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By T C
Sivaprasad Sukavaneshvar
Thrombosis associated with blood-contacting devices is a complex process involving several component interactions that have eluded precise definition. Extensive investigations of individual biological modules such as protein adsorption, coagulation cascade activation and platelet activation/adhesion/aggregation have provided an initial foundation for developing biomaterials for blood-contacting devices, but a material that is intrinsically non-thrombogenic is yet to be developed. The well-recognized association between fluid dynamics parameters such as shear stress, vortices, stagnation and thrombotic processes such as platelet aggregation and coagulation aggravate thrombosis on most device geometries that elicit these flow disturbances...
August 3, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
M Beed, P G Brindley, R Mahajan, I Juttner, J Campion-Smith, V G Wilson
BACKGROUND: Statins may have immunomodulatory effects that benefit critically ill patients. Therefore, we retrospectively examined the association between survival and the prescription of statins prior to admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), or high dependency unit (HDU), as a result of major elective surgery or as an emergency with a presumed diagnosis of sepsis. METHODS: We retrospectively studied critical care patients (ICU or HDU) from a tertiary referral UK teaching hospital...
October 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Jing-Xia Zhang, Hong-Zhi Dong, Bing-Wei Chen, Hong-Liang Cong, Jing Xu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between risk factors such as hypertension and the complex degrees of coronary arterial lesions (CAL). METHODS: We selected 462 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) with confirmed the stenosis (≥50 %) in at least one major coronary artery on coronary angiography and divided them into the "CHD with hypertension" group (CHD-HT, n = 306) and the CHD group (n = 156). The characteristics of CAL and the occurrence of 2-year postoperative major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in the two groups were observed...
2016: SpringerPlus
N Marsousi, C F Samer, P Fontana, J L Reny, S Rudaz, J A Desmeules, Y Daali
Ticagrelor is a potent antiplatelet drug metabolized by cytochrome (CYP)3A. It is contraindicated in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of the expected CYP3A inhibition by most protease inhibitors, such as ritonavir and an increased bleeding risk. In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was created for ticagrelor and its active metabolite (AM). Based on the simulated interaction between ticagrelor 180 mg and ritonavir 100 mg, a lower dose of ticagrelor was calculated to obtain, when coadministered with ritonavir, the same pharmacokinetic (PK) and platelet inhibition as ticagrelor administered alone...
September 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Rohan Shah, Anne Hellkamp, Yuliya Lokhnygina, Richard C Becker, Scott D Berkowitz, Günter Breithardt, Werner Hacke, Jonathan L Halperin, Graeme J Hankey, Keith A A Fox, Christopher C Nessel, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Jonathan P Piccini, Daniel E Singer, Manesh R Patel
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the relationship between aspirin use and clinical outcomes in patients enrolled in Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF), in particular, those with known coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Patients in ROCKET AF, comparing rivaroxaban and warfarin, were analyzed. Aspirin use was assessed at baseline...
September 2016: American Heart Journal
Ming-Ming Wang, Mei Xue, Yu Miao, Na Kou, Yong-Gang Xu, Lin Yang, Ying Zhang, Da-Zhuo Shi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panax quinquefolium saponin (PQS) is the active component extracted from traditional Chinese medicine Panax quinquefolius L. and has been widely used as a supplement to dual antiplatelet drugs (DA) for treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) for two decades; however, the efficacy of PQS combined with DA against platelet adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs), an essential step in thrombosis, remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To compare PQS combined with DA and DA alone in inhibiting platelet adhesion to injured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore the possible mechanisms focusing on PI3K/AKT, COX-2/6-keto-PGF1α, and COX-1/TXB2 pathways...
July 8, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Marcel Levi
BACKGROUND: Recently, a new generation of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) with a greater specificity towards activated coagulation factors was introduced based on encouraging results for efficacy and safety in clinical studies. An initial limitation of these new drugs was the absence of an adequate strategy to reverse the effect if a bleeding event occurs or an urgent invasive procedure has to be carried out. MAIN TEXT: Specific reversing agents for DOACs have become available, however, and are now evaluated in clinical studies...
August 20, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Karen S Brown, Hamim Zahir, Michael A Grosso, Hans J Lanz, Michele F Mercuri, Jerrold H Levy
BACKGROUND: Four nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are approved for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. These include the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. Bleeding is a complication for all anticoagulants and concerns regarding bleeding risk and the suitability of effective reversal strategies may be a barrier to their prescription...
September 23, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Eduard Shantsila, Gregory Yh Lip
BACKGROUND: Morbidity in patients with chronic heart failure is high, and this predisposes them to thrombotic complications, including stroke and thromboembolism, which in turn contribute to high mortality. Oral anticoagulants (e.g. warfarin) and antiplatelet agents (e.g. aspirin) are the principle oral antithrombotic agents. Many heart failure patients with sinus rhythm take aspirin because coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart failure. Oral anticoagulants have become a standard in the management of heart failure with atrial fibrillation...
September 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jeffrey S Borer, Karl Swedberg, Michel Komajda, Ian Ford, Luigi Tavazzi, Michael Böhm, Christophe Depre, Yuna Wu, Juan Maya, Fabienne Dominjon
OBJECTIVES: In the Systolic Heart Failure Treatment with the If Inhibitor Ivabradine Trial (SHIFT), slowing of the heart rate with ivabradine reduced cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalizations among patients with systolic chronic heart failure (CHF). Subsequently, in the Study Assessing the Morbidity-Mortality Benefits of the If Inhibitor Ivabradine in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease (SIGNIFY) slowing of the heart rate in patients without CHF provided no benefit for cardiovascular death or nonfatal myocardial infarction (primary composite end point), with secondary analyses suggesting possible harm in the angina subgroup...
