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Infectious Disease

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41 papers 0 to 25 followers
By T C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512927/randomized-controlled-trial-of-rifaximin-versus-norfloxacin-for-secondary-prophylaxis-of-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#1
Asem Elfert, Lobna Abo Ali, Samah Soliman, Shimaa Ibrahim, Sherief Abd-Elsalam
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a serious complication of liver cirrhosis with a high recurrence rate and a marked increase in mortality. Norfloxacin is used widely for the secondary prophylaxis of SBP; however, its extensive long-term use has led to an increase in the incidence of quinolone-resistant and Gram-positive SBP. Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable broad-spectrum antibiotic and does not appear to promote emergence of resistance. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of rifaximin versus norfloxacin for the secondary prevention of SBP in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741949/hydrocortisone-treatment-in-early-sepsis-associated-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Surat Tongyoo, Chairat Permpikul, Wasineenart Mongkolpun, Veerapong Vattanavanit, Suthipol Udompanturak, Mehmet Kocak, G Umberto Meduri
BACKGROUND: Authors of recent meta-analyses have reported that prolonged glucocorticoid treatment is associated with significant improvements in patients with severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of multifactorial etiology. A prospective randomized trial limited to patients with sepsis-associated ARDS is lacking. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydrocortisone treatment in sepsis-associated ARDS. METHODS: In this double-blind, single-center (Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok), randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited adult patients with severe sepsis within 12 h of their meeting ARDS criteria...
October 15, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626517/efficacy-of-the-herpes-zoster-subunit-vaccine-in-adults-70-years-of-age-or-older
#3
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Anthony L Cunningham, Himal Lal, Martina Kovac, Roman Chlibek, Shinn-Jang Hwang, Javier Díez-Domingo, Olivier Godeaux, Myron J Levin, Janet E McElhaney, Joan Puig-Barberà, Carline Vanden Abeele, Timo Vesikari, Daisuke Watanabe, Toufik Zahaf, Anitta Ahonen, Eugene Athan, Jose F Barba-Gomez, Laura Campora, Ferdinandus de Looze, H Jackson Downey, Wayne Ghesquiere, Iris Gorfinkel, Tiina Korhonen, Edward Leung, Shelly A McNeil, Lidia Oostvogels, Lars Rombo, Jan Smetana, Lily Weckx, Wilfred Yeo, Thomas C Heineman
BACKGROUND: A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). METHODS: This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older...
September 15, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796647/clinical-outcomes-of-extended-versus-intermittent-administration-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
H Bao, Y Lv, D Wang, J Xue, Z Yan
The purpose of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics, clinical efficiency, and pharmacoeconomic parameters of piperacillin/tazobactam administered by extended infusion (EI) or intermittent infusion (II) in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in critically ill patients with low illness severity in China. Fifty patients completed the study, with 25 patients receiving 4/0.5 g piperacillin/tazobactam over 30 min as the II group and 25 patients receiving 4/0.5 g piperacillin/tazobactam over 3 h every 6 h as the EI group...
October 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695824/effect-of-hydrocortisone-on-development-of-shock-among-patients-with-severe-sepsis-the-hypress-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Didier Keh, Evelyn Trips, Gernot Marx, Stefan P Wirtz, Emad Abduljawwad, Sven Bercker, Holger Bogatsch, Josef Briegel, Christoph Engel, Herwig Gerlach, Anton Goldmann, Sven-Olaf Kuhn, Lars Hüter, Andreas Meier-Hellmann, Axel Nierhaus, Stefan Kluge, Josefa Lehmke, Markus Loeffler, Michael Oppert, Kerstin Resener, Dirk Schädler, Tobias Schuerholz, Philipp Simon, Norbert Weiler, Andreas Weyland, Konrad Reinhart, Frank M Brunkhorst
Importance: Adjunctive hydrocortisone therapy is suggested by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign in refractory septic shock only. The efficacy of hydrocortisone in patients with severe sepsis without shock remains controversial. Objective: To determine whether hydrocortisone therapy in patients with severe sepsis prevents the development of septic shock. Design, Setting, and Participants: Double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted from January 13, 2009, to August 27, 2013, with a follow-up of 180 days until February 23, 2014...
November 1, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751772/import-and-spread-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-by-international-travellers-combat-study-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study
#6
Maris S Arcilla, Jarne M van Hattem, Manon R Haverkate, Martin C J Bootsma, Perry J J van Genderen, Abraham Goorhuis, Martin P Grobusch, Astrid M Oude Lashof, Nicky Molhoek, Constance Schultsz, Ellen E Stobberingh, Henri A Verbrugh, Menno D de Jong, Damian C Melles, John Penders
BACKGROUND: International travel contributes to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. We investigated the acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) during international travel, with a focus on predictive factors for acquisition, duration of colonisation, and probability of onward transmission. METHODS: Within the prospective, multicentre COMBAT study, 2001 Dutch travellers and 215 non-travelling household members were enrolled...
