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Housing and HIV

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49 papers 0 to 25 followers
Jeremy Mennis, Michael J Mason, Yinghui Cao
Qualitative activity space data, i.e. qualitative data associated with the routine locations and activities of individuals, are recognized as increasingly useful by researchers in the social and health sciences for investigating the influence of environment on human behavior. However, there has been little research on techniques for exploring qualitative activity space data. This research illustrates the theoretical principles of combining qualitative and quantitative data and methodologies within the context of GIS, using visualization as the means of inquiry...
2013: International Journal of Geographical Information Science: IJGIS
Hilary L Surratt, Steven P Kurtz, Maria A Levi-Minzi, Minxing Chen
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that highly disordered neighborhoods would expose residents to environmental pressures, leading to reduced antiretroviral (ARV) medication adherence. METHODS: Using targeted sampling, we enrolled 503 socioeconomically disadvantaged HIV-positive substance users in urban South Florida between 2010 and 2012. Participants completed a 1-time standardized interview that took approximately 1 hour. We tested a multiple mediation model to examine the direct and indirect effects of neighborhood disorder on diversion-related nonadherence to ARVs; risky social networks and housing instability were examined as mediators of the disordered neighborhood environment...
August 2015: American Journal of Public Health
Jennifer S Volk, Tim Aubry, Paula Goering, Carol E Adair, Jino Distasio, Jonathan Jette, Danielle Nolin, Vicky Stergiopoulos, David L Streiner, Sam Tsemberis
BACKGROUND: At Home/Chez-Soi was a 24 month randomized controlled trial of Housing First (HF) conducted in five Canadian cities. AIMS: This article attempts to identify the characteristics of participants who experienced housing instability one year after entering HF. METHODS: Those defined as experiencing housing instability were housed <50% of the last 9 months of the first year, excluding time in institutions, unless they were housed 100% of the past 3 months...
2016: Journal of Mental Health
Caroline M Parker, Jonathan Garcia, Morgan M Philbin, Patrick A Wilson, Richard G Parker, Jennifer S Hirsch
Black men who have sex with men in the USA face disproportionate incidence rates of HIV. This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study conducted in New York City that explored the structural and socio-cultural factors shaping men's sexual relationships with the goal of furthering understandings of their HIV-related vulnerability. Methods included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 31 Black men who have sex with men (three times each) and 17 key informants. We found that HIV vulnerability is perceived as produced through structural inequalities including economic insecurity, housing instability, and stigma and discrimination...
March 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Jade Boyd, David Cunningham, Solanna Anderson, Thomas Kerr
Urban centres in the US, Britain and Canada have responded to identified visible 'social problems' such addiction, mental health and homelessness by providing some supportive housing for the urban poor and marginalized. While some critics have questioned what supportive housing specifically entails in terms of the built environment, what remains under explored, though a growing area of concern, is the relationship between surveillance and supportive housing for urban residents identified as having addiction and mental health problems - a gap addressed in this paper...
August 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Tara Lyons, Andrea Krüsi, Leslie Pierre, Adrienne Smith, Will Small, Kate Shannon
PURPOSE: Little is known about trans womens' experiences accessing gender-segregated health and housing services, particularly services for marginalized individuals living in poverty. As such, we conducted a qualitative investigation into experiences of accessing women-specific health and housing services among trans women and two-spirit persons in a downtown neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. METHODS: Between June 2012 and May 2013 interviews were conducted with 32 trans women and two-spirit individuals who had accessed women-specific health and/or housing services...
October 2016: LGBT Health
Lauren H Wong, Martha Shumway, Annesa Flentje, Elise D Riley
This study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood violence (emotional, physical, and sexual) and these same forms of violence in adulthood, using a crosssectional baseline survey of 298 homeless and unstably housed women in San Francisco, California. We also examined other related factors, including mental illnesses diagnosis, sex exchange, jail time, HIV status, and sociodemographic information. Regression analysis indicated that although several of these factors were associated with experiences of violence as an adult, specific types of child violence (e...
