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Perioperative hyperglycemia

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Gaëlle Cheisson, Sophie Jacqueminet, Emmanuel Cosson, Carole Ichai, Anne-Marie Leguerrier, Bogdan Nicolescu-Catargi, Alexandre Ouattara, Igor Tauveron, Paul Valensi, Dan Benhamou
In diabetic patients undergoing surgery, we recommend assessing glycaemic control preoperatively by assessing glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and recent capillary blood sugar (glucose) levels, and to adjust any treatments accordingly before surgery, paying particular attention to specific complications of diabetes. Gastroparesis creates a risk of stasis and aspiration of gastric content at induction of anaesthesia requiring the use of a rapid sequence induction technique. Cardiac involvement can be divided into several types...
March 17, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Jiemin Pan, Jian Zou, Yuqian Bao, Lei Zhang, Junfeng Han, Junling Tang, Xiaojing Ma, Qing Li, Weiping Jia
BACKGROUND: Some nondiabetic trauma patients with hyperglycemia have been found to have occult diabetes mellitus (ODM). We studied whether glycated albumin (GA) was an effective tool for detecting ODM in orthopedic trauma patients with elevated glucose levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional, sequential case series study of adult patients presenting to the Orthopedic Trauma Center between September 2009 and March 2010 with new limb fractures was performed. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and GA levels were measured in hyperglycemic patients with no prior diabetes mellitus...
May 2012: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Boris Mraovic, Donghun Suh, Christina Jacovides, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: One of the most serious complications after major orthopedic surgery is deep wound or periprosthetic joint infection. Various risk factors for infection after hip and knee replacement surgery have been reported, including patients' comorbidities and surgical technique factors. We investigated whether hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with infection that requires surgical intervention after total hip and knee arthroplasty. METHODS: We reviewed our computerized database for elective primary total hip and knee arthroplasty from 2000 to 2008...
March 1, 2011: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
D Kristin Smith, James Bowen, Linda Bucher, Teresa Hawkins, Claudine Jurkovitz, James Reed, Susan Volk
Patients with diabetes often have impaired wound healing and an increased rate of postoperative complications with surgery. Most research has focused on the effect of hyperglycemia in the postoperative period, but there is limited evidence to guide blood glucose (bG) control throughout the perioperative period. This retrospective study explored the effect of hyperglycemia in the PACU on postoperative complications, length of stay (LOS), and in-hospital mortality in patients with diabetes undergoing spine, colon, or joint surgery...
December 2009: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Sathish Mohan, Christodoulos Kaoutzanis, Kathleen B Welch, James F Vandewarker, Suzanne Winter, Greta Krapohl, Richard M Lampman, Michael G Franz, Robert K Cleary
PURPOSE: Our objective was to assess the relationship between high blood glucose levels (BG) in the early postoperative period and the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs), sepsis, and death following colorectal operations. METHODS: The Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative database was queried for colorectal operations from July 2012 to December 2013. Normoglycemic (BG < 180 mg/dL) and hyperglycemic (BG ≥ 180 mg/dL) groups were defined by using the highest BG within the first 72 h postoperatively...
November 2015: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Bithika M Thompson, Joshua D Stearns, Heidi A Apsey, Richard T Schlinkert, Curtiss B Cook
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperglycemia are associated with increased surgical morbidity and mortality. Hyperglycemia is a determinant of risk of surgical complications and should be addressed across the continuum of surgical care. While data support the need to address hyperglycemia in patients with DM in the ambulatory setting prior to surgery and in the inpatient setting, data are less certain about hyperglycemia occurring during the perioperative period-that part of the process occurring on the day of surgery itself...
January 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Emily T Martin, Keith S Kaye, Caitlin Knott, Huong Nguyen, Maressa Santarossa, Richard Evans, Elizabeth Bertran, Linda Jaber
OBJECTIVE To determine the independent association between diabetes and surgical site infection (SSI) across multiple surgical procedures. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS Studies indexed in PubMed published between December 1985 and through July 2015 were identified through the search terms "risk factors" or "glucose" and "surgical site infection." A total of 3,631 abstracts were identified through the initial search terms. Full texts were reviewed for 522 articles. Of these, 94 articles met the criteria for inclusion...
January 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Glenn S Murphy, Joseph W Szokol, Michael J Avram, Steven B Greenberg, Torin Shear, Jeffery S Vender, Jayla Gray, Elizabeth Landry
BACKGROUND: The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone therapy on perioperative blood glucose concentrations has not been well characterized. In this investigation, we examined the effect of 2 commonly used doses of dexamethasone (4 and 8 mg at induction of anesthesia) on blood glucose concentrations during the first 24 hours after administration. METHODS: Two hundred women patients were randomized to 1 of 6 groups: Early-control (saline); Early-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); Early-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone); Late-control (saline); Late-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); and Late-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone)...
June 2014: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Meera Kotagal, Rebecca G Symons, Irl B Hirsch, Guillermo E Umpierrez, E Patchen Dellinger, Ellen T Farrokhi, David R Flum
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between diabetes status, perioperative hyperglycemia, and adverse events in a statewide surgical cohort. BACKGROUND: Perioperative hyperglycemia may increase the risk of adverse events more significantly in patients without diabetes (NDM) than in those with diabetes (DM). METHODS: Using data from the Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program, a cohort study (2010-2012) evaluated diabetes status, perioperative hyperglycemia, and composite adverse events in abdominal, vascular, and spine surgery at 53 hospitals in Washington State...
