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November 2014: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Dilip Nathwani, Oliver A Cornely, Anke K Van Engen, Olatunji Odufowora-Sita, Peny Retsa, Isaac A O Odeyemi
OBJECTIVES: Fidaxomicin was non-inferior to vancomycin with respect to clinical cure rates in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in two Phase III trials, but was associated with significantly fewer recurrences than vancomycin. This economic analysis investigated the cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin compared with vancomycin in patients with severe CDI and in patients with their first CDI recurrence. METHODS: A 1 year time horizon Markov model with seven health states was developed from the perspective of Scottish public healthcare providers...
November 2014: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ruben Tommasi, Dean G Brown, Grant K Walkup, John I Manchester, Alita A Miller
Antimicrobial drug resistance is a growing threat to global public health. Multidrug resistance among the 'ESKAPE' organisms - encompassing Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp. - is of particular concern because they are responsible for many serious infections in hospitals. Although some promising agents are in the pipeline, there is an urgent need for new antibiotic scaffolds. However, antibacterial researchers have struggled to identify new small molecules with meaningful cellular activity, especially those effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens...
August 2015: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Alexander Zarbock, John A Kellum, Christoph Schmidt, Hugo Van Aken, Carola Wempe, Hermann Pavenstädt, Andreea Boanta, Joachim Gerß, Melanie Meersch
IMPORTANCE: Optimal timing of initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for severe acute kidney injury (AKI) but without life-threatening indications is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether early initiation of RRT in patients who are critically ill with AKI reduces 90-day all-cause mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Single-center randomized clinical trial of 231 critically ill patients with AKI Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage 2 (≥2 times baseline or urinary output <0...
May 24, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Pietro Caironi, Gianni Tognoni, Serge Masson, Roberto Fumagalli, Antonio Pesenti, Marilena Romero, Caterina Fanizza, Luisa Caspani, Stefano Faenza, Giacomo Grasselli, Gaetano Iapichino, Massimo Antonelli, Vieri Parrini, Gilberto Fiore, Roberto Latini, Luciano Gattinoni
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have suggested the potential advantages of albumin administration in patients with severe sepsis, its efficacy has not been fully established. METHODS: In this multicenter, open-label trial, we randomly assigned 1818 patients with severe sepsis, in 100 intensive care units (ICUs), to receive either 20% albumin and crystalloid solution or crystalloid solution alone. In the albumin group, the target serum albumin concentration was 30 g per liter or more until discharge from the ICU or 28 days after randomization...
April 10, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
N Laquay, S Prieur, B Greff, P Meyer, G Orliaguet
OBJECTIVE: Propofol is commonly used for sedation of children or adult patients in intensive care unit as an alternative to benzodiazepines for the long-term sedation of mechanically ventiled patient. However, the life-threatening complication of propofol-infusion syndrome (PRIS) may in some case occur. The objective of this article is to review the clinical features, physiopathology and management of PRIS. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed database research in English and French languages published until December 2008...
May 2010: Annales Françaises D'anesthèsie et de Rèanimation
Chirag Vaidya, Warren Ho, Benjamin J Freda
Hyponatremia, in its most severe form, requires urgent infusion of hypertonic saline to correct cerebral edema. However, overly rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia can cause osmotic demyelination syndrome. The authors review the treatment of hyponatremia in order to provide clinicians with a sound approach in a variety of settings in which severity, symptoms, and underlying disease states influence therapy. Also discussed is the current role of vasopressin antagonists in treatment.
October 2010: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Philippe Chanson, Sylvie Salenave
Central or neurogenic diabetes insipidus results from a deficiency in antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or arginine-vasopressin (AVP). Treatment is based on replacement therapy with the hormone analog desmopressin (d-DAVP). d-DAVP can be administered subcutaneously to infants or patients with postoperative or posttraumatic brain injury being monitored for transient diabetes insipidus. Intranasal and oral forms are also available. The recently introduced lyophilisate, which melts under the tongue, has replaced the tablet form (recently withdrawn from the market in France) and provides better bioavailability...
December 2011: Annales D'endocrinologie
Alan H Yee, Joseph D Burns, Eelco F M Wijdicks
Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a syndrome of hypovolemic hyponatremia caused by natriuresis and diuresis. The mechanisms underlying CSW have not been precisely delineated, although existing evidence strongly implicates abnormal elevations in circulating natriuretic peptides. The key in diagnosis of CSW lies in distinguishing it from the more common syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Volume status, but not serum and urine electrolytes and osmolality, is crucial for making this distinction...
April 2010: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Ewan C Goligher, Niall D Ferguson, Laurent J Brochard
Mechanical ventilation supports gas exchange and alleviates the work of breathing when the respiratory muscles are overwhelmed by an acute pulmonary or systemic insult. Although mechanical ventilation is not generally considered a treatment for acute respiratory failure per se, ventilator management warrants close attention because inappropriate ventilation can result in injury to the lungs or respiratory muscles and worsen morbidity and mortality. Key clinical challenges include averting intubation in patients with respiratory failure with non-invasive techniques for respiratory support; delivering lung-protective ventilation to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury; maintaining adequate gas exchange in severely hypoxaemic patients; avoiding the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction; and diagnosing and treating the many pathophysiological mechanisms that impair liberation from mechanical ventilation...
April 30, 2016: Lancet
Fernando Frutos-Vivar, Andrés Esteban, Carlos Apezteguía, Antonio Anzueto, Peter Nightingale, Marco González, Luis Soto, Carlos Rodrigo, Jean Raad, Cide M David, Dimitros Matamis, Gabriel D' Empaire
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of, the risk factors associated with, and the outcome of tracheostomy in a heterogeneous population of mechanically ventilated patients. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: A total of 361 intensive care units from 12 countries. PATIENTS: A cohort of 5,081 patients mechanically ventilated for >12 hrs. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 546 patients (10...
February 2005: Critical Care Medicine
Sumeet Reddy, Laurence Weinberg, Paul Young
This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency medicine 2016. Other selected articles can be found online at Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from
March 15, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Itzhak Brook
Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are a frequent cause of endogenous bacterial infections. Anaerobic infections can occur in all body locations: the central nervous system, oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, and soft tissues. Treatment of anaerobic infection is complicated by their slow growth in culture, by their polymicrobial nature and by their growing resistance to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is frequently the only form of therapy needed, whereas in others it is an important adjunct to drainage and surgery...
January 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Yasuhiro Kuroda
This update comprises six important topics under neurocritical care that require reevaluation. For post-cardiac arrest brain injury, the evaluation of the injury and its corresponding therapy, including temperature modulation, is required. Analgosedation for target temperature management is an essential strategy to prevent shivering and minimizes endogenous stress induced by catecholamine surges. For severe traumatic brain injury, the diverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia depend on the complicated pathophysiology of the condition...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
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