December 1, 2016: Violence and Victims
Putu Duff, Shira Goldenberg, Kathleen Deering, Julio Montaner, Paul Nguyen, Sabina Dobrer, Kate Shannon
OBJECTIVE: Despite global evidence that sex workers (SWs) are disproportionately impacted by HIV, data on HIV treatment outcomes among SWs living with HIV remains sparse. This study examined the correlates of undetectable plasma viral load (pVL) among street- and off-street SWs living with HIV and on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Metro Vancouver, Canada. METHODS: Analyses drew on data (2010-2014) from a longitudinal cohort of SWs (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access) and confidential linkages with the Drug Treatment Program (DTP) data on ART dispensation and outcomes...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Kinna Thakarar, Jake R Morgan, Jessie M Gaeta, Carole Hohl, Mari-Lynn Drainoni
BACKGROUND: The importance of HIV viral suppression is widely known, however few studies have examined the effects of homelessness on HIV viral suppression. METHODS: The study included HIV-seropositive patients in a health care for the homeless program (HCH). Electronic medical record data for 138 patients were analyzed to compare demographic characteristics, health characteristics, and utilization by housing status. For the 95 individuals with available HIV viral loads, multivariable logistic analysis was performed to examine factors associated with incomplete viral suppression...
February 2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
N A Hessol, M Schneider, R M Greenblatt, M Bacon, Y Barranday, S Holman, E Robison, C Williams, M Cohen, K Weber
Even though women and people of color represent an increasing proportion of US acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases, few research studies include adequate representation of these populations. Here the authors describe recruitment and retention of a diverse group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and at risk HIV-uninfected women in a prospective study operating in six sites across the United States. Methods used to minimize loss to follow-up in this cohort are also described. For the first 10 study visits that occurred during a 5-year period between 1994 and 1999, the retention rate of participants was approximately 82%...
September 15, 2001: American Journal of Epidemiology
José A Bauermeister, Lisa Eaton, Jack Andrzejewski, Jimena Loveluck, William VanHemert, Emily S Pingel
Structural characteristics are linked to HIV/STI risks, yet few studies have examined the mechanisms through which structural characteristics influence the HIV/STI risk of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using data from a cross-sectional survey of YMSM (ages 18-29) living in Detroit Metro (N = 328; 9 % HIV-positive; 49 % Black, 27 % White, 15 % Latino, 9 % Other race), we used multilevel modeling to examine the association between community-level characteristics (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage; distance to LGBT-affirming institutions) and YMSM's HIV testing behavior and likelihood of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse with serodiscordant partner(s)...
December 2015: AIDS and Behavior
Hasina Samji, Yalin Chen, Kate Salters, Julio S G Montaner, Robert S Hogg
Treatment interruptions (TIs) limit the therapeutic success of combination antiretroviral therapy and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. HIV-positive individuals dealing with concurrent health issues, access challenges and competing life demands are hypothesized to be more likely to interrupt treatment. Individuals were included if they initiated cART ≥1 year prior to interview date and had a CD4 cell count and initial regimen recorded at initiation. Using pharmacy recording, a TI was defined as a patient-initiated gap in treatment ≥90 consecutive days during the 12 months preceding or following the study interview...
November 2014: AIDS and Behavior
Amber Wutich, Alissa Ruth, Alexandra Brewis, Christopher Boone
The relationship between living in impoverished neighborhoods and poor health is well established, but impacts of neighborhood stigma on health are not well understood. Drawing on long-term research with Latino immigrants, we examine how neighborhood stigma and social bonding affect health in Phoenix, Arizona. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, we developed a novel neighborhood stigma scale. In survey research, we examined effects of neighborhood stigma and social bonding on self-reported physical and mental health...
December 2014: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
Carol W Holtzman, Judy A Shea, Karen Glanz, Lisa M Jacobs, Robert Gross, Janet Hines, Karam Mounzer, Rafik Samuel, Joshua P Metlay, Baligh R Yehia
Andersen's Behavioral Model (ABM) provides a framework for understanding how patient and environmental factors impact health behaviors and outcomes. We compared patient-identified barriers/facilitators to retention in care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and evaluated how they mapped to ABM. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 51 HIV-infected adults at HIV clinics in Philadelphia, PA, in 2013 were used to explore patients' experiences with HIV care and treatment. Interview data were analyzed for themes using a grounded theory approach...