January 2015: Annals of Surgery
Robert J Tanenberg, Sandra Hardee, Caitlin Rothermel, Almond J Drake
OBJECTIVE: Inpatient hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glucose variability are associated with increased mortality. The use of an electronic glucose management system (eGMS) to guide intravenous (IV) insulin infusion has been found to significantly improve blood glucose (BG) control. This retrospective observational study evaluated the 7-year (January 2009-December 2015) impact of the EndoTool(®) eGMS in intensive and intermediate units at Vidant Medical Center, a 900-bed tertiary teaching hospital...
March 2017: Endocrine Practice
Dustin Jones, Brian Scharfenberg, Jessica Perkins, Keri Childers, Godwin Y Dogbey, Jay H Shubrook
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is commonly seen in hospitalized patients. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) correlates with the average blood glucose level over the previous 8 to 12 weeks. Thus, an HbA1c test offers a longitudinal view that reduces etiologic ambiguity of disease. Screening of HbA1c levels plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus in the outpatient setting but remains underused in the evaluation of hyperglycemia with undiagnosed diabetes in the inpatient setting...
June 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Elizabeth W Duggan, Matthew A Klopman, Arnold J Berry, Guillermo Umpierrez
Hyperglycemia is a frequent manifestation of critical and surgical illness, resulting from the acute metabolic and hormonal changes associated with the response to injury and stress (Umpierrez and Kitabchi, Curr Opin Endocrinol. 11:75-81, 2004; McCowen et al., Crit Care Clin. 17(1):107-24, 2001). The exact prevalence of hospital hyperglycemia is not known, but observational studies have reported a prevalence of hyperglycemia ranging from 32 to 60 % in community hospitals (Umpierrez et al., J Clin Endocrinol Metab...
March 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Kazuhiro Hanazaki, Masaya Munekage, Takehiro Okabayashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2011: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
David A Fullerton, Thoralf M Sundt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Mark T Keegan, Michael E Goldberg, Marc C Torjman, Douglas B Coursin
Patients with dysglycemia related to known or unrecognized diabetes, stress hyperglycemia, or hypoglycemia in the presence or absence of exogenous insulin routinely require care during the perioperative period or critical illness. Recent single and multicenter studies, a large multinational study, and three meta-analyses evaluated the safety of routine tight glycemic control (80-110 mg/dl) in critically ill adults. Results led to a call for more modest treatment goals (initiation of insulin at a blood glucose >180 mg/dl with a goal of approximately 150 mg/dl)...
November 1, 2009: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Heather Ead
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has reached epidemic proportions globally, and its incidence continues to rise. Considering the increasing number of patients diagnosed with diabetes and the associated complications, such as cardiovascular and renal disease, the complexity of care for this population can be very challenging. In addition, specific postoperative complications, such as delayed wound healing, infections, and cardiac dysrhythmias, are more likely to occur in the presence of perioperative hyperglycemia. Recognition of the presence of diabetes and implementation of a diabetic management protocol will optimize patient outcomes by providing guidelines for avoiding such complications...
December 2009: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
T M Merz, S Finfer
Hyperglycaemia is common in acute illness and more severe hyperglycaemia is associated with worse outcomes in critically ill patients in general and after acute myocardial infarction, stroke, and trauma. Normalization of blood glucose by intensive insulin therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in one study in surgical intensive care patients; a subsequent study in medical intensive care patients resulted in reduced morbidity but not a reduction in mortality. Multicentre studies and current meta-analyses in the critically ill have not demonstrated improved outcomes when normalization of blood glucose was targeted; furthermore all studies to date have detected an increased risk of hypoglycaemia in patients subjected to intensive insulin therapy...
December 2009: Minerva Anestesiologica
Lesly A Dossett, Bryan Collier, Rafe Donahue, Nathan T Mowery, Marcus J Dortch, Oscar Guillamondegui, Jose J Diaz, Addison K May
BACKGROUND: Intensive insulin therapy (IIT) is the standard of care in the ICU, but precise implementation of insulin protocols has been difficult in clinical practice. The authors' objective was to quantify adherence to an IIT protocol in a practice setting, and to describe how adherence impacts overall blood glucose (BG) control. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a cohort of critically ill patients treated with IIT was performed. Protocol adherence was evaluated by assessing the timing of BG measurements...
January 2009: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Kenji Minakata, Ryuzo Sakata
It is well recognized that poor perioperative blood glucose (BG) control can increase the risk of infection, cardiovascular accidents, and even death in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Since it has been reported that tight BG control (80-110 mg/dL) yields better outcomes in critically ill patients, it became a standard of care to control BG using intravenous insulin infusion in ICU. However, it has been debated in terms of the optimal target range whether a strict control with intensive insulin therapy is better than liberal control...
February 2013: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Andrew C Faust, Rebecca L Attridge, Laurajo Ryan
Hyperglycemia, a common finding in critically ill patients, is linked to poor outcomes in multiple conditions. The Leuven I study published in 2001 was the first evaluation of intensive insulin therapy, and the 3.4% absolute reduction in mortality in a single-center surgical intensive care unit led to widespread endorsement of the therapy. In a subsequent study in a medical intensive care unit, reduction in mortality was not significant. Two multicenter studies were stopped early because of significantly higher rates of hypoglycemia in the patients receiving intensive insulin therapy...
August 2011: Critical Care Nurse
2016-07-17 22:26:28
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