September 10, 2016: Cardiology
Paulus Kirchhof, Stefano Benussi, Dipak Kotecha, Anders Ahlsson, Dan Atar, Barbara Casadei, Manuel Castella, Hans-Christoph Diener, Hein Heidbuchel, Jeroen Hendriks, Gerhard Hindricks, Antonis S Manolis, Jonas Oldgren, Bogdan Alexandru Popescu, Ulrich Schotten, Bart Van Putte, Panagiotis Vardas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 27, 2016: European Heart Journal
David Pham, Natalia De Albuquerque Rocha, Darren K McGuire, Ian J Neeland
Heart failure (HF) is a common disease with increased risk for mortality and morbidity among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Optimal glycemic control in this patient population is challenging as many available therapies can potentially exacerbate symptoms of HF. Empagliflozin is one in a novel class of agents, the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, that lowers blood glucose by increasing urinary glucose excretion and improves glycemic control and lowers body weight and blood pressure...
August 4, 2016: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Alberico L Catapano, Ian Graham, Guy De Backer, Olov Wiklund, M John Chapman, Heinz Drexel, Arno W Hoes, Catriona S Jennings, Ulf Landmesser, Terje R Pedersen, Željko Reiner, Gabriele Riccardi, Marja-Riita Taskinen, Lale Tokgozoglu, W M Monique Verschuren, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, David A Wood, Jose Luis Zamorano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 27, 2016: European Heart Journal
Solomon Aronson
The concept of "perioperative hypertensive emergency" must be defined differently from that of ambulatory hypertensive emergency in view of its unique clinical considerations in an atypical setting. It should be noted that moderately high normal blood pressure (BP) values in the perioperative setting often trigger situations requiring immediate treatment in what would otherwise be a "BP-acceptable" non-surgical condition. Commonly recognized circumstances that may result in a perioperative hypertensive emergency include exacerbation of severe mitral insufficiency, hypertension resulting in acute decompensated heart failure, hypertension caused by acute catecholamine excess, rebound hypertension after withdrawal of antihypertensive medications, hypertension resulting in bleeding from vascular surgery suture lines, intracerebral hemorrhage, aortic dissection, hypertension associated with preeclampsia, and hypertension associated with autonomic dysreflexia...
July 2014: Current Hypertension Reports
Pantelis A Sarafidis, Panagiotis I Georgianos, Pavlos Malindretos, Vassilios Liakopoulos
INTRODUCTION: Hypertensive crises are categorized as hypertensive emergencies and urgencies depending on the presence of acute target-organ damage; the former are potentially life-threatening medical conditions, requiring urgent treatment under close monitoring. Although several short-acting intravenous antihypertensive agents are approved for this purpose, until recently little evidence from proper trials on the relative merits of different therapies was available. AREAS COVERED: This article discusses in brief the pathophysiology, epidemiology and diagnostic approach of hypertensive crises and provides an extensive overview of established and emerging pharmacological agents for the treatment of patients with hypertensive emergencies and urgencies...
August 2012: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Deborah A Taylor
Hypertensive crisis presents as hypertensive urgency or hypertensive emergency, the differences being the presence or absence of target organ damage (TOD) and the type of treatment the patient will receive. Patients with hypertensive urgency do not express TOD, which is seen only in hypertensive emergencies and can involve the heart, kidneys, or brain. Recognition of hypertensive crisis at initial assessment is crucial. An important first step is to obtain a full medical and medication history to be used as a guide for treatment...
December 2015: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
Maria Alexandra Rodriguez, Siva K Kumar, Matthew De Caro
Hypertension is a common chronic medical condition affecting over 65 million Americans. Uncontrolled hypertension can progress to a hypertensive crisis defined as a systolic blood pressure >180 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure >120 mm Hg. Hypertensive crisis can be further classified as a hypertensive urgency or hypertensive emergency depending on end-organ involvement including cardiac, renal, and neurologic injury. The prompt recognition of a hypertensive emergency with the appropriate diagnostic tests and triage will lead to the adequate reduction of blood pressure, ameliorating the incidence of fatal outcomes...
March 2010: Cardiology in Review
Daniel Grassi, Martin O'Flaherty, Marcelo Pellizzari, Mario Bendersky, Pablo Rodriguez, Domingo Turri, Pedro Forcada, Keith C Ferdinand, Carol Kotliar
To study the efficacy of a treatment strategy for the management of hypertensive urgencies, the authors evaluated 549 patients admitted to the emergency department. They were first assigned to a 30-minute rest period, then a follow-up blood pressure measurement was carried out. Patients who did not respond to rest were randomly assigned to receive an oral dose of an antihypertensive drug with different mechanisms of action and pharmacodynamic properties (perindopril, amlodipine, or labetalol), and blood pressure was reassessed at 60- and 120-minute intervals...
September 2008: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
David Cherney, Sharon Straus
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive urgencies and emergencies are common clinical occurrences in hypertensive patients. Treatment practices vary considerably to because of the lack of evidence supporting the use of one therapeutic agent over another. This paper was designed to review the evidence for various pharmacotherapeutic regimens in the management of hypertensive urgencies and emergencies, in terms of the agents' abilities to reach predetermined "safe" goal blood pressures (BPs), and to prevent adverse events...
December 2002: Journal of General Internal Medicine
2016-09-08 04:44:16
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