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Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
BACKGROUND: Several studies using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) have demonstrated injury of the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTT) in various brain pathologies. However, no study on traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been reported. This case study attempted to demonstrate injury of the DRTT in a patient with mild TBI, using DTT. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 41-year-old female patient suffered from head trauma resulting from flexion-hyperextension injury by being hit from behind by a running car while stopped at an intersection...
2015: Brain Injury: [BI]
Michael D Fox, Randy L Buckner, Hesheng Liu, M Mallar Chakravarty, Andres M Lozano, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Brain stimulation, a therapy increasingly used for neurological and psychiatric disease, traditionally is divided into invasive approaches, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), and noninvasive approaches, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation. The relationship between these approaches is unknown, therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear, and the ideal stimulation site for a given technique is often ambiguous, limiting optimization of the stimulation and its application in further disorders. In this article, we identify diseases treated with both types of stimulation, list the stimulation sites thought to be most effective in each disease, and test the hypothesis that these sites are different nodes within the same brain network as defined by resting-state functional-connectivity MRI...
October 14, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ming-Kuei Lu, Shang-Ming Chiou, Ulf Ziemann, Hui-Chun Huang, Yu-Wan Yang, Chon-Haw Tsai
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET) is not fully understood. This study tested the role of primary motor cortex (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA) and cerebellar cortex on PD and ET tremor by single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Ten PD patients with resting tremor, six of them also with postural tremor, and ten ET patients with postural tremor were studied. Randomized single- and paired-pulse TMS with an interstimulus interval of 100 ms were delivered over M1, SMA and cerebellum...
December 2015: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
A Gironell, J Marin-Lahoz
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor is the most frequent movement disorder in adults. It has been considered a benign disease, but can result in significant physical and psychosocial disability. Pharmacological treatment is still not very satisfactory. Its causation, pathophysiology and anatomy remain only partially understood. AIMS: An understanding of its neurochemical basis is essential to be able to develop more efficient therapies. We review what is currently known in this field in order to motivate further research and ideas that allow an enhanced understanding of the disease and which foster the development of new pharmacological therapies...
June 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Sheng-Han Kuo, Chi-Ying Lin, Jie Wang, Jyun-You Liou, Ming-Kai Pan, Ravi J Louis, Wei-Pu Wu, Jesus Gutierrez, Elan D Louis, Phyllis L Faust
Essential tremor (ET) patients have abnormal climbing fiber (CF) synapses in the parallel fiber territory in the cerebellum, and these abnormal CF synapses are inversely correlated with tremor severity. We therefore examined CF synaptic pathology in ET cases with and without thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) and assessed the association with tremor severity. We found that CF synaptic pathology was inversely correlated with tremor severity in ET cases without DBS, and this correlation disappeared in ET cases with DBS...
September 2016: Annals of Neurology
Murni Tio, Rujing Wen, Yih Lin Lim, Huashan Wang, Shuo-Chien Ling, Yi Zhao, Eng-King Tan
Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common adult-onset neurological disorders which produce motor and non-motor symptoms. To date, there are no gold standard pathological hallmarks of ET, and despite a strong genetic contribution toward ET development, only a few pathogenic mutations have been identified. Recently, a pathogenic FUS-Q290X mutation has been reported in a large ET-affected family; however, the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying FUS-linked ET is unknown. Here, we generated transgenic Drosophila expressing hFUS-WT and hFUS-Q290X and targeted their expression in different tissues...
July 9, 2016: Human Genetics
Nesrin Helvaci Yilmaz, Burcu Polat, Lutfu Hanoglu
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacotherapy and thalamic stimulation are the most accepted methods used for the treatment of essential tremor (ET). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive method for brain stimulation, especially to treat pain, cerebrovascular disease, and depression. tDCS applied to the cerebellar region has been shown to exhibit a modulating effect on the excitability of Purkinje cells and to cause primary motor cortex inhibition through the regulation of synaptic dentato-thalamo-cortical excitability...
March 2016: Neurologist
H Y Yu, J T Chen, Y C Lee, Y C Guo, C D Kao, D E Shan, K K Liao
BACKGROUND: Human oscillator is observed in and outside the nervous system. Cardiac rhythm is generated by heart itself but can be modulated by brain. Using the technique of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and resetting index, we studied if single-pulse TMS could reset the cardiac rhythm and help differentiate oscillator of neurogenic or non-neurogenic origin. METHODS: In addition to the study of 4 patients with essential tremor, cardiac rhythm was studied in 6 normal subjects...
May 2001: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Medical Journal; Free China Ed
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