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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390604/cancer-hallmarks-biomarkers-and-breast-cancer-molecular-subtypes
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Xiaofeng Dai, Liangjian Xiang, Ting Li, Zhonghu Bai
Breast cancer is a complex disease encompassing multiple tumor entities, each characterized by distinct morphology, behavior and clinical implications. Besides estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, novel biomarkers have shown their prognostic and predictive values, complicating our understanding towards to the heterogeneity of such cancers. Ten cancer hallmarks have been proposed by Weinberg to characterize cancer and its carcinogenesis. By reviewing biomarkers and breast cancer molecular subtypes, we propose that the divergent outcome observed from patients stratified by hormone status are driven by different cancer hallmarks...
2016: Journal of Cancer
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