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Gastrointestinal

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11 papers 25 to 100 followers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071659/acg-clinical-guideline-treatment-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#1
William D Chey, Grigorios I Leontiadis, Colin W Howden, Steven F Moss
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a common worldwide infection that is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. H. pylori may also have a role in uninvestigated and functional dyspepsia, ulcer risk in patients taking low-dose aspirin or starting therapy with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, unexplained iron deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. While choosing a treatment regimen for H. pylori, patients should be asked about previous antibiotic exposure and this information should be incorporated into the decision-making process...
February 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959283/neonates-with-sickle-cell-disease-are-vulnerable-to-blue-light-phototherapy-induced-oxidative-stress-and-proinflammatory-cytokine-elevations
#2
Hemakshi Chaudhari, Sameer Goyal, Chandragouda Patil
Sickle cell disease is a frequent genetic anomaly characterized by altered molecular structure of hemoglobin resulting into crescent-like deformation of the red blood corpuscles. Neonatal jaundice is a frequent co-morbidity in sickle cell disease. Phototherapy induces isomerization of bilirubin rendering it extractable through urine and hence it is used as a routine treatment of neonatal jaundice. An exposure to light phototherapy as a treatment of neonatal jaundice induces oxidative stress. It is hypothesized that such exposure of neonates with sickle cell disease to the blue light phototherapy as a treatment of neonatal jaundice induces severe oxidative stress and increases the levels of proinflammatory cytokines...
November 2016: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27131100/effect-of-dilute-apple-juice-and-preferred-fluids-vs-electrolyte-maintenance-solution-on-treatment-failure-among-children-with-mild-gastroenteritis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Stephen B Freedman, Andrew R Willan, Kathy Boutis, Suzanne Schuh
IMPORTANCE: Gastroenteritis is a common pediatric illness. Electrolyte maintenance solution is recommended to treat and prevent dehydration. Its advantage in minimally dehydrated children is unproven. OBJECTIVE: To determine if oral hydration with dilute apple juice/preferred fluids is noninferior to electrolyte maintenance solution in children with mild gastroenteritis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized, single-blind noninferiority trial conducted between the months of October and April during the years 2010 to 2015 in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department in Toronto, Ontario, Canada...
May 10, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496381/chronic-diarrhea-diagnosis-and-management
#4
REVIEW
Lawrence R Schiller, Darrell S Pardi, Joseph H Sellin
Chronic diarrhea is a common problem affecting up to 5% of the population at a given time. Patients vary in their definition of diarrhea, citing loose stool consistency, increased frequency, urgency of bowel movements, or incontinence as key symptoms. Physicians have used increased frequency of defecation or increased stool weight as major criteria and distinguish acute diarrhea, often due to self-limited, acute infections, from chronic diarrhea, which has a broader differential diagnosis, by duration of symptoms; 4 weeks is a frequently used cutoff...
February 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26835905/comparison-of-recommendations-in-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children
#5
Andrea Lo Vecchio, Jorge Amil Dias, James A Berkley, Chris Boey, Mitchell B Cohen, Sylvia Cruchet, Ilaria Liguoro, Eduardo Salazar Lindo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Philip Sherman, Toshiaki Shimizu, Alfredo Guarino
OBJECTIVE: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of child mortality and morbidity. This study aimed at systematically reviewing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) on AGE to compare recommendations and provide the basis for developing single universal guidelines. METHODS: CPGs were identified by searching MEDLINE, Cochrane-Library, National Guideline Clearinghouse and Web sites of relevant societies/organizations producing and/or endorsing CPGs. RESULTS: The definition of AGE varies among the 15 CPGs identified...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429428/guideline-for-the-evaluation-of-cholestatic-jaundice-in-infants-joint-recommendations-of-the-north-american-society-for-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition-and-the-european-society-for-pediatric-gastroenterology-hepatology-and-nutrition
#6
Rima Fawaz, Ulrich Baumann, Udeme Ekong, Björn Fischler, Nedim Hadzic, Cara L Mack, Valérie A McLin, Jean P Molleston, Ezequiel Neimark, Vicky L Ng, Saul J Karpen
Cholestatic jaundice in infancy affects approximately 1 in every 2500 term infants and is infrequently recognized by primary providers in the setting of physiologic jaundice. Cholestatic jaundice is always pathologic and indicates hepatobiliary dysfunction. Early detection by the primary care physician and timely referrals to the pediatric gastroenterologist/hepatologist are important contributors to optimal treatment and prognosis. The most common causes of cholestatic jaundice in the first months of life are biliary atresia (25%-40%) followed by an expanding list of monogenic disorders (25%), along with many unknown or multifactorial (eg, parenteral nutrition-related) causes, each of which may have time-sensitive and distinct treatment plans...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168239/mechanisms-of-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Joanna M Peloquin, Gautam Goel, Eduardo J Villablanca, Ramnik J Xavier
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation due to a complex interaction of genetic determinants, disruption of mucosal barriers, aberrant inflammatory signals, loss of tolerance, and environmental triggers. Importantly, the incidence of pediatric IBD is rising, particularly in children younger than 10 years. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation of these patients and highlight environmental exposures that may affect disease risk, particularly among people with a background genetic risk...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111346/assessment-of-fecal-asca-measurement-as-a-biomarker-of-crohn-disease-in-pediatric-patients
#8
Vivian Tang, Clarissa Valim, Rajat Moman, Ashley Richman, Jing Zhou, Veena Ramgopal, Rachel Albert, James H Boone, Paul A Rufo
OBJECTIVES: A simple and reliable biomarker for Crohn disease (CD) would be a valuable clinical tool. We hypothesized that anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA) may be present in the stool of patients with CD. Accordingly, we measured ASCA in the stool and serum of children and adolescents with known or suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We included 114 patients 19 years or younger (73 boys) with IBD, including 83 patients with CD and 31 subjects without CD (28 with ulcerative colitis, and 3 patients with suspected IBD but without evidence of chronic inflammation at the time of their endoscopy and colonoscopy)...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26749112/pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-report-from-the-expert-committee-on%C3%A2-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver%C3%A2-disease-econ
#9
Rohit Kohli, Shikha Sunduram, Marialena Mouzaki, Sabina Ali, Pushpa Sathya, Stephanie Abrams, Stavra A Xanthakos, Miriam Vos, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26589959/etiologies-of-conjugated-hyperbilirubinemia-in-infancy-a-systematic-review-of-1692-subjects
#10
REVIEW
Lena E Gottesman, Michael T Del Vecchio, Stephen C Aronoff
BACKGROUND: The etiologies of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in infancy are diverse. OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence rates of the specific etiologies of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in infancy. DATA SOURCES: EMBASE and Pubmed were searched electronically and the bibliographies of selected studies were search manually. The search was conducted independently by two authors. STUDY SELECTION: (1) prospective or retrospective case series or cohort study with 10 or more subjects; (2) consecutive infants who presented with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia; (3) subjects underwent appropriate diagnostic work-up for conjugated hyperbilirubinemia; (4) no specific diagnoses were excluded in the studied cohort...
November 20, 2015: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23204909/managing-functional-constipation-in-children
#11
Anne Rowan-Legg
Constipation is a common childhood problem, with both somatic and psychological effects. The etiology of paediatric constipation is likely multifactorial, and seldom due to organic pathology. Children benefit from prompt and thorough management of this disorder. The goal of treatment is to produce soft, painless stools and to prevent reaccumulation of feces. Education, behavioural modification, daily maintenance stool softeners and dietary modification are all important components of therapy. Fecal disimpaction may be necessary at the outset of treatment...
December 2011: Paediatrics & Child Health
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