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Microbiome

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20 papers 0 to 25 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487480/microbiota-promotes-systemic-t-cell-survival-through-suppression-of-an-apoptotic-factor
#1
Raymond Soto, Charisse Petersen, Camille L Novis, Jason L Kubinak, Rickesha Bell, W Zac Stephens, Thomas E Lane, Robert S Fujinami, Alberto Bosque, Ryan M O'Connell, June L Round
Symbiotic microbes impact the severity of a variety of diseases through regulation of T-cell development. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms by which this is accomplished. Here we report that a secreted factor, Erdr1, is regulated by the microbiota to control T-cell apoptosis. Erdr1 expression was identified by transcriptome analysis to be elevated in splenic T cells from germfree and antibiotic-treated mice. Suppression of Erdr1 depends on detection of circulating microbial products by Toll-like receptors on T cells, and this regulation is conserved in human T cells...
May 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296583/relationship-between-intestinal-bacteria-and-the-anticancer-effect-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
Joseph H Antin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296584/intestinal-microbiota-and-relapse-after-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#3
Jonathan U Peled, Sean M Devlin, Anna Staffas, Melissa Lumish, Raya Khanin, Eric R Littmann, Lilan Ling, Satyajit Kosuri, Molly Maloy, John B Slingerland, Katya F Ahr, Kori A Porosnicu Rodriguez, Yusuke Shono, Ann E Slingerland, Melissa D Docampo, Anthony D Sung, Daniela Weber, Amin M Alousi, Boglarka Gyurkocza, Doris M Ponce, Juliet N Barker, Miguel-Angel Perales, Sergio A Giralt, Ying Taur, Eric G Pamer, Robert R Jenq, Marcel R M van den Brink
Purpose The major causes of mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation (allo-HCT) are relapse, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and infection. We have reported previously that alterations in the intestinal flora are associated with GVHD, bacteremia, and reduced overall survival after allo-HCT. Because intestinal bacteria are potent modulators of systemic immune responses, including antitumor effects, we hypothesized that components of the intestinal flora could be associated with relapse after allo-HCT...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292977/the-host-microbiome-regulates-and-maintains-human-health-a-primer-and-perspective-for-non-microbiologists
#4
REVIEW
Sunil Thomas, Jacques Izard, Emily Walsh, Kristen Batich, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Gerard Clarke, David A Sela, Alexander J Muller, James M Mullin, Korin Albert, John P Gilligan, Katherine DiGuilio, Rima Dilbarova, Walker Alexander, George C Prendergast
Humans consider themselves discrete autonomous organisms, but recent research is rapidly strengthening the appreciation that associated microorganisms make essential contributions to human health and well being. Each person is inhabited and also surrounded by his/her own signature microbial cloud. A low diversity of microorganisms is associated with a plethora of diseases, including allergy, diabetes, obesity, arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and even neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, an interaction of microorganisms with the host immune system is required for a healthy body...
April 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856471/role-of-the-intestinal-mucosa-in-acute-gastrointestinal-gvhd
#5
REVIEW
Jonathan U Peled, Alan M Hanash, Robert R Jenq
Intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a significant obstacle to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The intestinal mucosa comprises the inner lining of the intestinal tract and maintains close proximity with commensal microbes that reside within the intestinal lumen. Recent advances have significantly improved our understanding of the interactions between the intestinal mucosa and the enteric microbiota. Changes in host mucosal tissue and commensals posttransplant have been actively investigated, and provocative insights into mucosal immunity and the enteric microbiota are now being translated into clinical trials of novel approaches for preventing and treating acute GVHD...
November 17, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879260/antibiotics-impair-murine-hematopoiesis-by-depleting-the-intestinal-microbiota
#6
Kamilla S Josefsdottir, Megan T Baldridge, Claudine S Kadmon, Katherine Y King
Bone marrow suppression is an adverse effect associated with many antibiotics, especially when administered for prolonged treatment courses. Recent advances in our understanding of steady-state hematopoiesis have allowed us to explore the effects of antibiotics on hematopoietic progenitors in detail using a murine model. Antibiotic-treated mice exhibited anemia, thrombocytosis, and leukopenia, with pronounced pan-lymphopenia as demonstrated by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood. Bone marrow progenitor analysis revealed depletion of hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitors across all subtypes...
