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Nephro

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16 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681079/urinary-tract-infection-in-small-children-the-evolution-of-renal-damage-over-time
#1
Svante Swerkersson, Ulf Jodal, Rune Sixt, Eira Stokland, Sverker Hansson
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to analyze the evolution of kidney damage over time in small children with urinary tract infection (UTI) and factors associated with progression of renal damage. METHODS: From a cohort of 1003 children <2 years of age with first-time UTI, a retrospective analysis of 103 children was done. Children were selected because of renal damage at index (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy at least 3 months after UTI, and a late DMSA scan was performed after at least 2 years...
July 5, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029394/non-anion-gap-metabolic-acidosis-a-clinical-approach%C3%A2-to%C3%A2-evaluation
#2
Mandana Rastegar, Glenn T Nagami
Acid-base disturbances can result from kidney or nonkidney disorders. We present a case of high-volume ileostomy output causing large bicarbonate losses and resulting in a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis. Non-anion gap metabolic acidosis can present as a form of either acute or chronic metabolic acidosis. A complete clinical history and physical examination are critical initial steps to begin the evaluation process, followed by measuring serum electrolytes with a focus on potassium level, blood gas, urine pH, and either direct or indirect urine ammonium concentration...
February 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24327265/lipid-lowering-agents-for-nephrotic-syndrome
#3
REVIEW
Xiangyu Kong, Hao Yuan, Junming Fan, Zi Li, Taixiang Wu, Lanhui Jiang
BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome is the collective name given to a group of symptoms that include proteinuria, lipiduria, hypoalbuminaemia, oedema, hypercholesterolaemia, elevated triglycerides, and hyperlipidaemia. Hyperlipidaemia is thought to aggravate glomerulosclerosis (hardening of blood vessels in the kidneys) and enhance progression of glomerular disease. Studies have established that reduction in total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is associated with reduction in risk of cardiovascular diseases...
2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034548/acute-kidney-injury-in-the-fetus-and-neonate
#4
REVIEW
Arwa Nada, Elizabeth M Bonachea, David J Askenazi
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an under-recognized morbidity of neonates; the incidence remains unclear due to the absence of a unified definition of AKI in this population and because previous studies have varied greatly in screening for AKI with serum creatinine and urine output assessments. Premature infants may be born with less than half of the nephrons compared with term neonates, predisposing them to chronic kidney disease (CKD) early on in life and as they age. AKI can also lead to CKD, and premature infants with AKI may be at very high risk for long-term kidney problems...
April 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364303/acute-kidney-injury-in-sepsis
#5
REVIEW
Rinaldo Bellomo, John A Kellum, Claudio Ronco, Ron Wald, Johan Martensson, Matthew Maiden, Sean M Bagshaw, Neil J Glassford, Yugeesh Lankadeva, Suvi T Vaara, Antoine Schneider
Acute kidney injury (AKI) and sepsis carry consensus definitions. The simultaneous presence of both identifies septic AKI. Septic AKI is the most common AKI syndrome in ICU and accounts for approximately half of all such AKI. Its pathophysiology remains poorly understood, but animal models and lack of histological changes suggest that, at least initially, septic AKI may be a functional phenomenon with combined microvascular shunting and tubular cell stress. The diagnosis remains based on clinical assessment and measurement of urinary output and serum creatinine...
June 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242845/focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#6
Avi Z Rosenberg, Jeffrey B Kopp
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a leading cause of kidney disease worldwide. The presumed etiology of primary FSGS is a plasma factor with responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapy and a risk of recurrence after kidney transplant-important disease characteristics. In contrast, adaptive FSGS is associated with excessive nephron workload due to increased body size, reduced nephron capacity, or single glomerular hyperfiltration associated with certain diseases. Additional etiologies are now recognized as drivers of FSGS: high-penetrance genetic FSGS due to mutations in one of nearly 40 genes, virus-associated FSGS, and medication-associated FSGS...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197886/spot-urine-protein-to-creatinine-ratio
#7
EDITORIAL
Guido Filler, Shih-Han Susan Huang
In a recent article in Pediatric Nephrology, EM Yang and colleagues (Pediatr Nephrol 2017: doi: 10.1007/s00467-016-3587-6 ) published a retrospective cross-sectional study involving a cohort of 442 children with an mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The authors measured 24-h urine protein excretion (24-h UProt) alongside the morning spot urine protein to creatinine ratio (Prot/Cr) in this group of patients. While the Prot/Cr may be the only feasible way to routinely estimate the daily protein excretion of a young child, inter-individual variability in childrens' urinary creatinine excretion (UCr) may heavily influence the result...
June 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940788/urine-concentration-and-pyuria-for-identifying-uti-in-infants
#8
Pradip P Chaudhari, Michael C Monuteaux, Richard G Bachur
BACKGROUND: Varying urine white blood cell (WBC) thresholds have been recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) among young infants. These thresholds have not been studied with newer automated urinalysis systems that analyze uncentrifuged urine that might be influenced by urine concentration. Our objective was to determine the optimal urine WBC threshold for UTI in young infants by using an automated urinalysis system, stratified by urine concentration...