2015: AIDS Care
Brenden Joseph, Thomas Kerr, Cathy M Puskas, Julio Montaner, Evan Wood, M-J Milloy
HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs typically achieve lower levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy and experience higher rates of sub-optimal HIV/AIDS treatment outcomes. Given the dearth of longitudinal research into ART adherence dynamics, we sought to identify factors associated with transitioning into and out of optimal adherence to ART in a longitudinal study of HIV-infected people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) in a setting of universal no-cost HIV/AIDS treatment. Using data from a prospective cohort of community-recruited HIV-positive illicit drug users confidentially linked to comprehensive HIV/AIDS treatment records, we estimated longitudinal factors associated with losing or gaining ≥95% adherence in the previous six months using two generalized linear mixed-effects models...
2015: AIDS Care
Elizabeth A Bowen
Elevated HIV prevalence has been observed among urban U.S. individuals who use drugs and who lack stable housing. This article synthesizes extant research on this population and situates it in a multilevel, ecologically based model of HIV risk. Based on a multidisciplinary review of the literature, the model applies social-ecological theory on human development to identify factors shaping the HIV risk context for individuals who use drugs and who are unstably housed at global, societal, neighborhood, household, and individual levels of influence...
July 2016: Social Work in Public Health
Seena Fazel, John R Geddes, Margot Kushel
In the European Union, more than 400,000 individuals are homeless on any one night and more than 600,000 are homeless in the USA. The causes of homelessness are an interaction between individual and structural factors. Individual factors include poverty, family problems, and mental health and substance misuse problems. The availability of low-cost housing is thought to be the most important structural determinant for homelessness. Homeless people have higher rates of premature mortality than the rest of the population, especially from suicide and unintentional injuries, and an increased prevalence of a range of infectious diseases, mental disorders, and substance misuse...
October 25, 2014: Lancet
Ryan McNeil, Hannah Cooper, Will Small, Thomas Kerr
Area restrictions prohibiting people from entering drug scenes or areas where they were arrested are a common socio-legal mechanism employed to regulate the spatial practices of people who use drugs (PWUD). To explore how socio-spatial patterns stemming from area restrictions shape risk, harm, and health care access, qualitative interviews and mapping exercises were conducted with 24 PWUD with area restrictions in Vancouver, Canada. Area restrictions disrupted access to health and social resources (e.g., HIV care) concentrated in drug scenes, while territorial stigma prevented PWUD from accessing supports in other neighborhoods...
September 2015: Health & Place
Kate Jongbloed, Vicky Thomas, Margo E Pearce, Kukpi Wunuxtsin Christian, Hongbin Zhang, Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes, Martin T Schechter, Patricia M Spittal
Aboriginal homelessness is considered to be a result of historic dispossession of traditional territories and forced displacement from community structures. Using data collected from 2005-2010 from the Cedar Project, a cohort of young Aboriginal people who use drugs in two Canadian cities, we examined how residential transience shapes HIV vulnerability. At baseline, 48 of 260 participants (18.5%) reported sleeping in six or more places ('highly transient') in the past six months. Generalized linear mixed models identified associations between high transience and sex and drug related HIV vulnerabilities...
May 2015: Health & Place
Judith L Singleton, Manuela Raunig, Halley Brunsteter, Michelle Desmond, Deepa Rao
African American men have the highest rates of HIV in the USA, and research has shown that stigma, mistrust of health care, and other psychosocial factors interfere with optimal engagement in care with this population. In order to further understand reducing stigma and other psychosocial issues among African American men, we conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with African American men in two metropolitan areas in the USA: Chicago and Seattle. We examined transcripts for relationships across variables of stigma, anonymity, self-identity, and space within the context of HIV...
December 2015: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
2016-08-17 20:34:25
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