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Infectious Disease

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49 papers 25 to 100 followers
By T C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856289/recommendations-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-b-in-2017
#1
REVIEW
Robert Flisiak, Waldemar Halota, Jerzy Jaroszewicz, Jacek Juszczyk, Piotr Małkowski, Małgorzata Pawłowska, Anna Piekarska, Krzysztof Simon, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska
The therapeutic goal which is currently unfrequent but realistic in HBV infected patients is sustained HBsAg clearance. It is preceded by the loss or significant suppression of HBV replication and leads to inhibition of the progression of liver fibrosis, normalization of biochemical indicators of liver damage, reduction in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, prolongation of survival, prevention of HBV infection in the transplanted organ in post-transplant patients, enhancement of the quality of life, inhibition or reversal of extrahepatic changes associated with HBV infection, and halting of the spread of HBV infections...
June 2017: Clinical and experimental hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020404/colistin-vs-ceftazidime-avibactam-in-the-treatment-of-infections-due-to-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#2
David van Duin, Judith J Lok, Michelle Earley, Eric Cober, Sandra S Richter, Federico Perez, Robert A Salata, Robert C Kalayjian, Richard R Watkins, Yohei Doi, Keith S Kaye, Vance G Fowler, David L Paterson, Robert A Bonomo, Scott Evans
Background: The efficacy of ceftazidime-avibactam - a cephalosporin-β-lactamase inhibitor combination with in vitro activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) - as compared to colistin remains unknown. Methods: Patients initially treated with either ceftazidime-avibactam or colistin for CRE infections were selected from the Consortium on resistance against carbapenems in Klebsiella and other Enterobacteriaceae (CRACKLE), a prospective, multicenter, observational study...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108121/hepatitis-c-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-co-infection-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antiviral-agents-no-longer-a-difficult-to-treat-population
#3
Cameron Sikavi, Phillip H Chen, Alex D Lee, Elena G Saab, Gina Choi, Sammy Saab
BACKGROUND: The treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV) infected individuals has been historically marked by low sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in comparison to those without HIV infection, resulting in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling those coinfected as a "special population with an unmet medical need." OBJECTIVES: We systematically reviewed the treatment of chronic HCV infection in those infected with HIV...
November 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608973/high-hepatitis-c-cure-rates-among-black-and-nonblack-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-in-an-urban-center
#4
Oluwaseun Falade-Nwulia, Catherine Sutcliffe, Juhi Moon, Geetanjali Chander, Tanyaporn Wansom, Jeanne Keruly, Jennifer Katzianer, Amy Nathanson, Jillian Marks, Shruti Mehta, David Thomas, Richard Moore, Mark Sulkowski
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) cure rates have been similar in patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection; however, in the ION-4 study, black patients treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) were significantly less likely to achieve cure (90%) compared to nonblack patients (99%). There are limited real-world data on the effectiveness of oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in predominantly minority HIV/HCV coinfected populations. We analyzed HCV treatment outcomes among 255 HCV coinfected patients initiating DAAs between February 2014 and March 2016 in an urban clinic in Baltimore, Maryland...
November 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393548/hiv-and-hcv-infection-among-opiate-dependent-patients-and-methadone-doses-the-proteus-study
#5
Carlos Roncero, Daniel Fuster, Raul Felipe Palma-Álvarez, Laia Rodriguez-Cintas, Nieves Martinez-Luna, F Javier Álvarez
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are prevalent infections in opiate-dependent patients. Opiate replacement treatment (ORT) with methadone or buprenorphine is associated with several important outcomes among patients with opiate dependence. However, little is known about outcomes in patients with HIV and/or HCV infections that are in ORT. Also, it is not well established whether the presence of HCV or HIV infection could be associated with higher methadone doses. This paper reanalyzes the database of PROTEUS study, using two principal variables: methadone dose and presence of HIV and/or HCV infection...
December 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035003/hepatitis-b-core-related-antigen-hbcrag-an-emerging-marker-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#6
REVIEW
L-Y Mak, D K-H Wong, K-S Cheung, W-K Seto, C-L Lai, M-F Yuen
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cannot be completely eradicated due to the presence of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nuclei of infected hepatocytes. While quantification of intrahepatic cccDNA requires liver biopsies, serological markers can be non-invasive alternatives to reflect intrahepatic viral replicative activity. Recently, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been advocated as a novel serum marker for disease monitoring and prognostication of CHB...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053792/2017-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-infectious-diarrhea
#7
Andi L Shane, Rajal K Mody, John A Crump, Phillip I Tarr, Theodore S Steiner, Karen Kotloff, Joanne M Langley, Christine Wanke, Cirle Alcantara Warren, Allen C Cheng, Joseph Cantey, Larry K Pickering
These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children and adults with suspected or confirmed infectious diarrhea. They are not intended to replace physician judgement regarding specific patients or clinical or public health situations. This document does not provide detailed recommendations on infection prevention and control aspects related to infectious diarrhea.