November 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109705/renal-function-in-the-fetus-and-neonate-the-creatinine-enigma
#9
REVIEW
Justin T Kastl
The use of serum creatinine levels to estimate glomerular function in infants is admittedly fraught with inherent inaccuracies which are both physiological and methodological in nature. This characteristic can understandably reduce the neonatal clinician's confidence in the ability of serum creatinine levels to provide useful information relevant to their patients' medical care. The aim of this review is to provide further insight into the peculiarities of serum creatinine trends in both premature and term infants with special focus on the maturational and developmental changes occurring in the kidney during this crucial time-period...
April 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826732/renin-angiotensin-ii-aldosterone-system-blockers-and-time-to-renal-replacement-therapy-in-children-with-ckd
#10
Alison G Abraham, Aisha Betoko, Jeffrey J Fadrowski, Christopher Pierce, Susan L Furth, Bradley A Warady, Alvaro Muñoz
BACKGROUND: Clinical care decisions to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a growing child must often be made without the benefit of evidence from clinical trials. We used observational data from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort to estimate the effectiveness of renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system blockade (RAAS) to delay renal replacement therapy (RRT) in children with CKD. METHODS: A total of 851 participants (median age: 11 years, median glomerular filtration rate [GFR]: 52 ml/min/1...
April 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670788/acute-kidney-injury-2016-diagnosis-and-diagnostic-workup
#11
REVIEW
Marlies Ostermann, Michael Joannidis
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with serious short- and long-term complications. Early diagnosis and identification of the underlying aetiology are essential to guide management. In this review, we outline the current definition of AKI and the potential pitfalls, and summarise the existing and future tools to investigate AKI in critically ill patients.
September 27, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542848/evaluation-of-a-new-strategy-for-clean-catch-urine-in-infants
#12
Mélanie Labrosse, Arielle Levy, Julie Autmizguine, Jocelyn Gravel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A new noninvasive bladder stimulation technique has been described to obtain clean-catch urine (CCU) in infants aged <30 days. Objectives were (1) to determine proportion and predictive factors for successful CCU collections using a stimulation maneuver technique among infants <6 months and (2) to determine the proportion of bacterial contamination with this method. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary pediatric emergency department among infants <6 months needing a urine sample...
September 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099136/evidence-based-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-nephrotic-syndrome-2014
#13
REVIEW
Shinichi Nishi, Yoshifumi Ubara, Yasunori Utsunomiya, Koichi Okada, Yoko Obata, Hiroyasu Kai, Hideyasu Kiyomoto, Shin Goto, Tsuneo Konta, Yoshie Sasatomi, Yoshinobu Sato, Tomoya Nishino, Kazuhiko Tsuruya, Kengo Furuichi, Junichi Hoshino, Yasuhiro Watanabe, Kenjiro Kimura, Seiichi Matsuo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26969273/antimicrobial-resistance-and-urinary-tract-infection-recurrence
#14
Caleb P Nelson, Alejandro Hoberman, Nader Shaikh, Ron Keren, Ranjiv Mathews, Saul P Greenfield, Tej K Mattoo, Nathan Gotman, Anastasia Ivanova, Marva Moxey-Mims, Myra A Carpenter, Russell W Chesney
BACKGROUND: The Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) trial found that recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) with resistant organisms were more common in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis (TSP) arm. We describe factors associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) resistance of rUTIs in RIVUR. METHODS: Children aged 2 to 71 months with first or second UTI (index UTI) and grade I to IV vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) were randomized to TSP or placebo and followed for 2 years...
April 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26754041/the-dose-response-effect-of-insulin-sensitivity-on-albuminuria-in-children-according-to-diabetes-type
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Amy K Mottl, Jasmin Divers, Dana Dabelea, David M Maahs, Lawrence Dolan, David Pettitt, Santica Marcovina, Giuseppina Imperatore, Catherine Pihoker, Michael Mauer, Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with microalbuminuria among youth with diabetes mellitus. We sought to determine the dose-response effect of insulin sensitivity (IS) on the magnitude of albuminuria and whether there is a threshold below which urine albumin excretion increases. METHODS: These analyses included participants from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study with incident diabetes who completed a baseline study visit (n = 2988). We estimated IS using a validated equation incorporating waist circumference, HbA1C, and fasting serum triglycerides...
June 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26238275/novel-marker-for-the-detection-of-sickle-cell-nephropathy-soluble-fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1-sflt-1
#16
Ilham Youssry, Samuel Makar, Rania Fawzy, Manal Wilson, Ghada AbdAllah, Eman Fathy, Happy Sawires
BACKGROUND: Given the burden and poor outcome of end-stage renal disease in sickle cell disease (SCD), early markers of sickle cell nephropathy (SN) are desirable. Disordered angiogenesis underlies many complications of SCD. We aimed to determine the relationship between serum FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1) and other biomarkers of renal damage for the early diagnosis of SN. METHODS: Forty-seven SCD patients and 49 healthy controls were enrolled. Microalbuminuria was determined in patient urine samples...
December 2015: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
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