February 9, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940475/the-intestinal-microbiota-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplant-and-graft-versus-host-disease
#7
REVIEW
Anna Staffas, Marina Burgos da Silva, Marcel R M van den Brink
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a critical treatment of patients with high-risk hematopoietic malignancies, hematological deficiencies, and other immune diseases. In allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT), donor-derived T cells recognize host tissues as foreign, causing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) which is a main contributor to morbidity and mortality. The intestine is one of the organs most severely affected by GVHD and research has recently highlighted the importance of bacteria, particularly the gut microbiota, in HCT outcome and in GVHD development...
February 23, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137828/acute-graft-versus-host-disease-is-regulated-by-an-il-17-sensitive-microbiome
#8
Antiopi Varelias, Kate L Ormerod, Mark D Bunting, Motoko Koyama, Kate H Gartlan, Rachel D Kuns, Nancy Lachner, Kelly R Locke, Chun Y Lim, Andrea S Henden, Ping Zhang, Andrew D Clouston, Sumaira Z Hasnain, Michael A McGuckin, Bruce R Blazar, Kelli P A MacDonald, Philip Hugenholtz, Geoffrey R Hill
Donor T-cell-derived interleukin-17A (IL-17A) can mediate late immunopathology in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), however protective roles remain unclear. Using multiple cytokine and cytokine receptor subunit knockout mice, we demonstrate that stem cell transplant recipients lacking the ability to generate or signal IL-17 develop intestinal hyper-acute GVHD. This protective effect is restricted to the molecular interaction of IL-17A and/or IL-17F with the IL-17 receptor A/C (IL-17RA/C). The protection from GVHD afforded by IL-17A required secretion from, and signaling in, both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic host tissue...
April 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157678/fit-for-cure-microbiota-and-gvhd
#9
Ernst Holler, Daniela Weber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157682/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-agvhd-of-the-gut
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107225/the-gut-microbiome-takes-center-stage-in-critical-care
#11
W Joost Wiersinga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799160/sensing-of-the-microbiota-by-nod1-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-regulates-murine-hematopoiesis
#12
Chiaki Iwamura, Nicolas Bouladoux, Yasmine Belkaid, Alan Sher, Dragana Jankovic
The microbiota is known to influence the generation of hematopoietic progenitors, although the pathways underlying this process are still poorly understood. NOD1 and NOD2 are intracellular sensors for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but their role in steady-state hematopoiesis has never been characterized. We observed that stimulation with NOD1 or NOD2 ligand had no effect on the survival/proliferation of hematopoietic precursors. Nonetheless, NOD1, but not NOD2, ligand induced expression of multiple hematopoietic cytokines (interleukin-7 [IL-7], Flt3L, stem cell factor [SCF], ThPO, and IL-6) from bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in vitro...
January 12, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610573/opposing-effects-of-fasting-metabolism-on-tissue-tolerance-in-bacterial-and-viral-inflammation
#13
Andrew Wang, Sarah C Huen, Harding H Luan, Shuang Yu, Cuiling Zhang, Jean-Dominique Gallezot, Carmen J Booth, Ruslan Medzhitov
Acute infections are associated with a set of stereotypic behavioral responses, including anorexia, lethargy, and social withdrawal. Although these so-called sickness behaviors are the most common and familiar symptoms of infections, their roles in host defense are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of anorexia in models of bacterial and viral infections. We found that anorexia was protective while nutritional supplementation was detrimental in bacterial sepsis. Furthermore, glucose was necessary and sufficient for these effects...
September 8, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533008/pd-l2-elbows-out-pd-l1-to-rescue-t-cell-immunity-to-malaria
#14
Peter D Crompton, Susan K Pierce
How early interactions between innate and adaptive immune cells influence outcomes of acute infections is incompletely understood. In this issue of Immunity, Karunarathne et al. (2016) show that dendritic cells help CD4(+) T helper 1 cell immunity against malaria through PD-L2's competition with PD-L1.