November 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27483065/effect-of-early-vasopressin-vs-norepinephrine-on-kidney-failure-in-patients-with-septic-shock-the-vanish-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Anthony C Gordon, Alexina J Mason, Neeraja Thirunavukkarasu, Gavin D Perkins, Maurizio Cecconi, Magda Cepkova, David G Pogson, Hollmann D Aya, Aisha Anjum, Gregory J Frazier, Shalini Santhakumaran, Deborah Ashby, Stephen J Brett
IMPORTANCE: Norepinephrine is currently recommended as the first-line vasopressor in septic shock; however, early vasopressin use has been proposed as an alternative. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of early vasopressin vs norepinephrine on kidney failure in patients with septic shock. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A factorial (2×2), double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted in 18 general adult intensive care units in the United Kingdom between February 2013 and May 2015, enrolling adult patients who had septic shock requiring vasopressors despite fluid resuscitation within a maximum of 6 hours after the onset of shock...
August 2, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512927/randomized-controlled-trial-of-rifaximin-versus-norfloxacin-for-secondary-prophylaxis-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Asem Elfert, Lobna Abo Ali, Samah Soliman, Shimaa Ibrahim, Sherief Abd-Elsalam
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication of liver cirrhosis with a high recurrence rate and a marked increase in mortality. Norfloxacin is used widely for the secondary prophylaxis of SBP; however, its extensive long-term use has led to an increase in the incidence of quinolone-resistant and Gram-positive SBP. Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable broad-spectrum antibiotic and does not appear to promote emergence of resistance. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of rifaximin versus norfloxacin for the secondary prevention of SBP in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741949/hydrocortisone-treatment-in-early-sepsis-associated-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Surat Tongyoo, Chairat Permpikul, Wasineenart Mongkolpun, Veerapong Vattanavanit, Suthipol Udompanturak, Mehmet Kocak, G Umberto Meduri
BACKGROUND: Authors of recent meta-analyses have reported that prolonged glucocorticoid treatment is associated with significant improvements in patients with severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of multifactorial etiology. A prospective randomized trial limited to patients with sepsis-associated ARDS is lacking. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydrocortisone treatment in sepsis-associated ARDS. METHODS: In this double-blind, single-center (Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok), randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited adult patients with severe sepsis within 12 h of their meeting ARDS criteria...
October 15, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626517/efficacy-of-the-herpes-zoster-subunit-vaccine-in-adults-70-years-of-age-or-older
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Anthony L Cunningham, Himal Lal, Martina Kovac, Roman Chlibek, Shinn-Jang Hwang, Javier Díez-Domingo, Olivier Godeaux, Myron J Levin, Janet E McElhaney, Joan Puig-Barberà, Carline Vanden Abeele, Timo Vesikari, Daisuke Watanabe, Toufik Zahaf, Anitta Ahonen, Eugene Athan, Jose F Barba-Gomez, Laura Campora, Ferdinandus de Looze, H Jackson Downey, Wayne Ghesquiere, Iris Gorfinkel, Tiina Korhonen, Edward Leung, Shelly A McNeil, Lidia Oostvogels, Lars Rombo, Jan Smetana, Lily Weckx, Wilfred Yeo, Thomas C Heineman
BACKGROUND: A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). METHODS: This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older...
September 15, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796647/clinical-outcomes-of-extended-versus-intermittent-administration-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
H Bao, Y Lv, D Wang, J Xue, Z Yan
The purpose of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics, clinical efficiency, and pharmacoeconomic parameters of piperacillin/tazobactam administered by extended infusion (EI) or intermittent infusion (II) in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in critically ill patients with low illness severity in China. Fifty patients completed the study, with 25 patients receiving 4/0.5 g piperacillin/tazobactam over 30 min as the II group and 25 patients receiving 4/0.5 g piperacillin/tazobactam over 3 h every 6 h as the EI group...
March 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695824/effect-of-hydrocortisone-on-development-of-shock-among-patients-with-severe-sepsis-the-hypress-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Didier Keh, Evelyn Trips, Gernot Marx, Stefan P Wirtz, Emad Abduljawwad, Sven Bercker, Holger Bogatsch, Josef Briegel, Christoph Engel, Herwig Gerlach, Anton Goldmann, Sven-Olaf Kuhn, Lars Hüter, Andreas Meier-Hellmann, Axel Nierhaus, Stefan Kluge, Josefa Lehmke, Markus Loeffler, Michael Oppert, Kerstin Resener, Dirk Schädler, Tobias Schuerholz, Philipp Simon, Norbert Weiler, Andreas Weyland, Konrad Reinhart, Frank M Brunkhorst
Importance: Adjunctive hydrocortisone therapy is suggested by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign in refractory septic shock only. The efficacy of hydrocortisone in patients with severe sepsis without shock remains controversial. Objective: To determine whether hydrocortisone therapy in patients with severe sepsis prevents the development of septic shock. Design, Setting, and Participants: Double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted from January 13, 2009, to August 27, 2013, with a follow-up of 180 days until February 23, 2014...
