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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088910/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-sglt2i-their-role-in-cardiometabolic-risk-management
#1
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Michael J Theodorakis
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a novel category of oral antidiabetic drugs that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and increase renal glucose excretion, thus lowering plasma glucose levels. This unique mechanism of SGLT2i action is insulin independent, thus improving glycemic control without promoting hypoglycemia in the absence of exogenously administered insulin. METHODS: The present narrative review addresses the putative associations between SGLT2i and several cardiovascular (CV) and microvascular risk factors, as well as their effects on cardiac and renal function...
January 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107561/beta-blockers-for-hypertension
#2
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Hazel A Bradley, Jimmy Volmink, Bongani M Mayosi, Lionel H Opie
BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown long-term beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050897/fluid-resuscitation-in-human-sepsis-time-to-rewrite-history
#3
REVIEW
Liam Byrne, Frank Van Haren
Fluid resuscitation continues to be recommended as the first-line resuscitative therapy for all patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. The current acceptance of the therapy is based in part on long history and familiarity with its use in the resuscitation of other forms of shock, as well as on an incomplete and incorrect understanding of the pathophysiology of sepsis. Recently, the safety of intravenous fluids in patients with sepsis has been called into question with both prospective and observational data suggesting improved outcomes with less fluid or no fluid...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089498/anticoagulants-in-ischemia-guided-management-of-non-st-elevation-acute-coronary-syndromes
#4
REVIEW
Martin Mayer
BACKGROUND: The most recent joint guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA) and American College of Cardiology (ACC) on the management of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) are a result of a substantial and considered undertaking, and those involved deserve much recognition for their efforts. However, the handling of anticoagulants seems somewhat inadequate, and this is a highly-relevant matter when managing NSTE-ACS. OBJECTIVE OF THE REVIEW: Among areas of potential uncertainty, emergency medicine professionals might still be left wondering about the particulars of anticoagulant therapy when pursuing ischemia-guided management of NSTE-ACS (that is, managing NSTE-ACS without an intent for early invasive measures, such as coronary angiography and revascularization)...
January 3, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098591/surviving-sepsis-campaign-international-guidelines-for-management-of-sepsis-and-septic-shock-2016
#5
Andrew Rhodes, Laura E Evans, Waleed Alhazzani, Mitchell M Levy, Massimo Antonelli, Ricard Ferrer, Anand Kumar, Jonathan E Sevransky, Charles L Sprung, Mark E Nunnally, Bram Rochwerg, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Derek C Angus, Djillali Annane, Richard J Beale, Geoffrey J Bellinghan, Gordon R Bernard, Jean-Daniel Chiche, Craig Coopersmith, Daniel P De Backer, Craig J French, Seitaro Fujishima, Herwig Gerlach, Jorge Luis Hidalgo, Steven M Hollenberg, Alan E Jones, Dilip R Karnad, Ruth M Kleinpell, Younsuck Koh, Thiago Costa Lisboa, Flavia R Machado, John J Marini, John C Marshall, John E Mazuski, Lauralyn A McIntyre, Anthony S McLean, Sangeeta Mehta, Rui P Moreno, John Myburgh, Paolo Navalesi, Osamu Nishida, Tiffany M Osborn, Anders Perner, Colleen M Plunkett, Marco Ranieri, Christa A Schorr, Maureen A Seckel, Christopher W Seymour, Lisa Shieh, Khalid A Shukri, Steven Q Simpson, Mervyn Singer, B Taylor Thompson, Sean R Townsend, Thomas Van der Poll, Jean-Louis Vincent, W Joost Wiersinga, Janice L Zimmerman, R Phillip Dellinger
OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015...
March 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26679628/clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-management-of-candidiasis-2016-update-by-the-infectious-diseases-society-of-america
#6
Peter G Pappas, Carol A Kauffman, David R Andes, Cornelius J Clancy, Kieren A Marr, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Annette C Reboli, Mindy G Schuster, Jose A Vazquez, Thomas J Walsh, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Jack D Sobel
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.
February 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061046/dietary-glycemic-factors-insulin-resistance-and-adiponectin-levels-in-acne-vulgaris
#7
Aslı Aksu Çerman, Ezgi Aktaş, İlknur Kıvanç Altunay, Janset Erkul Arıcı, Aysın Tulunay, Feyza Yener Ozturk
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence to support the relationship between acne vulgaris and diet. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations among dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, milk consumption, insulin resistance, and adiponectin levels in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. METHODS: The dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, milk consumption, fasting glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor)-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, adiponectin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance values of 50 patients with acne vulgaris and 36 healthy control subjects were measured...
