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David A Mankoff, Michael D Farwell, Amy S Clark, Daniel A Pryma
Importance: Individualized cancer treatment, tailored to a particular patient and the tumor's biological features (precision oncology), requires a detailed knowledge of tumor biology. Biological characterization is typically performed on biopsy material, but this approach can present challenges for widespread and/or heterogeneous disease and for performing serial assays to infer changes in response to therapy. Molecular imaging is a complementary approach that provides noninvasive and quantitative measures of the in vivo biology of the full disease burden and is well suited to serial assay...
December 29, 2016: JAMA Oncology
Wilfred Ngwa, Francis Boateng, Rajiv Kumar, Darrell J Irvine, Silvia Formenti, Twalib Ngoma, Carsten Herskind, Marlon R Veldwijk, Georg Lars Hildenbrand, Michael Hausmann, Frederik Wenz, Juergen Hesser
Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Jacques Bernier
Besides the local effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular and molecular levels in tumor tissues, the interactions of radiotherapy with the host's immune system are nowadays at the center of many investigations. In some cases, these interactions can be strong enough to immunize the patient against the tumor, leading to a rejection by the host of both the irradiated tumor and distant metastases. In this latter case, the rejection mechanism is called "abscopal effect". Over the last two decades, increasing attention has also been paid to the combination of various forms of immunotherapies with radiation, as an attempt to boost cancer cell killing mechanisms...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Sophie Espenel, Alexis Vallard, Chloé Rancoule, Max-Adrien Garcia, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Cyrus Chargari, Eric Deutsch, Nicolas Magné
Melanoma is traditionally considered to be a radioresistant tumor. However, radiotherapy and immunotherapy latest developments might upset this radiobiological dogma. Stereotactic radiotherapy allows high dose per fraction delivery, with high dose rate. More DNA lethal damages, less sublethal damages reparation, endothelial cell apoptosis, and finally clonogenic cell dysfunction are produced, resulting in improved local control. Radiotherapy can also enhance immune responses, inducing neoantigens formation, tumor antigen presentation, and cytokines release...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
N Somaiah, K Rothkamm, J Yarnold
The response of human normal tissues to radiotherapy fraction size is often described in terms of cellular recovery, but the causal links between cellular and tissue responses to ionising radiation are not necessarily straightforward. This article reviews the evidence for a cellular basis to clinical fractionation sensitivity in normal tissues and discusses the significance of a long-established inverse association between fractionation sensitivity and proliferative indices. Molecular mechanisms of fractionation sensitivity involving DNA damage repair and cell cycle control are proposed that will probably require modification before being applicable to human cancer...
October 2015: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
L J Forker, A Choudhury, A E Kiltie
Radiotherapy is an essential component of treatment for more than half of newly diagnosed cancer patients. The response to radiotherapy varies widely between individuals and although advances in technology have allowed the adaptation of radiotherapy fields to tumour anatomy, it is still not possible to tailor radiotherapy based on tumour biology. A biomarker of intrinsic radiosensitivity would be extremely valuable for individual dosing, aiding decision making between radical treatment options and avoiding toxicity of neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiotherapy in those unlikely to benefit...
October 2015: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
M B Pinkham, P Sanghera, G K Wall, B D Dawson, G A Whitfield
About 90% of patients with brain metastases have impaired neurocognitive function at diagnosis and up to two-thirds will show further declines within 2-6 months of whole brain radiotherapy. Distinguishing treatment effects from progressive disease can be challenging because the prognosis remains poor in many patients. Omitting whole brain radiotherapy after local therapy in good prognosis patients improves verbal memory at 4 months, but the effect of higher intracranial recurrence and salvage therapy rates on neurocognitive function beyond this time point is unknown...
November 2015: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
R J D Prestwich, S Vaidyanathan, A F Scarsbrook
The identification of robust prognostic and predictive biomarkers would transform the ability to implement an individualised approach to radiotherapy. In this regard, there has been a surge of interest in the use of functional imaging to assess key underlying biological processes within tumours and their response to therapy. Importantly, functional imaging biomarkers hold the potential to evaluate tumour heterogeneity/biology both spatially and temporally. An ever-increasing range of functional imaging techniques is now available primarily involving positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging...
October 2015: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
C W Taylor, A M Kirby
Breast cancer radiotherapy reduces the risk of cancer recurrence and death. However, it usually involves some radiation exposure of the heart and analyses of randomised trials have shown that it can increase the risk of heart disease. Estimates of the absolute risks of radiation-related heart disease are needed to help oncologists plan each individual woman's treatment. The risk for an individual woman varies according to her estimated cardiac radiation dose and her background risk of ischaemic heart disease in the absence of radiotherapy...
November 2015: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
T Illidge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
R Alonzi
Various quantitative and semi-quantitative imaging biomarkers have been identified that may serve as valid surrogates for the risk of recurrence after radiotherapy. Tumour characteristics, such as hypoxia, vascularity, cellular proliferation and clonogen density, can be geographically mapped using biological imaging techniques. The potential gains in therapeutic ratio from the precision targeting of areas of intrinsic resistance makes focused dose escalation an exciting field of study. This overview will explore the issues surrounding biologically optimised radiotherapy, including its requirements, feasibility, technical considerations and potential applicability...