October 14, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706483/empirical-micafungin-treatment-and-survival-without-invasive-fungal-infection-in-adults-with-icu-acquired-sepsis-candida-colonization-and-multiple-organ-failure-the-empiricus-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jean-Francois Timsit, Elie Azoulay, Carole Schwebel, Pierre Emmanuel Charles, Muriel Cornet, Bertrand Souweine, Kada Klouche, Samir Jaber, Jean-Louis Trouillet, Fabrice Bruneel, Laurent Argaud, Joel Cousson, Ferhat Meziani, Didier Gruson, Adeline Paris, Michael Darmon, Maité Garrouste-Orgeas, Jean-Christophe Navellou, Arnaud Foucrier, Bernard Allaouchiche, Vincent Das, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Stéphane Ruckly, Daniele Maubon, Vincent Jullien, Michel Wolff
Importance: Although frequently used in treating intensive care unit (ICU) patients with sepsis, empirical antifungal therapy, initiated for suspected fungal infection, has not been shown to improve outcome. Objective: To determine whether empirical micafungin reduces invasive fungal infection (IFI)-free survival at day 28. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study of 260 nonneutropenic, nontransplanted, critically ill patients with ICU-acquired sepsis, multiple Candida colonization, multiple organ failure, exposed to broad-spectrum antibacterial agents, and enrolled between July 2012 and February 2015 in 19 French ICUs...
October 18, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121755/corticosteroids-for-managing-tuberculous-meningitis
#8
REVIEW
Kameshwar Prasad, Mamta B Singh, Hannah Ryan
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis is a serious form of tuberculosis (TB) that affects the meninges that cover a person's brain and spinal cord. It is associated with high death rates and with disability in people who survive. Corticosteroids have been used as an adjunct to antituberculous drugs to treat people with tuberculous meningitis, but their role has been controversial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of corticosteroids as an adjunct to antituberculous treatment on death and severe disability in people with tuberculous meningitis...
April 28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624958/clinical-outcomes-drug-toxicity-and-emergence-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-resistance-among-patients-treated-for-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-infections
#9
Ryan K Shields, Brian A Potoski, Ghady Haidar, Binghua Hao, Yohei Doi, Liang Chen, Ellen G Press, Barry N Kreiswirth, Cornelius J Clancy, M Hong Nguyen
Thirty-seven carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)-infected patients were treated with ceftazidime-avibactam. Clinical success and survival rates at 30-days were 59% (22/37) and 76% (28/37), respectively. In 23% (5/22) of clinical successes, CRE infections recurred within 90-days. Microbiologic failure rate was 27% (10/37). Ceftazidime-avibactam resistance was detected in 30% (3/10) of microbiologic failures.
September 13, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694410/corticosteroids-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-critical-view-of-the-evidence
#10
EDITORIAL
James D Chalmers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716262/new-aspects-in-the-management-of-pneumonia
#11
Elena Prina, Adrian Ceccato, Antoni Torres
Despite improvements in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), morbidity and mortality are still high, especially in patients with more severe disease. Early and appropriate antibiotics remain the cornerstone in the treatment of CAP. However, two aspects seem to contribute to a worse outcome: an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction and an inadequate immune response. Adjuvant treatments, such as corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins, have been proposed to counterbalance these effects. The use of corticosteroids in patients with severe CAP and a strong inflammatory reaction can reduce the time to clinical stability, the risk of treatment failure, and the risk of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome...
October 1, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26341945/infective-endocarditis
#12
REVIEW
Thomas J Cahill, Bernard D Prendergast
Infective endocarditis occurs worldwide, and is defined by infection of a native or prosthetic heart valve, the endocardial surface, or an indwelling cardiac device. The causes and epidemiology of the disease have evolved in recent decades with a doubling of the average patient age and an increased prevalence in patients with indwelling cardiac devices. The microbiology of the disease has also changed, and staphylococci, most often associated with health-care contact and invasive procedures, have overtaken streptococci as the most common cause of the disease...