November 1, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751772/import-and-spread-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-by-international-travellers-combat-study-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Maris S Arcilla, Jarne M van Hattem, Manon R Haverkate, Martin C J Bootsma, Perry J J van Genderen, Abraham Goorhuis, Martin P Grobusch, Astrid M Oude Lashof, Nicky Molhoek, Constance Schultsz, Ellen E Stobberingh, Henri A Verbrugh, Menno D de Jong, Damian C Melles, John Penders
BACKGROUND: International travel contributes to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated the acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) during international travel, with a focus on predictive factors for acquisition, duration of colonisation, and probability of onward transmission. METHODS: Within the prospective, multicentre COMBAT study, 2001 Dutch travellers and 215 non-travelling household members were enrolled...
January 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706483/empirical-micafungin-treatment-and-survival-without-invasive-fungal-infection-in-adults-with-icu-acquired-sepsis-candida-colonization-and-multiple-organ-failure-the-empiricus-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jean-Francois Timsit, Elie Azoulay, Carole Schwebel, Pierre Emmanuel Charles, Muriel Cornet, Bertrand Souweine, Kada Klouche, Samir Jaber, Jean-Louis Trouillet, Fabrice Bruneel, Laurent Argaud, Joel Cousson, Ferhat Meziani, Didier Gruson, Adeline Paris, Michael Darmon, Maité Garrouste-Orgeas, Jean-Christophe Navellou, Arnaud Foucrier, Bernard Allaouchiche, Vincent Das, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Stéphane Ruckly, Daniele Maubon, Vincent Jullien, Michel Wolff
Importance: Although frequently used in treating intensive care unit (ICU) patients with sepsis, empirical antifungal therapy, initiated for suspected fungal infection, has not been shown to improve outcome. Objective: To determine whether empirical micafungin reduces invasive fungal infection (IFI)-free survival at day 28. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study of 260 nonneutropenic, nontransplanted, critically ill patients with ICU-acquired sepsis, multiple Candida colonization, multiple organ failure, exposed to broad-spectrum antibacterial agents, and enrolled between July 2012 and February 2015 in 19 French ICUs...
October 18, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121755/corticosteroids-for-managing-tuberculous-meningitis
#16
REVIEW
Kameshwar Prasad, Mamta B Singh, Hannah Ryan
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis is a serious form of tuberculosis (TB) that affects the meninges that cover a person's brain and spinal cord. It is associated with high death rates and with disability in people who survive. Corticosteroids have been used as an adjunct to antituberculous drugs to treat people with tuberculous meningitis, but their role has been controversial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of corticosteroids as an adjunct to antituberculous treatment on death and severe disability in people with tuberculous meningitis...
April 28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624958/clinical-outcomes-drug-toxicity-and-emergence-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-resistance-among-patients-treated-for-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-infections
#17
Ryan K Shields, Brian A Potoski, Ghady Haidar, Binghua Hao, Yohei Doi, Liang Chen, Ellen G Press, Barry N Kreiswirth, Cornelius J Clancy, M Hong Nguyen
Thirty-seven carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)-infected patients were treated with ceftazidime-avibactam. Clinical success and survival rates at 30 days were 59% (22/37) and 76% (28/37), respectively. In 23% (5/22) of clinical successes, CRE infections recurred within 90 days. Microbiologic failure rate was 27% (10/37). Ceftazidime-avibactam resistance was detected in 30% (3/10) of microbiologic failures.
December 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694410/corticosteroids-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-critical-view-of-the-evidence
#18
EDITORIAL
James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716262/new-aspects-in-the-management-of-pneumonia
#19
REVIEW
Elena Prina, Adrian Ceccato, Antoni Torres
Despite improvements in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), morbidity and mortality are still high, especially in patients with more severe disease. Early and appropriate antibiotics remain the cornerstone in the treatment of CAP. However, two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvant treatments, such as corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects. The use of corticosteroids in patients with severe CAP and a strong inflammatory reaction can reduce the time to clinical stability, the risk of treatment failure, and the risk of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26341945/infective-endocarditis
#20
REVIEW
Thomas J Cahill, Bernard D Prendergast
Infective endocarditis occurs worldwide, and is defined by infection of a native or prosthetic heart valve, the endocardial surface, or an indwelling cardiac device. The causes and epidemiology of the disease have evolved in recent decades with a doubling of the average patient age and an increased prevalence in patients with indwelling cardiac devices. The microbiology of the disease has also changed, and staphylococci, most often associated with health-care contact and invasive procedures, have overtaken streptococci as the most common cause of the disease...
February 27, 2016: Lancet
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