October 2015: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Jacques Bernier, Philip M P Poortmans
Triple negative breast cancer refers to tumours lacking the expression of the three most used tumour markers, namely oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). These cancers are known to carry a more dismal prognosis than the other molecular subtypes. Whether a more aggressive local-regional treatment is warranted or not in patients with triple-negative breast cancer is still a matter of debate. Indeed there remain a number of grey zones with respect to the optimization of the extent and the timing of surgery and radiation therapy (RT) in this patient population, also in consideration of the significant heterogeneity in biological behaviour and response to treatment identified for these tumours...
August 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Carsten Herskind, Lin Ma, Qi Liu, Bo Zhang, Frank Schneider, Marlon R Veldwijk, Frederik Wenz
Intraoperative radiotherapy differs from conventional, fractionated radiotherapy in several aspects that may influence its biological effect. The radiation quality influences the relative biologic effectiveness (RBE), and the role of the five R's of radiotherapy (reassortment, repair, reoxygenation, repopulation, radiosensitivity) is different. Furthermore, putative special biological effects and the small volume receiving a high single dose may be important. The present review focuses on RBE, repair, and repopulation, and gives an overview of the other factors that potentially contribute to the efficacy...
January 19, 2017: Radiation Oncology
Hong Seok Lee, Jeong Il Yu, Do Hoon Lim, Sung Joo Kim
PURPOSE: To evaluate the benefit of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for retroperitoneal liposarcoma (RPLS) following gross tumor removal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed 77 patients with primary RPLS surgically treated between January 2000 and December 2013. Cases with gross residual disease were excluded. Tumor grade was evaluated according to the French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group (FNCLCC) system. Adjuvant RT was delivered to 32 patients (42%) using external beam RT alone...
September 2016: Radiation Oncology Journal
Taeryool Koo, In Ah Kim
Immune checkpoint blockades including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed death-1 (PD-1), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have been emerged as a promising anticancer therapy. Several immune checkpoint blockades have been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and have shown notable success in clinical trials for patients with advanced melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer. Radiotherapy is a promising combination partner of immune checkpoint blockades due to its potent pro-immune effect...
December 2016: Radiation Oncology Journal
Beom-Ju Hong, Jeongwoo Kim, Hoibin Jeong, Seoyeon Bok, Young-Eun Kim, G-One Ahn
Tumor hypoxia, a common feature occurring in nearly all human solid tumors is a major contributing factor for failures of anticancer therapies. Because ionizing radiation depends heavily on the presence of molecular oxygen to produce cytotoxic effect, the negative impact of tumor hypoxia had long been recognized. In this review, we will highlight some of the past attempts to overcome tumor hypoxia including hypoxic radiosensitizers and hypoxia-selective cytotoxin. Although they were (still are) a very clever idea, they lacked clinical efficacy largely because of 'reoxygenation' phenomenon occurring in the conventional low dose hyperfractionation radiotherapy prevented proper activation of these compounds...
December 2016: Radiation Oncology Journal
Javed Mahmood, Sarthak R Zaveri, Stephanie C Murti, Allen A Alexander, Caroline Q Connors, Hem D Shukla, Zeljko Vujaskovic
PURPOSE: Caveolin-1 is a membrane protein highly expressed in many tumors and plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. This review describes the structure of the Caveolin-1 protein and its pre-clinical and clinical significance, demonstrating that Caveolin-1 is a novel biomarker for radioresistance which has the promising potential to improve the clinical outcome of cancer patients undergoing radiation treatment. SUMMARY: Targeted radiation therapy has shown immense benefits for cancer treatment...
December 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Smitha Menon, Sarah Shin, Grace Dy
Immunotherapy is heralded as one of the most important advances in oncology. Until recently, only limited immunotherapeutic options were available in selected immunogenic cancers like melanoma and renal cell carcinomas. Nowadays, there is an improved understanding that anti-tumor immunity is controlled by a delicate balance in the tumor microenvironment between immune stimulatory and immune inhibitory pathways. Either by blocking the inhibitory pathways or stimulating the activating pathways that regulate cytotoxic lymphocytes, anti-tumor immunity can be enhanced leading to durable anti-tumor responses...
November 24, 2016: Cancers
Steven M Larson, Jorge A Carrasquillo, Nai-Kong V Cheung, Oliver W Press
The eradication of cancer remains a vexing problem despite recent advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of neoplasia. One therapeutic approach that has demonstrated potential involves the selective targeting of radionuclides to cancer-associated cell surface antigens using monoclonal antibodies. Such radioimmunotherapy (RIT) permits the delivery of a high dose of therapeutic radiation to cancer cells, while minimizing the exposure of normal cells. Although this approach has been investigated for several decades, the cumulative advances in cancer biology, antibody engineering and radiochemistry in the past decade have markedly enhanced the ability of RIT to produce durable remissions of multiple cancer types...
June 2015: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Tara Spence, Jeff Bruce, Kenneth W Yip, Fei-Fei Liu
Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are a highly heterogeneous group of tumours that are associated with diverse clinical outcomes. Recent evidence has demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) is involved in up to 25% of HNCs; particularly in the oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) subtype where it can account for up to 60% of such cases. HPVs are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect epithelial cells; numerous HPV subtypes, including 16, 18, 31, 33, and 35, drive epithelial cell transformation and tumourigenesis...
August 5, 2016: Cancers
2016-10-09 21:32:01
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