murine model of syngeneic mammary carcinoma treated with cytokine FLT-3L and radiation...
January 2015: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25771414/nondosimetric-risk-factors-for-radiation-induced-lung-toxicity
#14
REVIEW
Feng-Ming Spring Kong, Shulian Wang
The decision to administer a radical course of radiotherapy (RT) is largely influenced by the dose-volume metrics of the treatment plan, but what are the patient-related and other factors that may independently increase the risk of radiation lung toxicity? Poor pulmonary function has been regarded as a risk factor and a relative contraindication for patients undergoing radical RT, but recent evidence suggests that patients with poor spirometry results may tolerate conventional or high-dose RT as well as, if not better than, patients with normal function...
April 2015: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25771413/accelerated-repopulation-as-a-cause-of-radiation-treatment-failure-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-review-of-current-data-and-future-clinical-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Sue S Yom
Despite convincing evidence that the principles of accelerated repopulation would open up additional therapeutic opportunities in the treatment of advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer, this strategy has been generally underexplored. The implementation of accelerated radiotherapy schedules has been hampered by logistical barriers, concerns about acute toxicity, and the prioritization of integrating concurrent chemotherapy into the standard treatment platform. At present, it is unclear to what extent accelerated fractionation will influence future treatment paradigms in non-small cell lung cancer, although technical advances in radiotherapy, allowing higher dose delivery with reduced toxicity, could permit the development of more convenient and tolerable forms of accelerated schedules...
April 2015: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26384274/hypoxia-and-predicting-radiation-response
#16
REVIEW
Richard P Hill, Robert G Bristow, Anthony Fyles, Marianne Koritzinsky, Michael Milosevic, Bradly G Wouters
The results from many studies indicate that most solid tumors, regardless of site of origin, contain hypoxic regions. Experimental studies have demonstrated that, apart from the well-known protective effect of hypoxia on the radiation response of cells and tissues, hypoxic conditions can also result in modified gene expression patterns, causing (to a greater or lesser extent in different cell populations) genomic instability, increased invasive capacity, higher propensity to metastasize, enhanced stem cell properties, and ability to survive nutrient deprivation...
October 2015: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619247/exploiting-gene-expression-kinetics-in-conventional-radiotherapy-hyperfractionation-and-hypofractionation-for-targeted-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Adeola Y Makinde, Iris Eke, Molykutty J Aryankalayil, Mansoor M Ahmed, C Norman Coleman
The dramatic changes in the technological delivery of radiation therapy, the repertoire of molecular targets for which pathway inhibitors are available, and the cellular and immunologic responses that can alter long-term clinical outcome provide a potentially unique role for using the radiation-inducible changes as therapeutic targets. Various mathematical models of dose and fractionation are extraordinarily useful in guiding treatment regimens. However, although the model may fit the clinical outcome, a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular effect of the individual dose size and the adaptation to repeated exposure, called multifraction (MF) adaptation, may provide new therapeutic targets for use in combined modality treatments using radiochemotherapy and radioimmunotherapy...
October 2016: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619248/translation-of-targeted-radiation-sensitizers-into-clinical-trials
#18
REVIEW
Zachery R Reichert, Daniel R Wahl, Meredith A Morgan
Over the past century, technologic advances have promoted the evolution of radiation therapy into a precise treatment modality allowing for the maximal administration of dose to tumors while sparing normal tissues. Coinciding with this technological maturation, systemic therapies have been combined with radiation in an effort to improve tumor control. Conventional cytotoxic agents have improved survival in several tumor types but cause increased toxicity due to effects on normal tissues. An increased understanding of tumor biology and the radiation response has led to the nomination of several pathways whose targeted inhibition has the potential to radiosensitize tumor cells with lesser effects on normal tissues...
October 2016: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619256/current-instrumentation-and-technologies-in-modern-radiobiology-research-opportunities-and-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Eric Ford, Jim Deye
There is a growing awareness of the gaps in the technical methods employed in radiation biology experiments. These quality gaps can have a substantial effect on the reliability and reproducibility of results as outlined in several recent meta-studies. This is especially true in the context of the newer laboratory irradiation technologies. These technologies allow for delivery of highly localized dose distributions and increased spatial accuracy but also present increased challenges of their own. In this article, we highlight some of the features of the new technologies and the experiments they support; this includes image-guided localized radiation systems, microirradiator systems using carbon nanotubes and physical radiation modifiers like gold nanoparticles...
October 2016: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033451/making-molecular-imaging-a-clinical-tool-for-precision-oncology-a-review
#20
David A Mankoff, Michael D Farwell, Amy S Clark, Daniel A Pryma
Importance: Individualized cancer treatment, tailored to a particular patient and the tumor's biological features (precision oncology), requires a detailed knowledge of tumor biology. Biological characterization is typically performed on biopsy material, but this approach can present challenges for widespread and/or heterogeneous disease and for performing serial assays to infer changes in response to therapy. Molecular imaging is a complementary approach that provides noninvasive and quantitative measures of the in vivo biology of the full disease burden and is well suited to serial assay...
May 1, 2017: JAMA Oncology
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