February 27, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659735/role-of-cephalosporins-in-the-era-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#13
Mark H Wilcox, James D Chalmers, Carl E Nord, Jane Freeman, Emilio Bouza
The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Europe has increased markedly since 2000. Previous meta-analyses have suggested a strong association between cephalosporin use and CDI, and many national programmes on CDI control have focused on reducing cephalosporin usage. Despite reductions in cephalosporin use, however, rates of CDI have continued to rise. This review examines the potential association of CDI with cephalosporins, and considers other factors that influence CDI risk. EUCLID (the EUropean, multicentre, prospective biannual point prevalence study of CLostridium difficile Infection in hospitalized patients with Diarrhoea) reported an increase in the annual incidence of CDI from 6...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567896/severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-timely-management-measures-in-the-first-24-hours
#14
REVIEW
Jason Phua, Nathan C Dean, Qi Guo, Win Sen Kuan, Hui Fang Lim, Tow Keang Lim
Mortality rates for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) range from 17 to 48 % in published studies.In this review, we searched PubMed for relevant papers published between 1981 and June 2016 and relevant files. We explored how early and aggressive management measures, implemented within 24 hours of recognition of severe CAP and carried out both in the emergency department and in the ICU, decrease mortality in severe CAP.These measures begin with the use of severity assessment tools and the application of care bundles via clinical decision support tools...
August 28, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27033711/efficacy-and-toxicity-of-aerosolised-colistin-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-a-prospective-randomised-trial
#15
Sami Abdellatif, Ahlem Trifi, Foued Daly, Khaoula Mahjoub, Rochdi Nasri, Salah Ben Lakhal
BACKGROUND: Cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli (GNB) mainly Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterobacteria are common in hospitalised patients of Tunisian intensive care units (ICUs). Parenteral colistin has been used for the therapy of VAP caused by MDR GNB at Tunisian hospitals over the past few years with a favourable clinical response. However, its use fell out of favour because of the reported drug-related nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609755/effects-of-corticosteroids-on-critically-ill-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure-a-propensity-analysis-of-mortality
#16
Ji Young Yang, Minkyu Han, Younsuck Koh, Woo-Sung Kim, Jin-Woo Song, Yeon-Mok Oh, Sang-Do Lee, Sei Won Lee, Jae-Seung Lee, Chae-Man Lim, Chang-Min Choi, Jin-Won Huh, Sang-Bum Hong, Tae Sun Shim, Kyung-Wook Jo
BACKGROUND:  We investigated the effects of corticosteroids on the 90-day mortality outcomes in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of acute respiratory failure (ARF). METHODS:  The medical records of 124 patients who had pulmonary tuberculosis with ARF and were admitted to the ICU at our tertiary referral center in South Korea between March 1989 and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The 90-day mortality rate in this population was analyzed after adjustments with the inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) method...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661862/ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-dasabuvir-viekira-pak-induced-lactic-acidosis
#17
Catherine L Oberg, Robert J Hiensch, Hooman D Poor
OBJECTIVE: To report a case series of three patients with hepatitis C virus infection who all presented with severe type B lactic acidosis shortly after starting treatment with ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-dasabuvir. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: ICU. PATIENTS: Three patients, all who had HCV cirrhosis with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A) and had started taking ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir-dasabuvir within the preceding 2 weeks, presented with similar nonspecific symptoms of lethargy, fatigue, and nausea...
September 22, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470238/2016-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-idsa-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-treatment-of-coccidioidomycosis
#18
John N Galgiani, Neil M Ampel, Janis E Blair, Antonino Catanzaro, Francesca Geertsma, Susan E Hoover, Royce H Johnson, Shimon Kusne, Jeffrey Lisse, Joel D MacDonald, Shari L Meyerson, Patricia B Raksin, John Siever, David A Stevens, Rebecca Sunenshine, Nicholas Theodore
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. Infectious Diseases Society of America considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.Coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, is a systemic infection endemic to parts of the southwestern United States and elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27076965/corticosteroids-in-the-adjunctive-therapy-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-an-appraisal-of-recent-meta-analyses-of-clinical-trials
#19
REVIEW
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
Improving the outcome of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an ongoing challenge, even in the setting of significant advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and critical care. Recognition of the underlying involvement of inflammation-mediated organ dysfunction as a determinant of adverse outcomes in CAP has aroused intense interest in the protective potential of adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapies in CAP, particularly the role of corticosteroids (CS). This is the primary topic of the current review which is focused on an evaluation of the latest meta-analyses encompassing both recent and earlier clinical trials, with particular emphasis on the stringent meta-analysis undertaken by Siemieniuk and colleagues (Ann Intern Med 2015;163:519-528)...
March 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550993/ecil-guidelines-for-treatment-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-non-hiv-infected-haematology-patients
#20
REVIEW
Georg Maschmeyer, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Livio Pagano, Christine Robin, Catherine Cordonnier, Peter Schellongowski
The initiation of systemic antimicrobial treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is triggered by clinical signs and symptoms, typical radiological and occasionally laboratory findings in patients at risk of this infection. Diagnostic proof by bronchoalveolar lavage should not delay the start of treatment. Most patients with haematological malignancies present with a severe PCP; therefore, antimicrobial therapy should be started intravenously. High-dose trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is the treatment of choice...
September 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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