July 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942729/why-oxygen-is-not-necessary-for-all-stemis
#8
Nick Fitterman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999003/diabetic-neuropathy-a-position-statement-by-the-american-diabetes-association
#9
REVIEW
Rodica Pop-Busui, Andrew J M Boulton, Eva L Feldman, Vera Bril, Roy Freeman, Rayaz A Malik, Jay M Sosenko, Dan Ziegler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053053/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-an-update
#10
REVIEW
Ruben Hernaez, Elsa Solà, Richard Moreau, Pere Ginès
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome characterised by acute decompensation of chronic liver disease associated with organ failures and high short-term mortality. Alcohol and chronic viral hepatitis are the most common underlying liver diseases. Up to 40%-50% of the cases of ACLF have no identifiable trigger; in the remaining patients, sepsis, active alcoholism and relapse of chronic viral hepatitis are the most common reported precipitating factors. An excessive systemic inflammatory response seems to play a crucial role in the development of ACLF...
March 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822135/chronic-kidney-disease-identification-and-management-in-primary-care
#11
REVIEW
Simon Ds Fraser, Tom Blakeman
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important and common noncommunicable condition globally. In national and international guidelines, CKD is defined and staged according to measures of kidney function that allow for a degree of risk stratification using commonly available markers. It is often asymptomatic in its early stages, and early detection is important to reduce future risk. The risk of cardiovascular outcomes is greater than the risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease for most people with CKD...
2016: Pragmatic and Observational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979889/2-classification-and-diagnosis-of-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766049/management-of-venous-thromboembolism-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Siavash Piran, Sam Schulman
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which constitutes pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Landmark trials have shown that direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are as effective as conventional anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in prevention of VTE recurrence and associated with less bleeding. This has paved the way for the recently published guidelines to change their recommendations in favor of DOACs in acute and long-term treatment of VTE in patients without cancer...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013206/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-diagnosis-and-management
#14
REVIEW
Bernard Thong, Nancy J Olsen
SLE presents many challenges for clinicians. The onset of disease may be insidious, with many different symptoms and signs, making early and accurate diagnosis challenging. Tests for SLE in the early stages lack specificity; those that are useful later often appear only after organ damage is manifest. Disease patterns are highly variable; flares are not predictable and not always associated with biomarkers. Children with SLE may have severe disease and present special management issues. Older SLE patients have complicating co-morbid conditions...
December 24, 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925883/acg-clinical-guideline-management-of-patients-with-acute-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding
#15
Lisa L Strate, Ian M Gralnek
This guideline provides recommendations for the management of patients with acute overt lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Hemodynamic status should be initially assessed with intravascular volume resuscitation started as needed. Risk stratification based on clinical parameters should be performed to help distinguish patients at high- and low-risk of adverse outcomes. Hematochezia associated with hemodynamic instability may be indicative of an upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding source and thus warrants an upper endoscopy...
April 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935813/society-for-endocrinology-endocrine-emergency-guidance-emergency-management-of-acute-adrenal-insufficiency-adrenal-crisis-in-adult-patients
#16
Wiebke Arlt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989380/diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-aclf-in-cirrhosis
#17
Vicente Arroyo, Richard Moreau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832612/current-diagnostic-and-treatment-strategies-for-specific-dilated-cardiomyopathies-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#18
Biykem Bozkurt, Monica Colvin, Jennifer Cook, Leslie T Cooper, Anita Deswal, Gregg C Fonarow, Gary S Francis, Daniel Lenihan, Eldrin F Lewis, Dennis M McNamara, Elfriede Pahl, Ramachandran S Vasan, Kumudha Ramasubbu, Kismet Rasmusson, Jeffrey A Towbin, Clyde Yancy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555797/current-best-practice-in-the-management-of-hypertensive-disorders-in-pregnancy
#19
REVIEW
Rosemary Townsend, Patrick O'Brien, Asma Khalil
Preeclampsia is a potentially serious complication of pregnancy with increasing significance worldwide. Preeclampsia is the cause of 9%-26% of global maternal mortality and a significant proportion of preterm delivery, and maternal and neonatal morbidity. Incidence is increasing in keeping with the increase in obesity, maternal age, and women with medical comorbidities entering pregnancy. Recent developments in the understanding of the pathophysiology of preeclampsia have opened new avenues for prevention, screening, and management of this condition...
2016: Integrated Blood Pressure Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574717/association-of-clinical-factors-and-therapeutic-strategies-with-improvements-in-survival-following-non-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-2003-2013
#20
Marlous Hall, Tatendashe B Dondo, Andrew T Yan, Shaun G Goodman, Héctor Bueno, Derek P Chew, David Brieger, Adam Timmis, Phillip D Batin, John E Deanfield, Harry Hemingway, Keith A A Fox, Christopher P Gale
IMPORTANCE: International studies report a decline in mortality following non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Whether this is due to lower baseline risk or increased utilization of guideline-indicated treatments is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether changes in characteristics of patients with NSTEMI are associated with improvements in outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data on patients with NSTEMI in 247 hospitals in England and Wales were obtained from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project between January 1, 2003, and June 30, 2013 (final follow-up, December 31, 2013)...
September 13, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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