August 16, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533014/programmed-death-1-ligand-2-mediated-regulation-of-the-pd-l1-to-pd-1-axis-is-essential-for-establishing-cd4-t-cell-immunity
#15
Deshapriya S Karunarathne, Joshua M Horne-Debets, Johnny X Huang, Rebecca Faleiro, Chiuan Yee Leow, Fiona Amante, Thomas S Watkins, John J Miles, Patrick J Dwyer, Katryn J Stacey, Michael Yarski, Chek Meng Poh, Jason S Lee, Matthew A Cooper, Laurent Rénia, Derek Richard, James S McCarthy, Arlene H Sharpe, Michelle N Wykes
Many pathogens, including Plasmodium spp., exploit the interaction of programmed death-1 (PD-1) with PD-1-ligand-1 (PD-L1) to "deactivate" T cell functions, but the role of PD-L2 remains unclear. We studied malarial infections to understand the contribution of PD-L2 to immunity. Here we have shown that higher PD-L2 expression on blood dendritic cells, from Plasmodium falciparum-infected individuals, correlated with lower parasitemia. Mechanistic studies in mice showed that PD-L2 was indispensable for establishing effective CD4(+) T cell immunity against malaria, because it not only inhibited PD-L1 to PD-1 activity but also increased CD3 and inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) expression on T cells...
August 16, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717798/enterococcus-hirae-and-barnesiella-intestinihominis-facilitate-cyclophosphamide-induced-therapeutic-immunomodulatory-effects
#16
Romain Daillère, Marie Vétizou, Nadine Waldschmitt, Takahiro Yamazaki, Christophe Isnard, Vichnou Poirier-Colame, Connie P M Duong, Caroline Flament, Patricia Lepage, Maria Paula Roberti, Bertrand Routy, Nicolas Jacquelot, Lionel Apetoh, Sonia Becharef, Sylvie Rusakiewicz, Philippe Langella, Harry Sokol, Guido Kroemer, David Enot, Antoine Roux, Alexander Eggermont, Eric Tartour, Ludger Johannes, Paul-Louis Woerther, Elisabeth Chachaty, Jean-Charles Soria, Encouse Golden, Silvia Formenti, Magdalena Plebanski, Mutsa Madondo, Philip Rosenstiel, Didier Raoult, Vincent Cattoir, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, Mathias Chamaillard, Laurence Zitvogel
The efficacy of the anti-cancer immunomodulatory agent cyclophosphamide (CTX) relies on intestinal bacteria. How and which relevant bacterial species are involved in tumor immunosurveillance, and their mechanism of action are unclear. Here, we identified two bacterial species, Enterococcus hirae and Barnesiella intestinihominis that are involved during CTX therapy. Whereas E. hirae translocated from the small intestine to secondary lymphoid organs and increased the intratumoral CD8/Treg ratio, B. intestinihominis accumulated in the colon and promoted the infiltration of IFN-γ-producing γδT cells in cancer lesions...
October 18, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698623/striking-a-balance-with-help-from-our-little-friends-how-the-gut-microbiota-contributes-to-immune-homeostasis
#17
REVIEW
Kathleen L Arnolds, Catherine A Lozupone
The trillions of microbes that inhabit the human gut (the microbiota) together with the host comprise a complex ecosystem, and like any ecosystem, health relies on stability and balance. Some of the most important members of the human microbiota are those that help maintain this balance via modulation of the host immune system. Gut microbes, through both molecular factors (such as capsular components) and by-products of their metabolism (such as Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs)), can influence both innate and adaptive components of the immune system, in ways that can drive both effector, and regulatory responses...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26542545/microbiome-microbes-aid-cancer-drugs
#18
Mitch Leslie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2015: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526283/antibiotic-mediated-modification-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
REVIEW
J Whangbo, J Ritz, A Bhatt
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for many patients with severe benign and malignant hematologic disorders. The success of allogeneic HSCT is limited by the development of transplant-related complications such as acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Early pre-clinical studies suggested that intestinal microflora contribute to the pathogenesis of acute GvHD, and that growth suppression or eradication of intestinal bacteria prevented the development of acute GvHD even in MHC-mismatched transplants...
February 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383982/the-microbiota-in-adaptive-immune-homeostasis-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Kenya Honda, Dan R Littman
In the mucosa, the immune system's T cells and B cells have position-specific phenotypes and functions that are influenced by the microbiota. These cells play pivotal parts in the maintenance of immune homeostasis by suppressing responses to harmless antigens and by enforcing the integrity of the barrier functions of the gut mucosa. Imbalances in the gut microbiota, known as dysbiosis, can trigger several immune disorders through the activity of T cells that are both near to and distant from the site of their induction...
July 7, 2016: Nature
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